Correlation of Sacral Ratio and Reflux-Related Renal Injury in Children with Vesicoureteral reflux with and without Nephropathy
Journal of Pediatric Nephrology,
Vol. 2 No. 3 (2014),
19 August 2014
Introduction: Vesicoureteral reflux refers to the retrograde flow of the urine from the bladder to the ureter and kidney. The ureteral attachment to the bladder is normally oblique, between the bladder mucosa and detrusor muscle, creating a flap-value mechanism that prevents reflux. Reflux occurs when the submucosal tunnel between the mucosa and detrusor muscle is short or absent. The inflammatory reaction caused by pyelonephritis can result in scarring, which is also termed reflux nephropathy. Since sacral bone anomalies have a direct influence on the final function of the urinary and bowel systems, this study was performed to investigate the relationship between sacral ratio and reflux nephropathy.
Materials and Methods: In this case–control study, the case -control group included 200 children under 9 years old who were referred to Amir-Kabir Hospital clinics with urinary tract infection and according to the VCUG and DMSA results, children with various grades of VUR entered the study. The sacral ratio was measured in the two groups and compared by a radiologist. The data were analyzed using Chi-2 and Mann Whitney Tests and software SPSS 16.
Results: The case group included 48 males and 52 females with a mean age of 3.7 years old who had reflux nephropathy, and the control group included 47 males and 53 females with a mean age of 4.1 years who did not have reflux nephropathy. Sacral ratio abnormality was detected in 64% and 23.7% of the cases and controls respectively, which showed a significant difference (p-value=0.003).
Conclusions: Sacral ratio abnormality was more common in children with vesicoureteral reflux and reflux nephropathy than children with VUR without reflux nephropathy.Keywords: Vesico-Ureteral Reflux; Sacral agenesis; Child; Diagnostic imaging.
How to Cite
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