Review Article

A Review on Root Anatomy and Canal Configuration of the Maxillary Second Molars

Negin Ghasemi, Saeed Rahimi, Shahriar Shahi, Mohammad Samiei, Mohammad Frough Reyhani, Bahram Ranjkesh

Iranian Endodontic Journal, Vol. 12 No. 1 (2017), 31 December 2016, Page 1-9

Introduction: The complexity of the root canal system presents a challenge for the practitioner. This systematic review evaluated the papers published in the field of root canal anatomy and configuration of the root canal system in permanent maxillary second molars. Methods and Materials: All articles related to the root morphology and root canal anatomy of the permanent maxillary second molars were collected by suitable keywords from PubMed database. The exhaustive search included all publications from 1981 to December 2015. The articles relevant to the study were evaluated and data was extracted. The author/year of publication, country, number of the evaluated teeth, type of study (method of the evaluation), number of roots and the canals, type of canals and the morphology of the apical foramen was noted. Results: The highest studied populations were in Brazil and United States. A total of 116 related papers were found, which had investigated 11945 teeth in total. Across all the studied populations, the three-rooted anatomy was most common, while the four-rooted anatomy had the lowest prevalence. The presence of the second mesiobuccal canal ranged from 11.53 % to 93.7%, where type II (2-1) configuration was the predominant type in Brazil and USA and types II and III (1-2-1) in Chinese populations. In 8.8-44% of cases, fusion was observed. The main reported cases were related to palatal root. The major method of anatomical investigation in case reports was periapical radiography, and the chief method in morphological studies was CBCT. Conclusion: The clinicians should be aware of normal morphology and anatomic variations to reduce the treatment failure.

Keywords: Maxillary Second Molar; Root Canal Anatomy; Root Morphology; Systematic Review

Original Article

Postoperative Pain following Pulpotomy of Primary Molars with Two Biomaterials: A Randomized Split Mouth Clinical Trial

Leili Shafie, Hamideh Barghi, Masoud Parirokh, Hamed Ebrahimnejad, Sara Esmaili

Iranian Endodontic Journal, Vol. 12 No. 1 (2017), 31 December 2016, Page 10-14

Introduction: The aim of this randomized clinical trial split-mouth study was to compare the postoperative pain following use of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) cement as pulpotomy agents in carious primary molars. Methods and Materials: Forty-seven children aged between 6-10 years old were enrolled in this study. Each child had two cariously involved primary molar in need of pulpotomy. After caries removal and preparing access cavity in one of the carious teeth, either MTA or CEM cement was randomly used as the pulpotomy agent, while the other cariously involved primary molar tooth was capped with the other material in a separate visit. After covering the radicular pulp with one of the capping materials the teeth were permanently restored with stainless steel crown (SSC). Postoperative pain was recorded by using Wong-Baker faces pain rating scale (Wong-Baker FPRS) up to seven days following the treatment. Data was analyzed using the Wilcoxon, McNemar, and chi square tests. Results: Forty-five patients fulfilled the treatment procedure and returned the Wong-Baker FPRS forms. Overall 65.6% of the patients reported pain irrespective of the pulpotomy agents used. There was no significant difference in postoperative pain between the teeth that received either MTA or CEM cement as pulpotomy agents in the first, second and the third day (P=0.805, P=0.942, P=0.705, respectively) following the procedure. The trend of the pain scores showed decreasing manner during the study period for the teeth in either groups of MTA or CEM cement. There was no significant difference between the two groups in the number of analgesics used following the treatment (P>0.05). Conclusion: The findings of the present study showed that a majority of the children felt pain following pulpotomy and SSC placement; however, there was no significant difference in pain reported when either MTA or CEM cement was used as pulpotomy agents.

Keywords: Calcium-enriched Mixture; Mineral Trioxide Aggregate; Pain Measurement; Primary Molar; Pulp Capping; Pulpotomy

Comparison of Postoperative Pain after Root Canal Preparation with Two Reciprocating and Rotary Single-File Systems: A Randomized Clinical Trial

Narges Farhad Mollashahi, Eshagh Ali Saberi, Seyed Rohollah Havaei, Mohammad Sabeti

Iranian Endodontic Journal, Vol. 12 No. 1 (2017), 31 December 2016, Page 15-19

Introduction: Root canal preparation techniques may cause postoperative pain. The aim of the present study was to compare the intensity of postoperative pain after endodontic treatment using hand files, single file rotary (OneShape), and single file reciprocating (Reciproc) systems. Methods and Materials: In this single-blind, parallel-grouped randomized clinical trial a total of 150 healthy patients aged between 20 to 50 years old were diagnosed with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis of one maxillary or mandibular molars. The teeth were randomly assigned to three groups according to the root canal instrumentation technique: hand files (control), OneShape and Reciproc. Treatment was performed in a single visit by an endodontist. The severity of the postoperative pain was assessed by the visual analogue scale (VAS) after 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h. Data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests. Results: The patients in control group reported significantly higher mean postoperative pain intensity at 12, 24, 48, and 72 h compared to the patients in the two other groups (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in mean intensity of postoperative pain between Reciproc and OneShape at 5 time points (P>0.05). Conclusion: The instrumentation kinematics (single-file reciprocating or single-file rotary) had no impact on intensity of postoperative pain.

