Original/Research Article

Background and Aims: Chromium (Cr), as a metallic pollutant, enters to the body through drinking water. Due to the toxic and dangerous characteristic of hexavalent chromium, its removal is necessary. In this research, titanium dioxide nanoparticles were used as an adsorbents to remove Cr from water.

Materials and Methods:  The characteristic of TiO2 nanoparticles were determined using XRD and FTIR analyses. Batch adsorption experiments were performed using synthetic aqueous solutions containing chromium. The optimal conditions of adsorption were investigated at various pHs, initial concentration of metal ion, contact time and the adsorbent dosage on Cr adsorption capacity. Also, the study was carried out ethically and there was no bias and confinement on the part of the researcher during the research process.

Results: The results showed that the removal percentage at pH=3 (88.50%) was significantly more than the other studied pHs. The lowest removal percentage was observed at pH = 9 (38.03%). at the highest Cr adsorption was noticed in concentration of 0.5 g/L (61.52%), which was statistically significant as compared to other concentrations Accordingly, the lowest adsorption was observed at 5 g / L concentration (6.75%). Adsorption performance was not significantly different at different times, and the amount of adsorption was almost constant after 30 minutes. Cr adsorption by TiO2 nanoparticles increased with increase in adsorbent dose and the maximum amount of adsorption occurred at 4 g/L (68.31%) which again was significantly higher than other studied dosages. The lowest removal percentage was observed at 1 g/L (18.57%). The sorption isotherm studies showed that adsorption of chromium by titanium dioxide was fitted well to Freundlich isotherm model (R2 = 0.78).

Conclusion: Titanium dioxide demonstrate high efficiency in adsorbing chromium from wastewater and thus can be a promising sorbent for the treatment of industrial wastewaters.



Psychometric properties of the scale on the related factors to smoking prevention among students of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences based on Health Belief Model

Rahman Panahi, Erfan Javanmardi, Ali Ramezankhani, Fereshteh Osmani, Ali Ahmadi, Shamsaddin Niknam

Journal of Health in the Field, , 1 آذر 2018,

Background and Aims: Despite the effectiveness of interventions based on the Health Belief Model (HBM) on improving the smoking preventive behaviors and the necessity of smoking prevention among students, there is no standard questionnaire in this regard in Iran. Therefore, in this study, the validity and reliability of the scale related to the smoking prevention factors among students based on the HBM were assessed.


Materials and Methods: The present analytical cross-sectional study was carried out among 348 dormitory students of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, in 2016. Single-stage cluster sampling was conducted. Qualitative and quantitative methods were used to assess the face and content validity. The reliability of the scale and the structure validity were determined using Cronbach's alpha coefficient and confirmatory face analysis. Lisers 8.8 and SPSS 16 software were used to analyze the data. All stages of the study were conducted ethically.


Results: Impact score, content validity ratio and content validity index of the structures of the scale were in the range of 4.1 - 4.5, 0.79 - 0.97 and 0.90 - 0.96, respectively. Cronbach's alpha coefficient for structures of the scale was obtained from 0.70 to 0.90. Five-factor model including perceived susceptibility, severity, barriers, benefits and self-efficacy were confirmed (RMSEA = 0.081, CFI = 0.96, X2/df = 3.25). 


Conclusion: Scale on the related factors to the smoking prevention based on HBM had the validity and reliability in the target population of the students.

Assessment of occupational medicine retraining course on general practitioners' efficacy using Kirkpatrick's model

Maryam Akbari Laleh, Mehdi Mollakazemi, Seyed Mohammad Seyedmehdi

Journal of Health in the Field, , 1 آذر 2018,

Background and Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of labor medicine retraining on the performance of general practitioners using the Kirkpatrick model.

Materials and Methods: To determine the sample size, we used Krjatsy and Morgan tables. According to the population size (100 persons) in our study, 93 general practitioners working in the department of labor medicine affiliated to Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran were selected as the study population. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the working-class retraining course, the Kirkpatrick Evaluation Model was used in three levels of reaction, learning and learner behavior. In line with ethical considerations, only general practitioners willing to cooperate were used, as well as respect for honesty and trust in the use of English and Persian resources.

Results: Based on the results of present study, the response of 81% of all subjects was evaluated as an effective factor in the implementation of a training course. The results of the second level review of Kirkpatrick's model also showed that the level of learning and knowledge of participants after their presence in the period increased significantly (p-value <0.001). Also, the rate of changes in the behavior of physicians participating in the course (third level of Kirk Patrick) revealed that participation in the retraining period had a good effect on the behavior of participants in the course.

