ISSN: 2383-4129

Vol. 3 No. 2 (2016)

Original/Research Article

Prayer and pain catastrophizing coping strategies on headache intensity prediction in patients with headache

sara zandieh, Mohsen Dehghani, Farhad Assarzadegan, Mojtaba Habibi

International Journal of Applied Behavioral Sciences, Vol. 3 No. 2 (2016), 24 July 2017 , Page 1-8

Introduction: Headaches are the most common cause of absence from work and school and one of the most common reasons of referring to neurologist. The present study aimed to investigate the role of prayer and pain catastrophizing as coping strategies in prediction of headache intensity. Methods: In this research we selected 124 patients (89 female and 35 male) with headache as comparison group via available sampling method and 53 individual (30 female and 23 male) as control group. The patients were chosen after the diagnosis of headache by a neurologist in a neurology clinic. The patients completed demographic questionnaire, visual analogues scale (VAS), prayer subscale of coping strategies questionnaire (CSQ) and pain catastrophizing scale (PCS). Results: The analysis of regression showed that rumination as one of the subscale of pain catastrophizing and prayer could account for 9% of variation for headache intensity. Conclusion: The results show that prayer and rumination, which is one of catastrophic components, are effective in prediction of pain. In other words, prayer can predict low intensity of headache, and rumination can predict high intensity of headache and this result which prayer predicted low intensity of pain, can explain the role of spirituality in mental health, especially in our country with religious background. Declaration of Interest: None.

Depressive and anxiety symptoms of Iranian immigrants in Denmark: a comparison

Mohammad-Reza Sadri, Ata Tehranchi

International Journal of Applied Behavioral Sciences, Vol. 3 No. 2 (2016), 24 July 2017 , Page 9-14

Introduction: The first aim of present study was to compare the differences in anxiety and depressive symptoms among Iranian immigrants in Denmark, Iranians living in Iran and native Danes. The second aim was to investigate interactions between ethnicity/location, gender and employment in depressive and anxiety levels of participants.Methods: The study design was causal comparative. The sample size was 720 individuals, aged 18 to 45 selected through convenience sampling. All participants filled SCL-90 and demographic questionnaire. Data were analyzed using three-way ANOVA.Results: Native Iranians reported higher levels of depression and anxiety than immigrant Iranians and native Danes. Unemployed and female participants reported higher levels of depression and anxiety than employed and male participants. Interaction between ethnicity/location, employment and gender was significant in depressive and anxiety symptoms of participants.Discussion: Lower level of anxiety and depression among Iranians immigrants in Denmark and native Danes in comparison of Iranians living in Iran can be related to better social welfare system and high levels of flourishing in Danish society.Declaration of interest: None

The investigation of relationship between behavioral and decisional procrastination with personality characteristics among students of Tehran Universities

Shima Tamannaeifar, Banafsheh Gharaee, Ali Bakhshizade, Farshad Sheybani

International Journal of Applied Behavioral Sciences, Vol. 3 No. 2 (2016), 24 July 2017 , Page 15-20

Introduction: The present study was carried out with the aim to investigate the relationship between behavioral and decisional procrastination with personality characteristic among students of Tehran Universities.  Methods: the number of samples in this research includes 400 students (114 female and 286 male) from Tehran universities that selected using random cluster-multistage sampling and completed behavioral, decisional procrastination and five factor personality questionnaire. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, independent t-test and Pearson correlation.  Results: Data indicated that the most prevalence of behavioral and decisional procrastination was between Shahid Beheshti and Tabatabaie universities respectively. On the other hand, procrastination was related positively to neuroticism and negatively to consciousness, extraversion and agreeableness. Also, there were no relationship between procrastination and openness.  Conclusion: Considering the positive relationship between procrastination and neuroticism and negative relationship with consciousness, extroversion and agreeableness, attention to personality characteristics can reduce procrastination and in turn, improve engagement in educational activities. Declaration of Interest: None. 

Distribution of sensory processing disorder in children 5 to 11 years in Tehran city

Navid Mirzakhani, Faezeh Dehghan, Marjan Shahbazi, Fatemeh Shahbazi

International Journal of Applied Behavioral Sciences, Vol. 3 No. 2 (2016), 24 July 2017 , Page 21-26

Introduction: Sensory Processing Disorder as defined by difficulties in setting up and organizing the variety and intensity of responses to sensory input for compliance with environmental requirements. This study was designed to investigate the distribution of sensory processing disorder in children 5 to 11 years in Tehran city based on sensory profile questionnaire. Methods: This study was a descriptive and cross sectional study that performed in children who have 5 to 11 years old. Data collection included a demographic questionnaire and a sensory profile questionnaire  Results: In this study 2191 cases were evaluated in terms of sensory processing factors. According to this study morbidity from sensory processing disorder in boys is higher than for girls. Also the most common disorder was observed in sensory sensitivity factor and the lowest was fine movement and perception. Conclusion: Different sensory processing function in these children may explain their abnormal behaviors. These sensory processing dysfunction effects on child's daily life in areas such as play, academic skills and peer relationships, self-help activities. Therapists should consider the child's sensory processing functions when they set therapeutic plans.  Declaration of Interest: None.

The role of personality traits and perceived parenting styles in predicting cognitive developmen

Mohammad Mehrad Sadr

International Journal of Applied Behavioral Sciences, Vol. 3 No. 2 (2016), 24 July 2017 , Page 27-34

Introduction: Cognitive development continues into adulthood in which the way of thinking in a person changes from an absolute state to a relativistic state and then a dialectical state. This growth and the stages expected to be achieved can be influenced by the individual characteristics or environment is his/her life. The aim of this study was to describe the associations between personality factors and perceived parenting styles with the stages of cognitive development. Methods: 381 students (192 females, 189 males) from Hakim Sabzevari University in Khorasan Razavi province of Iran were selected by a categorical cluster random sampling. The participants of the study filled out 3 questionnaires: Parenting style inventory 2 (PSI-II), a short form of NEO personality inventory (NEO -FFI) and social paradigm belief inventory (SPBI). The research was of a descriptive and correlational type.  Results: The results of multiple regression indicated that personality traits and perceived parenting styles could significantly predict 10% of the variance of dialectical thinking. Openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness could positively predict dialectical thinking but neuroticism, responsiveness, and neglect predicted dialectical thinking negatively.  Conclusion: Overall the results showed that personality traits and perceived parenting styles can predict the current stage of cognitive development of a person. Declaration of Interest: None.