Keywords: Endodontic Treatment; Nickel-Titanium Instruments; Postoperative Pain

Correlation Between Pulp Sensibility Tests and Histologic Diagnosis

Mandana Naseri, Sara Zamaheni, Akbar Khayat, Shiva Shojaeian

Iranian Endodontic Journal, Vol. 12 No. 1 (2017), 31 December 2016, Page 20-24

Introduction: Accurate diagnosis of dental pulp conditions plays a key role in selection of an appropriate treatment including conservative vital pulp therapy (treatable pulp) or root canal treatment (untreatable pulp). The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy of sensibility tests and the correlation of pulp response to sensibility tests with histologic pulp condition. Material and Methods: Assessment of clinical signs and symptoms and sensibility test include thermal and electrical pulp tests were all performed for 65 permanent teeth. The normal pulp and reversible pulpitis were considered as treatable conditions while the irreversible pulpitis and necrosis ones were considered as untreatable condition. The teeth were then extracted and sectioned for histological analysis of dental pulp. Comparisons between histological treatable and untreatable pulp condition were performed with chi square analysis for sensibility test responses. Result: A significant difference was detected in the normal and a sharp lingered response to heat and cold tests with a marginally significant difference for no responses to cold test between two histological treatable and untreatable groups. There was significant difference in the negative response to electric pulp test (EPT) between histological groups. The kappa agreement between clinical and histological diagnosis of pulp condition was about 0.843(p<0.001).  The accuracy of cold and heat tests and EPT to detect treatable pulp or untreatable pulp states were 78% and 74% and 62% respectively. The sensibility tests diagnosed untreatable pulpitis with a higher probability (NPV=63%-67% -54%, PPV=83%-91% -95% for heat, cold and EPT respectively). Conclusion: Sensibility test results had a higher likelihood to diagnose pulpal disease or untreatable pulp conditions. The result demonstrated a good agreement between clinical and histological pulp diagnoses


The Efficacy of Passive Ultrasonic Activation of Organic Solvents on Dissolving Two Root Canal Sealers

Letícia Trevisan, Isadora Razzera Huerta, Carina Michelon, Mariana De Carlo Bello, Rafael Pillar, Carlos Alexandre Souza Bier

Iranian Endodontic Journal, Vol. 12 No. 1 (2017), 31 December 2016, Page 25-28

Introduction: The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the dissolving efficacy of eucalyptol and orange oil solvents associated with passive ultrasonic activation (PUA) in zinc oxide-eugenol (ZOE) based and epoxy resin-based root canal sealers. Methods and Materials: Seventy samples of each sealer were prepared and then randomized according to the solvent and the time of the ultrasonic activation (n=5). The mean amount of weight loss of sealers was calculated in percentages and was analyzed by using the Kruskal-Wallis and Bonferroni post-hoc tests. Results: The greatest values of weight loss were obtained with the ZOE sealer groups (P<0.05), regardless of the solvent that was used. An application of PUA for 3 min, with a renewal of orange oil solvent each min, showed the greatest percentage of weight loss in ZOE sealer compared to the others templates (P<0.05). Neither the solvent nor the different times had any influence on the weight loss of the resin sealer (P>0.05). Conclusion: The application of PUA with essential oils can be an effective method in dissolving ZOE based sealers.

Keywords: Eucalyptol; Orange Oil; Retreatment; Solvent; Ultrasound

CBCT Assessment of Root Dentine Removal by Gates-Glidden Drills and Two Engine-Driven Root Preparation Systems

Azade Harandi, Fateme Mohammadpour Maleki, Ehsan Moudi, Maryam Ehsani, Soraya Khafri

Iranian Endodontic Journal, Vol. 12 No. 1 (2017), 31 December 2016, Page 29-33

Introduction: The aim of this study was to compare the dentine removing efficacy of Gates-Glidden drills with hand files, ProTaper and OneShape single-instrument system using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Methods and Materials: A total of 39 extracted bifurcated maxillary first premolars were divided into 3 groups (n=13) and were prepared using either Gates-Glidden drills and hand instruments, ProTaper and OneShape systems. Pre- and post-instrumentation CBCT images were obtained. The dentin thickness of canals was measured at furcation, and 1 and 2 mm from the furcation area in buccal, palatal, mesial and distal walls. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA test. Tukey’s post hoc tests were used for two-by-two comparisons. Results: Gates-Glidden drills with hand files removed significantly more (P<0.001) dentine than the engine-driven systems in all canal walls (buccal, palatal, mesial and distal). There were no significant differences between OneShape and ProTaper rotary systems (P>0.05). Conclusion: The total cervical dentine removal during canal instrumentation was significantly less with engine-driven file systems compared to Gates-Glidden drills. There were no significant differences between residual dentine thicknesses left between the various canal walls.

