ISSN: 2383-4129

Vol. 7 No. 2 (2020)

Original/Research Article

The Psychometric Properties of the Desires for Drug Questionnaire (DDQ) among Iranians Methamphetamine Abusers

Mehrdad Akhavan-Behbahany, Hamed Ekhtiari, Mohammad Effatpanah, Mohammad Effatpanah, Habib Ganjgahi, Azarakhsh Mokri, Peyman Hassani-Abharian

International Journal of Applied Behavioral Sciences, Vol. 7 No. 2 (2020), 10 June 2020 , Page 1-10

Introduction: Drug-craving as a multidimensional subjective experience recently has been
accepted as an addiction hallmark. Desire for Drug Questionnaire or DDQ is a well-known
questionnaire for measurement of drug craving severity. This study aimed to investigate the
psychometric properties of the DDQ among Iranian methamphetamine abusers.
Method: DDQ was translated from English into Farsi by language experts. The questionnaire was
then used for evaluation of craving among 50 male methamphetamine abusers. Then, DDQ
questionnaire' scores was subjected to an exploratory principal components factor analysis. To
assess construct validity of DDQ, the model was evaluated using confirmatory factor analysis.
Internal consistency was examined by calculating cronbach’s alpha.
Results: Finally, the Persian version of DDQ was verified with 13 items and three factors. Three
factors with high eigenvalues were identified by (PCA) that accounted for 70.63% of the total
variance. Given the relative fit of the confirmatory factor model, the construct validity of the DDQ
was verified. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of the total score of the questionnaire was 0.86.
Conclusion: The Farsi-translated version of DDQ questionnaires had good psychometric properties.
The questionnaire could be considered as a valid and reliable instrument for the assessment of drug
craving level in Iranian methamphetamine abusers.

The Role of Identity Styles in Predicting Academic Motivation among Adolescent Girls

Tayyebeh Kord Ahmadi, Boyok Tajeri, Tahmores Aghajani

International Journal of Applied Behavioral Sciences, Vol. 7 No. 2 (2020), 10 June 2020 , Page 11-17

Introduction: The subject of identity styles and its role in different stages of life has been
confirmed by numerous researches. However, the role of identity styles on academic motivation has
not been considered. This study was conducted in response to a research need.This study was
conducted aimed to investigate the relationship between identity styles and academic motivation in
adolescent girls in Tehran.
Method: In a cross-sectional study, in the form of a correlational design, 201 participants were
estimated among high school girl students and were selected using purposive sampling method.
Data were gathered using demographic checklist, structured clinical interview, Berzonsky's identity
style inventory, and Harter's motivational scale.
Results: The data analysis showed that identity styles explained 32.8% of the variance of academic
motivation. Regression coefficients showed that informational identity style (β=0.159, p<0.05) and
commitment identity style (β=0.295, p<0.01) directly and diffuse identity style (β=-0.196, p<0.01)
reversely predicted academic motivation in adolescent high school girl students.
Conclusion: The findings of this study, in line with the previous studies, indicate the relation
between identity styles and motivation. These findings indicate the importance of identity styles in
academic motivation

The Effectiveness of Schema Therapy on Differentiation of Self and Emotional Control among Couples with Marital Maladjustment

Farideh Pourshahabadi, Javad Einipour

International Journal of Applied Behavioral Sciences, Vol. 7 No. 2 (2020), 10 June 2020 , Page 18-29

Introduction: The family is the most important constituent of the society and marital maladjustment is
considered as a threat to growth and development in marital life. This study was conducted aimed to evaluate
the effectiveness of group schema therapy on differentiation of self and emotional control in couples with
marital maladjustment.
Methods: In a randomized controlled trial, during October 2018 to January 2019, among couples with
marital maladaptation referring to counselling centers in Tehran, 16 couples were selected using purposeful
sampling. Participants were assigned into two groups using block randomization. The experimental group
received eight 90-minute sessions of Schema Therapy on weekly and based on Young Manual and the
control group was placed on the waiting list. Questionnaires of Dyadic Adjustment, emotional control and
differentiation were completed by the participants in two stages. Data were analyzed using multivariate
analysis of covariance in SPSS 21 software.
Results: Primary outcomes showed that schema therapy had a significant effect on the four dimensions of
differentiation of self; including emotional responsiveness (p<0.05), my position (p<0.01), emotional
digression (p<0.01), and interactions with others (p<0.01). Secondary outcomes also showed the
effectiveness of this intervention on emotional control in the form of emotional inhibition, aggression
control,intellectual rumination and benign control(p<0.05) in couples.
Conclusion: The findings of this study are in the line with the previous studies suggesting the role of
maladaptive schemas in marital problems. Schema therapy had a significant effect on differentiation of self
and emotional control in couples with marital maladjustment.

