Original Article (Clinical Toxicology)

Effect of Selenium on Oxidative Stress Outcomes due to Cyclophosphamide Consumption in Rats’ Submandibular Salivary Glands

Osamah Adnan Jasim Alnuaimi, Jawnaa Khalid Mammdoh, Luma Ibrahim Khalel Al Allaf

International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Forensic Medicine, Vol. 13 No. 2 (2023), 11 June 2023,

Background: This study aimed to evaluate the possible role of selenium in mitigating the toxic effect of cyclophosphamide on the oxidative parameters as well as the histology of submandibular salivary glands’ tissues of albino male rats.
Methods: Twenty male albino rats (aged 3-4 months, 300-400 grams) were divided into four groups (n=5): the first group was administered with distilled water orally, the second group was administered with selenium (0.2 mg/kg) orally for 14 days, the third group was given (150 mg/kg) cyclophosphamide by i.p. injection on day eight, and the fourth group was given selenium (0.2 mg/kg) and cyclophosphamide (150 mg/kg) by i.p. injection on day eight. On day 15, all rats were anesthetized, blood samples were collected for total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and malondialdehyde (MDA) analysis, all rats were euthanized, and the submandibular salivary glands were collected.
Results: The biochemical analysis of serum TAC values and MDA levels revealed a significant reduction in the TAC levels and an elevation in MDA levels in the cyclophosphamide (CY) group in comparison with other groups, whereas, the cyclophosphamide with selenium (CY+Se) group showed an elevation in TAC values and a reduction in MDA levels in comparison with the CY group. The histopathological study revealed mucous acini necrosis, atrophy, vacuoles in the serous acini, with edema surrounding the striated ducts, degeneration signs in granular convoluted tubules, as well as an increase in fibrous tissue surrounding the interlobular ducts, while the CY+Se group showed an improvement in the histological architectures.
Conclusion: Cyclophosphamide caused oxidative stress, represented by a reduction in the antioxidant marker level, an elevation in the oxidative marker level, and structural alterations in the submandibular salivary glands of rats and selenium mitigated these effects, as seen by the biochemical analysis and histological investigation.

The Predominant Microorganism During the COVID-19 Pandemic in the Toxicological Intensive Care Unit

Mastaneh Dahi, Haleh Talaie, Shahram Sabeti , Sanaz Pashapour, Sayed Masoud Hosseini

International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Forensic Medicine, Vol. 13 No. 2 (2023), 11 June 2023, Page 40060

Background: Although many studies have investigated the prevalence of hospital infections during the COVID-19 pandemic, the results are still challenging.
Methods: In this routine data-based study, the medical records of 2213 poisoned patients admitted to the Toxicological Intensive Care Unit (TICU) of the Loghman Hakim Hospital from 2018 to 2022 were retrospectively reviewed. After the implementation of exclusion criteria, 220 patients were separated into the control and case groups. The information of the patients was extracted based on a preplanned form and analyzed with SPSS software, version 26.
Results: Unlike the prepandemic period, when Staphylococcus aureus was the predominant pathogen, during the pandemic period, the predominant pathogen in tracheal culture was Acinetobacter spp., which increased from 11.3% in the prepandemic period to 14.9% during the COVID-19 pandemic. Moreover, coagulase-negative staphylococci in blood culture and Enterobacter spp. in tracheal culture both significantly decreased during the COVID-19 pandemic (P=0.035 and P=0.05, respectively), while Streptococcus viridans in the tracheal culture and Enterococcus in the urine culture both significantly increased (P=0.013).
Conclusion: Although in the prepandemic period, S. aureus was usually the most common pathogen among poisoned patients in TICU, the predominant pathogen changed to Acinetobacter spp. during the COVID-19 pandemic period. Some hospital-acquired infections decreased and others increased in a different way between the two groups.