Keywords: Cone-Beam Computed Tomography; Maxillary First Premolar; Root Canal Preparation; Root Thickness

In vitro Comparison of Apical Debris Extrusion Using Rotary and Reciprocating Systems in Severely Curved Root Canals

Abbas Delvarani, Nahid Mohammadzadeh Akhlaghi, Raana Aminirad, Seyed Aliakbar Vahdati, Sohrab Tour Savadkouhi

Iranian Endodontic Journal, Vol. 12 No. 1 (2017), 31 December 2016, Page 34-37

Introduction: The aim of this in vitro study was to compare the amount of apically extruded debris after root canal preparation using rotary and reciprocating systems in severely curved root canals. Methods and Materials: Thirty six extracted human mandibular first molars with 25-35° curvature in their mesiobuccal (MB) canal (according to Schneider’s method) were cleaned and shaped with ProTaper and WaveOne systems. The extruded debris was collected and their net weight was calculated. To compare the efficiency of the two systems, the operation time was also measured. The data were analyzed with t-test. Results: The amount of extruded debris in WaveOne group was significantly greater in comparison with ProTaper group (26%). The operating time for ProTaper was however, significantly longer than WaveOne. Conclusion: Both root preparation systems caused some degree of debris extrusion through the apical foramen. However, this amount was greater in WaveOne instruments.

Keywords: Apical Extrusion; Curved Canals; Reciprocating File; Root Canal Preparation; Rotary Instrumentation

Scanning Electron Microscopic Evaluation of the Sealer-Dentine Interface of Three Sealers

Fatemeh Mohammadian, Farzad Farahanimastry, Fatemeh Dibaji, Mohammad Javad Kharazifard

Iranian Endodontic Journal, Vol. 12 No. 1 (2017), 31 December 2016, Page 38-42

Introduction: This study aimed to evaluate the dentin-sealer interface in three different sealers using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Methods and Materials: Thirty extracted human single-rooted teeth were prepared using ProTaper rotary files and were randomly divided into three groups (n=10) including BC Sealer, AH-Plus and Dorifill. The root canals were filled with cold lateral condensation technique and stored for 7 days in 100% humidity at 37°C. Cross sections were prepared from the coronal, middle, and apical sections of the roots. Then SEM images were taken and the width of gaps was measured by software. Sectional images were evaluated by two endodontists. Data were analyzed using two- and one-way ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Results: The mean gap width was significantly lower in coronal area in BC Sealer group compared to Dorifill (P=0.043) and likewise in AH-Plus group compared to Dorifill (P=0.018). There was no significant difference between BC Sealer and AH-Plus group in this area (P=0.923). No significant difference was detected in apical and middle zones among three sealers (P=0.367 and 0.643, respectively). Dentin-sealer interface showed no significant difference in three sealers in the apical area (P=0.051), but dentin-BC Sealer interface was better than AH-Plus in middle and coronal areas, and both outperformed Dorifill (P=0.001). Conclusion: BC Sealer and AH-Plus had less gaps than Dorifill in coronal area. In addition, BC Sealer had better dentin interface in middle and coronal area compared to AH-Plus, and both performed better than Dorifill. Reverse relationship was observed between the mean gap width and dentin-sealer interface quality.

Keywords: Endodontic Sealer; Interface; Gap; Root Sealer; Scanning Electron Microscopy

Transportation and Centering Ability of Neoniti and ProTaper Instruments; A CBCT Assessment

Zahrasadat Madani, Ali Soleymani, Tasnim Bagheri, Ehsan Moudi, Ali Bizhani, Vahid Rakhshan

Iranian Endodontic Journal, Vol. 12 No. 1 (2017), 31 December 2016, Page 43-49

Introduction: Transportation is an important iatrogenic endodontic error which might cause failure. This study evaluated the canal transportation caused by Neoniti and ProTaper instruments, using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) cross sections. Methods and Materials: This in vitro experimental study was performed on 40 mesiobuccal roots of maxillary first molars. The teeth were scanned with CBCT. They were randomly divided into 2 groups (n=20) that were prepared using either Neoniti or ProTaper files. An endodontist prepared the canal according to the manufacturer’s guidelines. Prepared canals were re-scanned. The pre-instrumentation and post-instrumentation CBCT volumes were sectioned at 1 to 9-mm distances from the apex. The extent of canal dentine removal in mesial and distal directions were measured in each cross-section. Canal transportation and instrument centering ability were estimated based on the extents of root wall removal and were compared in both groups. Results: The groups were rather similar in terms of transportation and centering ability (P>0.05). However, canal preparation on mesial and distal walls was statistically significantly less in the Neoniti group, at most cross-sections. Transportation of both groups was not significantly different (P>0.05). Centering ability of both instruments was not significantly different (P>0.05). Conclusion: Neoniti and ProTaper instruments might have proper centering ability and minimum transportations. Both instruments might cause similar extents of transportation and centering abilities.