The Mediating Role of Self-conscious Emotions, Disconnection and Rejection in the Relationship between Maternal Separation and Suicidal Ideation

Maryam Bitarafan, Golnaz Mazaheri Nejadfard, Neda Shahvaroughi Farahani, Maryam Aslzaker

International Journal of Applied Behavioral Sciences, Vol. 7 No. 2 (2020), 10 June 2020 , Page 30-45

Introduction: Suicide is one of the major health problems and challenges in the world, which has
various social, psychological, economic, and cultural dimensions. This study aims to determine the
mediating role of self-conscious emotions and the domain of disconnection and rejection schemas
in the relationship between maternal psychological separation and suicidal ideation.
Method: This study was a descriptive cross-sectional study. The sample consisted of 573 students
from Tehran who were selected through multi-stage cluster sampling. In this study, the Young
Schema Questionnaire (YSQ), Test of Self-Conscious Affect (TOSCA-3), Psychological Separation
Inventory (PSI), and the Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation (BSSI) were used. Data were analyzed
using structural equation modeling with SPSS 21 and AMOS 24 software.
Results: The results showed a significant and indirect effect of maternal separation variable on
suicidal ideation (β = 0. 145, p<0.05), a significant and indirect effect of disconnection schema on
suicidal ideation (β = 0.040, p<0.05), and the indirect and significant effect of maternal separation
variable on the self-conscious emotions variable (β = 0.104, p<0.05). The results also revealed that
the path coefficient of separation from the mother to suicidal ideation (0.01) and self-conscious
emotions (-0.01) were not significant.
Conclusion: The results of the fitted model data analysis showed that psychological separation
from the mother, mediated by the domain of disconnection and rejection schemas, predicts suicidal
ideation. Clinical interventions are recommended to be conducted for identifying and targeting
schemas, particularly the domain of disconnection and rejection ones, in order to prevent suicidal
ideation and thoughts or repair and control them.

Comparison of the Effectiveness of Emotion-focused Therapy and Acceptance and Commitment Therapy on Health locus of Control of Patients with Coronary Heart Patients

saeed heidari, Javad Khalatbari, Mohammad Jalali, Taher Tizdast

International Journal of Applied Behavioral Sciences, Vol. 7 No. 2 (2020), 10 June 2020 , Page 46-57

Introduction: Cardiovascular diseases are the most important cause of mortality in the world. In
addition to physical problems, they are also influenced by psychological factors and psychological
therapies along with biological therapy can help to improve these patients. The purpose of this study
was to compare the effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) and emotionfocused therapy (EFT) on Health locus of control of coronary heart patients.
Method: This was a quasi-experimental study with pretest-posttest design with control group. The
statistical population of the study included patients with coronary heart disease in the city of Karaj.
Patients were 30 to 60 years old who referred to Shahid Rajaee Hospital in Karaj. Samples were
selected using convenient sampling method and were assigned randomly into two experimental and
one control group. Data were collected using health locus of control questionnaire. Data were
analyzed using descriptive statistics and analysis of covariance.
Results: outcomes showed that ACT and EFT are effective on adjusting the Health locus of control
in patients with coronary heart disease, and there was a significant difference between the
experimental and control group (F = 7.25, p <0.05).But there was no difference between the
efficacy of the two treatments.
Conclusion: Psychological therapies such as ACT and EFT increase self-care in cardiac patients by
increasing control and increasing sense of responsibility.

Effectiveness of Hardiness Training Intervention on Students' Perceived Stress and Psychological Hardiness

Ezzatollah Kordmirza Nikoozadeh

International Journal of Applied Behavioral Sciences, Vol. 7 No. 2 (2020), 10 June 2020 , Page 58-66

Introduction: Today's world is full of unavoidable stress. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of psychological hardiness training intervention on perceived stress in students of Payame Noor University in Garmsar.Methods: By available sampling, 31 subjects (29 girls and 2 boys) whose perceived stress scores were higher than the mean (M = 27.26) were selected and randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. Participants in the experimental group received 12 sessions of the hardiness training intervention. Participants completed perceived stress scale and the hardiness personality inventory before and after the intervention.Results: The results of one-way analysis of variance showed a significant decrease in perceived stress and a significant increase in psychological hardiness (P <0.05) in the experimental group compared to the control group.Conclusion: Therefore, the psychological hardiness training increased the psychological hardiness and its components including challenge, commitment, control and decreased perceived stress in students in the face of stressful events.