Formalin Versus Bouin Solution for Rat Testicular Tissue Fixation: A Histochemical and Immunohistochemical Evaluation

Zainab Waleed Aziz, Mohammed Ghassan Saeed, Karam Turath Tawfeeq

International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Forensic Medicine, Vol. 13 No. 2 (2023), 11 June 2023, Page 40267

Background: An accurate histopathological assessment and reporting of testicular biopsies require an appropriate tissue fixative. We assessed the histological, histochemical, and immunohistochemical quality of testicular biopsies, comparing 10% formalin versus Bouin solution as tissue fixatives.
Methods: This experimental study utilized 20 adult male albino rats equally divided into five cages for 30 days. By the end of the experiment, all animals were anesthetized, and both testes were removed and weighted; one testicle was fixed in 10% formalin and the other testicle in Bouin solution, offering 40 specimens and then subjected to histological, morphometric, histochemical, and immunohistochemical assessments.
Results: Formalin revealed high-quality cytological details and better nuclear chromatin detail (P=0.03). At the architectural level, the Bouin solution showed better quality details with less cytoplasmic shrinkage of seminiferous tubule germ cells (P=0.001). Bouin’s fixed tissues were more suitable for staining by trichrome methods but unsuitable when subsequent immunohistochemistry was requested. The diagnostic concordance between the Bouin solution versus formalin-fixed biopsies was 91.7%.
Conclusion: This study supports that the morphology of testicular tissue fixed with Bouin solution was nearly comparable to those fixed with 10% neutral buffered formalin. However, the Bouin solution cannot substitute formalin when subsequent immunohistochemistry is considered.

Original Article (Forensic Medicine)

Forensica Application as Learning Media on Forensic Medicine- Time of Death Estimation

Idha Arfianti Wiraagni, Beta Ahlam Gizela, Firdaus Firdaus, Ahnav Bil Auvaq, Budiatri Retno Noormaningrum, Busyra Busyra, Wendi Wiradinata, Nurholis Majid

International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Forensic Medicine, Vol. 13 No. 2 (2023), 11 June 2023,

Background: Time of death estimation is crucial to help investigators to solve a case. In this study, Forensica application, version 4, an android-based mobile phone application was developed as a tool to educate and calculate the time of death estimation. This study aimed to compare the level of knowledge between medical students that studied using the application and textbook.
Methods: Both groups had the same study duration and answered the same questions. Participants had then filled out a questionnaire about the Forensica.
Results: Statistical analysis shows that gender differences do not result in significant differences. The mean of the post-test result shows significant improvement (P=0.00) in both groups when compared to the pre-test result.
Conclusion: The result shows that generally, the respondents feel that learning with Forensica was easier, faster, more fun, more practical, and more exciting than learning compared with textbooks. Thus, Forensica application can be a better learning method alternative to textbooks that is easier, faster, more fun, more practical, and more exciting.

Case Report

Autopsy Finding of Fatal Child Physical Abuse by Stepfather: Case Report

Galih Endradita M, Muhammmad Kholil Ikhsan, William Daniel Napitupulu, Ahmad Yudianto

International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Forensic Medicine, Vol. 13 No. 2 (2023), 11 June 2023, Page 40881

Child physical abuse (CPA) is prone to occur in developing areas. Aside from stressors in the home, the presence of a stepfather is another cause of CPA. The case reported here is of a 3-year-old girl who experienced fatal physical abuse by her stepfather. On external examination, bruises were found on the forehead, right and left cheeks, chin, chest, back, upper and lower left arms, pubic lips, upper and lower right legs, and lower left legs, and blisters on the lips. On internal examination, severe damage was found to internal organs. This paper also discussed how this case was viewed from the Indonesian legal framework.

Letter to the Editor

Mass and Serial Poisoning: Medico-legal Considerations and Requirements

Kambiz Soltaninejad

International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Forensic Medicine, Vol. 13 No. 2 (2023), 11 June 2023, Page 41638

M ass poisoning is defined as the poisoning (with or without a fatality) of three or more victims in a single location and event. Also, serial poisoning refers to the poisoning at different time intervals (over days, months, or years)

Mortality due to H1N1 Influenza in Cases Registered at the Autopsy Halls of Kahrizak, Tehran

Mehdi Forouzesh, Ramin Talaie, Nahid Dadashzadehasl, Seyed Shahram Mousavi, Abdolrazagh Barzegar, Seyed Amirhosein Mahdavi, Masoud Ghadipasha, Roya Kordrostami, Rohollah Valizadeh

International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Forensic Medicine, Vol. 13 No. 2 (2023), 11 June 2023, Page 41490

H1N1 swine flu is an acute disease that infects the upper respiratory tract and can cause inflammation of the upper respiratory tract, trachea, and possibly the lower respiratory tract. The known course for H1N1 swine flu is varied from one to four days, on average for most people about two days, but in some cases, it can be up to seven days