Etiology of Urolithiasis in Children
Journal of Pediatric Nephrology,
Vol. 10 No. 2 (2022),
Background and Aim: Urinary stones are a common problem among children that causes
pain, dysuria, and other complications, including urinary tract obstruction and infection.
The prevalence of urinary stones in children has been increasing in recent decades.
Since the causes of urolithiasis in children differ in various geographical regions, with
diverse ethnic backgrounds and popular nutritional habits changing over time, we
designed this study to update the identifiable etiologies of urinary stones in children
younger than 14 years in Northwest Iran.
Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 144 children with urinary stones
who were referred to Tabriz Children’s Hospital, Tabriz City, Iran, from March 2018
to September 2020. To determine the main causes of urolithiasis, such as metabolic
disorders, urinary tract infections, and anatomical abnormalities, several variables,
including age, sex, and results of ultrasound examination, urine analysis and biochemical
tests, urine culture, and blood gas analysis, were collected, analyzed, and interpreted.
Results: In this study, 90 boys and 54 girls with an average age of 11.75 (ranged:
1-160) months were included. The most common causes of urolithiasis were metabolic
or biochemical disorders in 67 cases (46.5%), mainly hypercalciuria followed by
hyperoxaluria, anatomical abnormalities in 10 children (7%), and urinary tract
infections in 3 patients (2.1%). Dehydration leading to excessive urine concentration
in 87 children (60.4%) was the most common condition associated with urolithiasis in
the studied children.
Conclusion: Regarding the high prevalence of metabolic disorders, especially
hypercalciuria in children with urolithiasis, these disorders should be considered for
preventive, diagnostic, and therapeutic measures.
- Urinary Calculi
How to Cite
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