Keywords: Centering Ability; Nickel Titanium Instruments; Root Canal Treatment; Root Canal Preparation; Transportation

Fracture Resistance of Roots after Application of Different Sealers

Fatemeh Dibaji, Farzaneh Afkhami, Babak Bidkhori, Mohammad Javad Kharazifard

Iranian Endodontic Journal, Vol. 12 No. 1 (2017), 31 December 2016, Page 50-54

Introduction: Vertical root fracture inevitably leads to tooth extraction. Thus, root filling with obturating materials and sealers that can reinforce the tooth would be an ideal way to reduce fracture in root treated teeth. This study aimed to assess the fracture resistance of roots following the application of different sealers including Epiphany, iRoot sealer and AH-plus. Methods and Materials: Fifty extracted human single-canal premolars without caries, curvature or cracks were used in this study. Tooth crowns were cut to yield 13-mm-long roots. Five roots were put in the negative control group and were left unprepared. Forty-five canals were prepared using ProTaper rotary files up to F3 and were then randomly divided into three groups based on the sealer type (n=15). The root canals were filled using cold lateral condensation technique with gutta-percha and AH-Plus sealer, gutta-percha and iRoot sealer and Resilon and Epiphany sealer, in groups one to three, respectively. The roots were then mounted in acrylic molds for fracture resistance testing and subjected to compressive load at a crosshead speed of 1mm/min until fracture. Data were analyzed using the one-way ANOVA. Results: The mean fracture resistance was 673.38±170.42 N in AH-Plus, 562.00±184.68 N in iRoot, 708.03±228.05 N in Resilon and 592.59±117.29 N in the control group. No statistically significant difference was found between the experimental groups and the negative control group (P=0.26). Conclusion: Application of AH-Plus, bioceramic and Resilon sealers did not change the fracture resistance of roots compared to that of unprepared root canals.

Keywords: AH-Plus; Bioceramic; Epiphany; Fracture Resistance; iRoot; Resilon; Sealer

Scanning Electron Microscopic Evaluation of Smear Layer Removal Using Isolated or Interweaving EDTA with Sodium Hypochlorite

Ângelo José da Silva Beraldo, Rogério Vieira Silva, Alberto Nogueira da Gama Antunes, Frank Ferreira Silveira, Eduardo Nunes

Iranian Endodontic Journal, Vol. 12 No. 1 (2017), 31 December 2016, Page 55-59

Introduction: The aim of this study was to verify the effect of alternating 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) on the smear layer removal from root canal surfaces. Methods and Materials: A total of 15 single-rooted human teeth, instrumented with ProTaper files, were randomly distributed in 3 groups. In group 1 (n=7) the canals were irrigated with 1 mL of 2.5% NaOCl between files and final irrigation was done with 1 mL of 2,5% NaOCl, followe by 1 mL of 17% EDTA, for a perio of 15 sec with new irrigtion of 1 mL of 2,5% NaOCl at each change of files. In group 3 (control group) (n=1), saline solution was used. All samples were cleaved into two sections, metalized and analyzed under scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The presence or absence of smear layer in the cervical, middle and apical thirds, with scores varying from 1 to 3, respectively were evaluated. The data were submitted to nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Results: It was observed that there was a greater discrepancy between groups with respect to the apical third. In the other areas there was a greater similarity between the scores attributed to the groups. There was a statistically significant difference between the groups only in the apical third, when group 1 presented the higher median (P<0.05). Conclusion: The alternating use of EDTA during instrumentation with NaOCl was the most effective irrigation method to remove the apical smear layer. Both forms of irrigation were effective on removal of the smear layer in the coronal and middle thirds of the canals.

Keywords: Root Canal Irrigants; Scanning Electron Microscopy; Smear Layer

Evaluation of Conventional Radiography and an Electronic Apex Locator in Determining the Working Length in C-shaped Canals

Hamid Jafarzadeh, Masoud Beyrami, Maryam Forghani

Iranian Endodontic Journal, Vol. 12 No. 1 (2017), 31 December 2016, Page 60-63

Introduction: The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the accuracy of working length determination using the apex locator versus conventional radiography in C-shaped canals. Methods and Materials: After confirming the actual C-shaped anatomy using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), 22 extracted C-shaped mandibular second molars were selected and decoronated at the cemento-enamel junction. The actual working length of these canals were determined by inserting a #15 K-file until the tip could be seen through the apical foramen and the working length was established by subtracting 0.5 mm from this length. The working length was also determined using conventional analog radiography and electronic apex locator (EAL) that were both compared with the actual working length. The data was statistically analyzed using paired t-test and marginal homogeneity test. Results: There was no significant differences between the working length obtained with apex locator and that achieved through conventional radiography in terms of measuring the mesiolingual and distal canals (P>0.05); while, significant differences were observed in measurements of the mesiobuccal canals (P=0.036). Within ±0.5 mm of tolerance margin there was no significant difference between EAL and conventional radiography. Conclusion: The apex locator was more accurate in determination of the working length of C-shaped canals compared with the conventional radiography.