Conclusion: Generally, it can be suggested that the holding of retraining courses of occupational medicine for general practitioners has a positive effect on their effectiveness.


Investigating the health literacy influencing ways on the adoption of smoking preventive behaviors in Health Belief Model developed by health literacy

Rahman Panahi, Ali Ramezankhani, Mahmoud Tavousi, Aliasghar Haeri Mehrizi, Mehdi Rezaei, Shamsaddin Niknami

Journal of Health in the Field, , 1 آذر 2018,

Background and Aims: Incorporation of health literacy (HL) into health belief model (HBM) assist in strengthening the performance of this model in predicting smoking preventive behavior. However, the type of such an effect and the way in which the HL works in this hybrid model has not yet been determined. Therefore, this study was aimed to determine the influencing ways of HL on adoption of smoking preventive behavior in HBM incorporated with HL.

Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 340 dormitory students of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences in Tehran were enrolled using single-stage cluster sampling. The data collection tool was a valid and reliable questionnaire based on HBM on smoking prevention and HL questionnaire (HELIA). Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16 and path analysis method based on single-variable and multiple regressions. All stages of the study were conducted ethically.

Results: HL had a direct and statistically significant effect on all structures of the model and adoption of behavior. Also, it indirectly influenced adoption of behavior by influencing the structures of the model. Only perceived susceptibility and self-efficacy variables significantly affect adoption of behavior. In addition, the indirect effect of HL on the adoption of behavior was greater than its direct effect.

Conclusion: It is possible to improve the degree of HL and, therefore, the adoption of smoking preventive behavior among students through the use of HBM incorporated with HL, which emphasizes on perceived susceptibility and self-efficacy variables.

Background and Aims: Falls in the elderly has been known as a common and serious problem. Each year about one third of old adults experience a fall. The injuries resulted from fall results in hospitalization, prolong pain, decreased functional performance, disability, and death. The purpose of this study is to investigate the fall and some of its related individual factors among the elderly attending to health centers affiliated to the health network of Rey city.


Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 368 older adults aged 60 and over who referred to health centers. A “multi-stage” sampling method was considered. The data was collected using a questionnaire completed through interview. The questionnaire included demographic characteristics, number of falls during the past year and individual factors. The standard balance test was also conducted to assess the balance. The data were analyzed by SPSS software (version 16) through the related statistical tests. Correlations were considered significant at α = 0.05. All ethical issues were considered throughout the study.

Results: About 62.8% out of the total study group were female and the remaining 37.2% were male with median age of 68.41 ± 6.6.  By the use of one-variable logistic regression test, it was found that age, gender, marital status, literacy status, postural hypotension, balance disorder, urine disorders, visual impairment, history of heart attack and sleep disorder all had significant relation with fall in the elderly (P < 0/05).

Conclusions: The results of this research showed that one in every four elderly participated in health centers of the health network of Ray city has experienced a fall per year. Thus, in addition to proper assessment of the elderly at risk with individual and environmental factors, to prevent and decrease the rate of falling, they need to be educated. A safe environment should also be provided for them.

Case Report

Background and Aims: Site selection and management of a landfill site is one of the main pillars of sustainable development. Selection of an appropriate site for the burial of rural wastes is of utmost importance in rural areas.  At present there is no coherent management in the field of rural wastes. Selecting the right place for landfilling requires considering several complex factors and thus the need for use of spatial information technologies and their incorporation to other managing and planning issues are raised.

Materials and Methods: In this study, nine important affecting parameters in locating the waste burial site including the slope, aspect, elevation, distance to the rural points, distance to the channels, distance to the roads, distance to the faults, erosion, and land use were considered to assess the appropriate site for burial of the rural wastes of the central part of Ejroud city. The identified parameters were compared by incorporating the Analytic Hierarchy Analysis (AHP) method in a pairwise manner and the corresponding weight of each factor, which indicates the effect of that factor, was calculated utilizing the Expert Choice software. All stages of this research were conducted ethically.

Results: Through the incorporation of weight layers obtained in the ArcGIS  environment, the final locating map for burial of the rural wastes in the study area was prepared and categorized into 5 classes (completely inappropriate, inappropriate, intermediate, appropriate and completely appropriate).

Conclusion: The results showed that the appropriate and completely appropriate zones with 251.1 and 158.1 square kilometers had respectively the highest prefer ability for burial of the wastes in this categorization. Totally, about 41.8% of the total area of the town, was prioritized for the waste burial plans.