Original / Research Article

Rehabilitation Strategies in patients with Spinal Cord Injuries

Alireza Zali

International Clinical Neuroscience Journal, Vol. 2 No. 3 (2015), 30 December 2015, Page 81-86


The setting of rehabilitation for patients with spinal cord injured is promising environment. Attending the new strategies is useful to promote the treatment and the patient's ability. This method has a huge challenge for patients encountered with cognitive impairment. Patient education and skills at the rehabilitation center can be a challenging endeavor. By rehabilitation, patients suddenly evolve and they have to enhance the cognitive capacity to survive environmental changes face dramatic. These proceedings help the independence, self-esteem of the patients and help them cope with illness and life.

Quantitative assessment of deep brain stimulation on tremor in multiple sclerosis disease

Hamideh Esmailpour, Ali Esteki, Afsoun Seddighi

International Clinical Neuroscience Journal, Vol. 2 No. 3 (2015), 30 December 2015, Page 87-90

Background and Purpose: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic disease that gives rise to a
number of unpleasant symptoms that can be difficult to manage by conventional means. There are
some aspects of MS-related disability which can be improved by using Deep Brain Stimulation
(DBS); particularly movement disorders, such as tremor. The research aim is to study the effect
of DBS on MS tremor with a quantitative approach.
Methods: Raw tremor data was provided by the Surgical Center for Movement Disorders at
the University of British Columbia, Canada. The hand tremor signal was collected on 8 MS
subjects and 10 healthy individuals during finger-to-nose test (FNT) by using motion analysis
system. Patients executed the FNT with DBS OFF and ON. Nonlinear and statistical features
were extracted from tremor spectrum as tremor indexes. Tremor reduction by using DBS was
determined by classifying mentioned features into three groups of healthy, DBS ON and DBS
Results: Several dominant peaks were observed in power spectrum of the recorded signals which
indicate MS tremor consists of several tremor subtypes due to different sites of demyelinating
lesions affecting cerebellum and its output pathways. Results of frequency analysis revealed
tremor spectrum dominant frequency in healthy group was significantly greater than for the
patients with DBS ON and OFF (p<0.05). Additionally, classification results demonstrated that
tremor of 6 patients out of 8 decreased significantly when their DBS was ON.
Conclusion: Overall, in 75% of patients with MS who suffered from tremor, thalamic DBS
significantly reduced their tremor. In addition, power spectrum dominant frequency has high
potential for a quantitative and objective measure of MS tremor.

Association between Cognitive function and metabolic syndrome using Montreal Cognitive Assessment Test.

Farzad Ashrafi, Behdad Behnam, Mehran Arab Ahmadi, Hossein Pakdaman, Shafa Mohamad Ali

International Clinical Neuroscience Journal, Vol. 2 No. 3 (2015), 30 December 2015, Page 91-96

Background and Purpose: The increased risk for cognitive defects in individuals affected by
metabolic syndrome especially in those patients with cardiovascular disorders is now claimed.
We aimed to assess the relationship between cognitive performance and the various components
of metabolic syndrome.
Methods: One hundred and eighteen consecutive individuals aged 30 to 86 years were included
into this cross-sectional survey. The metabolic syndrome and its definitive components were
defined according to the definition described in the Framingham Heart Study by NCEP ATP III
criteria. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MOCA) questionnaire was employed to cognitive
Results: Those patients with metabolic syndrome had significantly lower mean MOCA score
compare to the group without metabolic syndrome (19.11 ± 5.49 versus 21.28 ± 4.56, p =
0.021). Among all cognition sub domains, the mean attention score was significantly lower in
the group with metabolic syndrome than in another group. In a multivariate linear regression
model adjusting sex and age variables showed that the presence of metabolic syndrome could
effectively predict cognitive impairment (beta = -2.202, SE = -0.214, p = 0.013).
Conclusion: The presence of metabolic syndrome can be mainly related to damaging cognition
especially impairing the power of attention.

Mind reading with cognition for treatment

Afsaneh Zarghi

International Clinical Neuroscience Journal, Vol. 2 No. 3 (2015), 30 December 2015, Page 94-100

Mind is mysterious and complex. Thoughts were transferred from one mind to the other mind by cognitive domains and senses. The scientific information is based on observation and analysis, and research may benefit the most through initial real information. We have a virtual area in mind; this area can help us for cognition of patients even if they do not speak. Physicians, nurses, therapists, care givers can understand thought of patients with mind reading for the successful treatment. Hence it shows the need for a modern approach to the mind reading in medical science for novel treatment.

Serum uric acid as an independent predictor of recurrence in ischemic stroke patients

Akbar Hamzei Moghaddam, Farhad Iranmanesh, Mohamah Ali Shafa, Reza Hamzei Moghaddam, Hadi Eslami

International Clinical Neuroscience Journal, Vol. 2 No. 3 (2015), 30 December 2015, Page 101-104

Background and Purpose: The relationship between uric acid and stroke recurrence is ambiguous. Some studies have explored this relationship in acute ischemic stroke but had different results. We evaluated the association of admission uric acid level with risk of stroke recurrence in patients with ischemic stroke.

