Investigation of NSD2 Protein Expression Changes in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells After Treatment With Curcumin and Phthalates
International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Forensic Medicine,
Vol. 13 No. 3 (2023),
17 October 2023,
Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common types of cancer worldwide. The role of molecular markers in the development and progression of this cancer has been extensively studied. The overexpression of the 90-kilobase protein methyltransferase NSD2 (nuclear receptor binding SET domain- protein 2) is associated with tumor development and some types of cancers. This study aims to investigate the changes in NSD2 protein expression in HCC cells after treatment with curcumin and phthalates.
Method: This study compared the NSD2 protein expression in HepG2 cancer cells and fibroblast cells that were either untreated or treated with the half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50%) of phthalates, curcumin, or their combination. The Western blot method and protein quantification were used to detect and determine NSD2 protein levels, and ImageJ software was used to analyze the desired bands.
Results: Curcumin, phthalates, and their combination reduced the expression of NSD2 in HepG2 cancer cells and normal fibroblast cells compared to untreated cells (P<0.001). This decrease in expression was more significant in cells treated with both curcumin and phthalates than in treatment with curcumin or phthalates alone.
Conclusion: The IC50% of curcumin, phthalates, and their combination can reduce NSD2 expression, where the effect of the combined form is greater. Therefore, the combination of phthalates and curcumin is recommended as a potential anti-cancer agent against HCC cells with an effect on reducing NSD2 expression.