Keywords: C-shaped Canals; Electronic Apex Locator; Radiography; Working Length

Subcutaneous Connective Tissue Reaction to a New Nano Zinc-Oxide Eugenol Sealer in Rat Model

Salma Omidi, Maryam Javidi, Mina Zarei, Siavash Mushakhian, Amirhossein Jafarian

Iranian Endodontic Journal, Vol. 12 No. 1 (2017), 31 December 2016, Page 64-69

Introduction: The aim of this animal study was to evaluate the histological response of the new nano zinc-oxide eugenol (NZOE) sealer in comparison with Pulp Canal Sealer (ZOE based) and AH-26 (epoxy resin sealer). Methods and Materials: A total of 27 Wistar rats were used. Four polyethylene tubes were implanted in the back of each rat (three tubes containing the test materials and an empty tube as a control). Then, 9 animals were sacrificed at each interval of 15, 30 and 60 days, and the implants were removed with the surrounding tissues.Samples were evaluated for the presence of inflammatory cell (mononuclear cell), vascular changes, fibrous tissue formation and present of giant cell. Comparisons between groups and time-periods were performed using the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U non-parametric tests. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Results: No significant difference was observed in tissue reactions and biocompatibility pattern of three sealers during 3 experimental periods (P<0.05). In all groups the tissue behavior showed tendency to decrease the irritation effect over time. Conclusion: The new nano zinc-oxide eugenol sealer has histocompatibility properties comparable to conventional commercial sealers.

Keywords: Biocompatibility; Nanoparticle; Tissue Reaction; Zinc-Oxide Eugenol

Prevalence of Extra Roots in Permanent Mandibular First Molars in Iranian Population: A CBCT Analysis

Saeed Rahimi, Hadi Mokhtari, Bahram Ranjkesh, Masoomeh Johari, Mohammad Frough Reyhani, Shahriar Shahi, Sina Seif Reyhani

Iranian Endodontic Journal, Vol. 12 No. 1 (2017), 31 December 2016, Page 70-73

Introduction: Having knowledge about the anatomy of root canal system is essential for success of endodontic treatment. The present study used cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), to evaluate the prevalence of third root in mandibular first molars in a selected Iranian population. Methods and Materials: A total of 386 CBCT images from subjects referred to oral and maxillofacial radiology department of dental faculty of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences from 2011 to 2013 were selected and evaluated for this study and the cases with well-developed permanent mandibular first molars were included. The 3D images were reconstructed in axial cross sections and evaluated by two endodontists for the presence of the third extra lingual (radix entomolaris) or buccal (radix paramolaris) root. The chi-squared test was used to evaluate the relationship between gender and bilateral incidence of extra roots in mandibular first molars. Results: The distribution of three-rooted mandibular first molars with an additional root was 3%, (3.53% in female and 2.50% in male patients). There was no significant relationship between gender and bilateral occurrence of three-rooted mandibular first molars. Conclusion: The occurrence of three-rooted mandibular first molars in Iranian population is not uncommon which should be taken into consideration by the dental practitioners during root canal treatment of these teeth.

Keywords: Cone-beam Computed Tomography; Molar; Prevalence; Root

Tooth Discoloration Resulting from a Nano Zinc Oxide-Eugenol Sealer

Mina Zarei, Maryam Javidi, Marzieh Jafari, Maryam Gharechahi, Pedram Javidi, Maryam Shayani Rad

Iranian Endodontic Journal, Vol. 12 No. 1 (2017), 31 December 2016, Page 74-77

Introduction: A desirable quality of any endodontic sealer is its ability to be tooth color friendly. Therefore the aim of the present study was to evaluate the tooth discoloration potential of a nano zinc oxide-eugenol (NZOE) sealer. Methods and Materials: In order to evaluate tooth discoloration, the pulp chamber of 60 human maxillary central and lateral incisors were filled with one of the sealers, naming AH-26 (resin-based sealer), Pulpdent sealer (ZOE-based) and a NZOE experimental sealer. Color measurements was assessed at the baseline (before placement of sealers) (T0), 24 h (T1) and 72 h (T2) h, 1-week (T3), and 1-month (T4) after the placement of sealers using the Easy Shade spectrophotometer. Data were analyzed in SPSS software using one-way ANOVA, and repeated measured ANOVA. Results: No significant differences were observed when the paired comparison test was performed (P>0.05). Conclusion: The tested nZOE sealer had similar tooth discoloration potential in comparison with AH-26 and ZOE sealer.