Methods: We studied ischemic stroke patients presenting to our hospital with Magnetic Resonance Imaging-confirmed acute ischemic stroke. Blood samples were drawn within 24 h of admission for uric acid concentration. Information on age, prior hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, ischemic heart disease, and smoking status was collected. We assessed the relationship between uric acid level and stroke recurrence at 90 days after stroke onset.

Results: Two hundred patients were studied. Twenty-seven patients suffered from a recurrence event. Hyperuricemia was found in 48 (24%) patients. Mean serum uric acid level in patients with recurrence was 6.6±1.3 and in patients without recurrence was 5.2±1.5 mg/dl. On multiple logistic regression analysis, the independent relationship between higher uric acid level levels and recurrence was confirmed (odds ratio, 1.29; 95% confidence interval, 1.12-1.73; p=0.01).

Conclusion: Elevated uric acid concentration is significantly and independently associated with increased risk of stroke recurrence in ischemic stroke patients.

Effect of Zingiber Officinale (Ginger Rhizomes) Hydroethanolic Extract on Hyoscine-Induced Memory Impairment in Adult Male Rats

Ali Gomar, Abdolkarim Hosseini, Naser Mirazi, Mojtaba Gomar

International Clinical Neuroscience Journal, Vol. 2 No. 3 (2015), 30 December 2015, Page 105-110

Background: The spice Zingiber officinale or ginger possesses antioxidant activity and
neuroprotective effects. In this study we hypothesized that treatment with hydroethanolic
extract of ginger (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o) would effect on the hyoscine-induced memory
impairment in rats.
Methods: In this experimental study 64 male Wistar rats were divided into eight groups (8 rats
in each group): normal saline, hyoscine (1 mg/kg), ginger extract (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg),
or hyoscine (1 mg/kg) plus ginger extract (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg). Memory impairment was
induced by a single injection of hyoscine (1 mg/kg, i.p). Cognitive functions were evaluated
using passive avoidance learning (PAL) task. Retention test was carried out 24 h after training,
and the latency of entering the dark compartment [step-through latency (STL)] and the total
time in the dark compartment (TDC) were recorded. All statistical analysis was carried out at
5% level of significance using SPSS version 21. The data were analyzed by ANOVA followed
by Tukey’s test.
Results: The time latency in hyoscine-treated group was lower than control (133.87±14.60
vs. 242.12±10.58; p<0.001, respectively). Treatment of the animals by 100 and 200 mg/kg of
ginger extract before the training trial increased the time latency at 24 h after the training trial
(277±4.67 and 280.37±7.68; p<0.01, respectively). Administration of both 100 and 200 mg/kg
doses of the extract in hyoscine received animal groups before retention trials also increased
the time latency than the hyoscine-treated groups (247.37±7.62 and 271.87±9.11; p<0.001,
Conclusion: The results revealed that the ginger hydroethanolic extract attenuated hyoscineinduced
memory impairment.

Case Report

Direct Carotid-Cavernous sinus Fistula Following Closed Head Injury

Afsoun Seddighi, Amir Saied Sedighi, Mohammad Ali Fazeli

International Clinical Neuroscience Journal, Vol. 2 No. 3 (2015), 30 December 2015, Page 111-113

A case of direct carotid-cavernous sinus fistula (CCF) after closed head injury is presented. A
22-year-old male presented to the emergency department of Shohada Tajrish Hospital with the
chief complaint of blurred vision and pulsatile retro-orbital headache. The patient had closed head
injury due to car accident 2 month ago with lower limb fracture. After a 2-week symptom-free
period, he developed scalp and right facial tingling, along with pulsatile retro-orbital headache
and vision problems. His vital signs were within normal limits, but on primary evaluation
the patient orbital and carotid bruits could be recognized. Computed tomography (CT) scan
and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) suggested the carotid-cavernous sinus fistula, which
was confirmed by brain angiographic imaging findings. Carotid-cavernous sinus fistula is an
uncommon condition that is usually caused by head trauma but can advance spontaneously in
about one fourth of patients with CCF. The connection between the carotid artery and cavernous
sinus leads to increased pressure in the cavernous sinus and compression of its contents, and
finally advances the clinical symptoms and signs seen. Diagnosis is based on clinical evaluation
and neuroimaging techniques. The target of management is to decrease the pressure within the
cavernous sinus, which results in gradual recovery of symptoms.

Delayed Motor Cortex Intracerebrall Hemorrhage Presented as Status Epilepticus Following Foramen Magnum Meningioma Surgery

Guive Sharifi, Anahita Zoghi, Fereshteh Ghadiri, Mohammad Halajnejad

International Clinical Neuroscience Journal, Vol. 2 No. 3 (2015), 30 December 2015, Page 114-116

Meningiomas are rare tumors of posterior fossa. Delayed intracranial hemorrhage is a rare
complication of surgeries in this territory. Herein, we report a case of status epilepticus as a
result of delayed motor cortex hemorrhage, complicating resection of a meningioma arising
from foramen magnum.