International Clinical Neuroscience Journal,
Vol. 2 No. 1 (2015),
The first necessary step in researches to treat spinal cord injuries (SCI) is to understand complexities related to the neurophysiology and neurobiology changes of human SCI with stem cell therapy(SCT). The aim of this study is to identify these changes. The level of injuries is important in treatment and determination of this injury (whether it is complete, incomplete, or discomplete) is valuable too. Loss of all neurological functions affected by this injury and physiological or anatomical continuity of central nervous system tracts occur across this lesion. Obviously, a result that is achieved is that the maximum number of tracts can remain, be maintained, and increase in the acute phase of illness. Stimulating the axonal regeneration by neutralizing inhibitory factors, adding positive tropisms, and creating a permissive environment is suitable. Better results that had been obtained are achieved by filling gaps with peripheral nerve grafts or transplanting Schwann cells, and fibroblasts that genetic engineering has been done on them. Ability of poly potential cells to differentiate and create neural tissues is remarkable. The relatively good success in obtaining the proper repair for axons has been reported. However, this issue also should be considered that human spinal cord injuries have significant differences with spinal cord injuries in laboratory animals. In order to be successful in doing this research, the changes of human SCI must also be considered and the use of stem cells in treating human SCI must be performed due to these changes.