Keywords: Nano Particle; Root Canal Sealer; Tooth Discoloration; Spectrophotometry; Zinc-Oxide Eugenol


Root Canal Morphology of Mandibular Canine in an Iranian Population: A CBCT Assessment

Ali Soleymani, Nafiseh Namaryan, Ehsan Moudi, Ali Gholinia

Iranian Endodontic Journal, Vol. 12 No. 1 (2017), 31 December 2016, Page 78-82

Introduction: The present study was conducted to assess the morphology of mandibular canines using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) in a north Iranian population. Methods and Materials: For the morphological assessment of mandibular canines, 150 CBCT images taken from patients for different reasons were used. The mandibular canines were examined in sagittal, coronal and axial dimensions. The canal pattern, number of roots/canals, the tooth length, the orientation of the roots and the position of the apical foramina were evaluated and the effect of gender on each variable was assessed. The obtained data were analyzed using the Chi-square and student’s t-tests. Results: According to the Vertucci’s criteria, the most common pattern was type I morphology (89.7%), followed by types III (5.7%), II (3.7%) and V (1%). No significant differences were observed between the male and female patients in terms of canal type (P>0.05). Gender difference is a factor which affected the root length and the number of mandibular canine root and root canal. There were 296 single-root and four double-root canines. The double-root canines and mandibular canine with two canals were significantly more common among men than women (P=0.00). The apical foramen was laterally positioned in 68.3% and centrally in 31.7% of the cases, and the root curvatures were mostly oriented toward the buccal region. No significant statistical difference was observed for mentioned parameters in right and left half of the jaw. Conclusion: Due the diverse morphology and the potential presence of a second mandibular canine among Iranians, dentists should perform endodontic treatments with greater care. CBCT is an accurate tool for the morphological assessment of root canals.

Keywords: Canine; Cone-Beam Computed Tomography; Root Canals

Effect of imidazolium based silver nanoparticle irrigant on root canal dentin roughness in comparison with three common irrigants

Melika Farshad, Abbas Abbaszadegan, Yasamin Ghahramani, Akram Jamshidzadeh

Iranian Endodontic Journal, Vol. 12 No. 1 (2017), 31 December 2016, Page 83-86

Introduction: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of a newly introduced nanosilver based irrigant on dentin roughness in comparison with three commonly used root canal irrigants.

Material and methods: Irrigants tested were: NaOCl 5.25%, EDTA 17%, CHX 2% and newly introduced imidazolium-based silver nanoparticle (Im AgNP) irrigant at 5.8×10 -8 mol/L. Distilled water was used as control. Roots of 25 human anterior teeth were sectioned longitudinally to obtain 50 dentin samples. Roughness values were evaluated by Atomic Force Microscopy analysis on 5 groups of 10 samples after each group were treated in one of the tested irrigant solutions for 10 minutes.

Results: Dentin roughness significantly increased from 95.82 nm (control) to 136.02 nm, 187.07 nm, 142.29 nm and 150.92 nm by NaOCl, CHX, Im AgNP irrigant and EDTA respectively. CHX demonstrated a significantly higher roughness value compared to the other irrigants tested while no significant differences were seen in NaOCl, Im AgNP irrigant and EDTA groups. (P>0.05)

Conclusions: Im AgNP irrigant affect physicochemical property of dentin and raised its surface roughness, thus, this irrigant could impact bacterial and restorative material adhesion to root canal dentin walls. 

Root Canal Anatomy and Morphology of Mandibular First Molars in a Selected Iranian Population: An In Vitro Study

Nahid Mohammadzadeh Akhlaghi, Zohreh Khalilak, Mehdi Vatanpour, Saman Mohammadi, Sakineh Pirmoradi, Mahta Fazlyab, Kamran Safavi

Iranian Endodontic Journal, Vol. 12 No. 1 (2017), 31 December 2016, Page 87-91

Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate root canal anatomy of mandibular first molars (MFM) in a selected Iranian Population using clearing technique. Methods and Materials: A total of 150 extracted MFMs were cleared. The root canal morphology (including the root numbers and root length) and the anatomy of the root canal system (including is the number and type of canals based on Vertucci’s classification, canal curvature according to Schneider's method and the presence of isthmus) was evaluated using the buccolingual and mesiodistal parallel x-rays and stereomicroscope. The data were analyzed using the chi-square test. Results: Two and three roots were present in 96.7% and 33% of the teeth, respectively (P=0.0001). All the teeth (100%) had two canals in the mesial root, while 61.3% of the samples had one distal root canal (P=0.006). The root canal configuration in the mesial canal included type IV (55.3%) and type II (41.3%) (P=0.0001). In doubled-canalled distal roots, 68.8% and 24.3% were type II and type IV, respectively (P=0.0001). Isthmii were observed in 44.6% of mesial and 27.3% of distal roots (P=0.0001). Conclusion: The notable prevalence of type IV configuration in both roots of mandibular first molars, presence of isthmus and root curvature, necessitates the careful negotiation and cleaning of all accessible canal spaces.

Keywords: Iranian Population; Mandibular First Molar; Root Canal Anatomy; Root Canal Morphology; Tooth Clearing

Role of CD146 Enrichment in Purification of Stem Cells Derived from Dental Pulp Polyp

Maryam Sadat Tavangar, Seyed-Mojtaba Hosseini, Ali Dehghani-Nazhvani, Ahmad Monabati

Iranian Endodontic Journal, Vol. 12 No. 1 (2017), 31 December 2016, Page 92-97

Introduction: Hyperplastic pulpitis (pulp polyp)tissues contains cells with stem cell properties similar to that of the dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs). It has also been shown that CD146 enrichment can homogenize the cultures of DPSCs and enhance the colony forming potentials of their cultures. This study determines whether CD146 enrichment can help purifying the stem cells from heterogeneous cultures of the pulp polyp derived stem cells (PPSCs). Methods and Materials: Healthy dental pulps and pulp polyp tissues were enzymatically digested and the harvested single cells were sorted according to the presence of CD146 marker. The sorted cells were seeded directly for colony forming unit (CFU) assays of the negative and positive portions. Flowcytometric antigen panel and differentiation assays were used to see if these cells conform with mesenchymal stems cells (MSCs) definition. Differences between the between groups was assessed using independent t-test. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Results: Normal pulp tissue derived cells formed higher colonies (42.5±16.8 per 104 cells) than the pulp polyp (17.75±8.9 per 104 cells) (P=0.015). The CD146 positive portion of the polyp derived cells formed an average of 91.5±29.7 per 104 cells per CFU. On the other hand, CD146 negative portion did not show any colonies (P<0.001). Both resources showed cells with flowcytometric antigen panel and differentiation potentials conforming to MSC definition. Conclusion: The entire CFU of PPSCs were formed within CD146 enriched portion. It seems that CD146 enrichment may reduce the number of possible fibroblasts of the pulp polyps and may further homogenize the culture of the PPSCs.

Keywords: Adult Stem Cell; CD146; Dental Pulp; Dental Pulp Disease; Pulpitis; Pulp Polyp; Stem cell Assay

Antifungal Activity of Two Root Canal Sealers against Different Strains of Candida

Farnaz Jafari, Sanaz Jafari, Hossein Samadi Kafil, Tahereh Momeni, Helen Jamloo

Iranian Endodontic Journal, Vol. 12 No. 1 (2017), 31 December 2016, Page 98-102

Introduction: Microorganisms and microbial products are the main etiologic factors in pulp and periapical diseases. The present study aimed to compare the antifungal activity of two different sealers, AH-26 and MTA Fillapex against three strains of Candida, 24, 48, 72 h and 7 days after mixing. Methods and Materials: The microorganisms used in this study were Candidia albicans (ATCC 10231), Candidia glabrata (ATCC 90030) and Candidia krusei (DSM 70079). This test was based on growth of microorganisms and turbidity measurement technique using a spectrophotometer. The direct contact test was conducted by direct and indirect methods. Multiple comparisons were carried out using analysis of variances (ANOVA) with repeated measures followed by Tukey’s tests. Results: The antifungal activity of both sealers was similar in the indirect method. The antifungal activity of both sealers in the direct method was similar against Candida albicans and higher for AH-26 sealer against Candida krusei and Candida glabrata. Conclusion: The total antifungal effect of MTA Fillapex sealer was significantly less than AH-26 sealer in direct method. The antifungal effect of both sealers was similar in indirect method.

Keywords: Antifungal; Antimicrobial; Candida; Endodontic Sealers

Shear Bond Strength of Self-Adhering Flowable Composite and Resin-modified Glass Ionomer to Two Pulp Capping Materials

Maryam Doozandeh, Fatemeh Koohpeima, Maryam Firouzmandi, Forugh Abbassiyan

Iranian Endodontic Journal, Vol. 12 No. 1 (2017), 31 December 2016, Page 103-107

Introduction: The aim of this study was to compare the shear bond strength of a self-adhering flowable composite (SAFC) and resin-modified glass ionomer (RMGI) to mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) cement. Methods and Materials: A total of 72 acrylic blocks with a central hole (4 mm in diameter and 2 mm in depth) were prepared. The holes were filled with MTA (sub group A) and CEM cement. The specimens of both restorative materials were divided into 6 groups; overall there were 12 groups. In groups 1 and 4, SAFC was used without bonding while in groups 2 and 5 SAFC was used with bonding agent. In all these groups the material was placed into the plastic mold and light cured. In groups 3 and 6, after surface conditioning with poly acrylic acid and rinsing, RMGI was placed into the mold and photo polymerized. After 24 h, the shear bond strength values were measured and fracture patterns were examined by a stereomicroscope. Data were analyzed using the two-way ANOVA and student’s t-test. Results: The use of bonding agent significantly increased the shear bond strength of FC to MTA and CEM cement (P=0.008 and 0.00, respectively). In both materials, RMGI had the lowest shear bond strength values (2.25 Mpa in MTA and 1.32 Mpa in CEM). The mean shear bond strength were significantly higher in MTA specimen than CEM cement (P=0.003). There was a significant differences between fracture patterns among groups (P=0.001). Most failures were adhesive/mix in MTA specimen but in CEM cement groups the cohesive failures were observed in most of the samples. Conclusion: The bond strength of self-adhering flowable composite resin to MTA and CEM cement was higher than RMGI which was improved after the additional application of adhesive.

Case Report

Autogenous Transplantation for Replacing a Hopeless Tooth

Mehrsa Zakershahrak, Amirabbas Moshari, Mehdi Vatanpour, Zohreh Khalilak, Afsoon Jalali Ara

Iranian Endodontic Journal, Vol. 12 No. 1 (2017), 31 December 2016, Page 108-111

Autogenous tooth transplantation (ATT) is a simple and reasonable choice for replacing the missing teeth when a proper donor tooth is available. This report presents a case of successful ATT of a maxillary right third molar for replacement of mandibular right second molar with a concomitant endodontic-periodontal disease. The mandibular second molar was believed to be hopeless due to a severe damage to coronal tooth structure, inappropriate root canal treatment and apical radiolucency. After extraction of mandibular second molar and maxillary third molar (the donor), the tooth was re-implanted into the extracted socket of second molar site. Root canal therapy was then performed. After 3 years, clinical and radiographic examinations revealed satisfying results, with no signs and symptoms. The patient is asymptomatic and the transplanted tooth is still functional with no signs of marginal periodontal pathosis. Radiographies showed bone regeneration in the site of previous extensive periapical lesion, normal periodontal ligament with no signs of root resorption.

Keywords: Autogenous; Auto-Transplantation; Endodontic; Surgical Procedure; Third Molar

Vital Pulp Therapy with Calcium-Silicate Cements: Report of Two Cases

Hengameh Ashraf, Afsaneh Rahmati, Neda Amini

Iranian Endodontic Journal, Vol. 12 No. 1 (2017), 31 December 2016, Page 112-115

This article describes successful use of calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) cement and Biodentine in apexogenesis treatment in two 8-year-old patients, one with immature permanent molar diagnosed primarily with irreversible pulpitis and the other with partially vital maxillary central incisor. After access cavity preparation, partial pulpotomy in molar and full pulpotomy in central was performed, and the remaining pulps was capped with either Biodentine or CEM cement, in each tooth. The crowns were restored with composite filling material at the following visit. The post-operative radiographic and clinical examinations (approx. average of 16 months) showed that both treated teeth remained functional, with complete root development and apex formation. A calcified bridge was produced underneath the capping material. No further endodontic intervention was necessary. Considering the healing potential of immature vital pulps, the use of CEM cement and Biodentine for apexogenesis might be an applicable choice. These new endodontic biomaterials might be appropriate for vital pulp therapies in an immature tooth. However, further clinical studies with longer follow-up periods are recommended.

Keywords:Apexogenesis; Calcium-Silicate Cements; Dental Pulp; Pulpotomy; Vital Pulp Therapy


Nonsurgical treatment of an extensive radiolucent lesion, a case report

Amirabbas Moshari, Mehdi Vatanpour, Ehsan EsnaAshari, Mehrsa Zakershahrak, Afsoon Jalali Ara

Iranian Endodontic Journal, Vol. 12 No. 1 (2017), 31 December 2016, Page 116-120

    Long-term success of endodontic treatment is precisely and completely dependent on adequate and appropriate cleaning and shaping of the root canal along with proper and correct obturation of the entire prepared space.

This paper aims to report an exceptionally and novel non-surgical and orthograde endodontic therapy on maxillary right central incisor with an extensive radiolucent lesion. A 17-year-old male with an unusual extensive radiolucent lesion in the anterior part of upper jaw is reported. After cleaning and shaping of the root canal, Calcium Hydroxide was placed in the canal for 6 months and then Obturation was performed. 6 and 20 months follow-ups showed significant changes, including bone formation and periapical healing at the site of the lesion. The patient was asymptomatic. After 20 months, complete radiographic and clinical healing of the periapical lesion was observed.

Missing of mandibular second premolar is one of the most common types of tooth agenesis. In such cases, maintenance of the primary second molar, if possible at all, can prevent many treatment procedures in future. The present case report represents the endodontic management of a necrotic left mandibular primary second molar that had developed an abscess. Considering the missing of the permanent successor, the tooth was disinfected during endodontic preparation and the root canal system was filled with calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) cement in the same session. After 12 months of regular follow-up, not only the tooth was functional and symptom-free, but also healing of the inter-radicular bone lesion and re-establishment of the lamina dura was indicative of treatment success. Further trials are suggested to confirm CEM biomaterial use for management of infected primary molars associated with endodontic lesion.

Keywords: Calcium-Enriched Mixture, CEM cement, Endodontic, Primary Molar, Tooth Agenesis, Tooth Missing