Comparing the Antiemetic Effects of Ondansetron and Metoclopramide in Patients with Minor Head Trauma
Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine,
Vol. 3 No. 4 (2015),
Introduction:Â Nausea and vomiting are the most common complications after minor head trauma that increases the risk of intracranial pressure rising. Therefore, the present study was aimed to compare the antiemetic effects of metoclopramide and ondansetron in the treatment of post-traumatic nausea and vomiting.Â Methods:Â The study was a controlled, randomized, double blind clinical trial, which was conducted in the first 6 months of 2014 in emergency department Al-Zahra and Kashani Hospitals in Isfahan, Iran. The patients with minor head trauma associated with nausea and vomiting were randomly divided into 2 groups: treatment with metoclopramide (10mg/2ml, slow injection) and treatment with ondansetron (4mg/2ml, slow injection). The comparison between the 2 groups was done regarding antiemetic efficacy and side effects using SPSS 21 statistical software.Â Results:Â 120 patients with minor head trauma were distributed and studied into two groups of 60 patients (mean age 35.6Â±14.1 years; 50.0% male). Administration of both ondansetron and metoclopramide significantly reduced the severity of nausea (P<0.001). Changes in the severity of nausea in both groups before and after the treatment revealed that nausea had been decreased significantly in both groups (P < 0.001). The incidence of fatigue (p=0.44), headache (p=0.58) and dystonia (p=0.06) had no significant difference in the two groups but the incidence of drowsiness and anxiety in the metoclopramide group was significantly higher (P < 0.001).Â Conclusion:Â The present study indicated that the treatment effectiveness of ondansetron and metoclopramide are similar. However, incidence of drowsiness and anxiety in the metoclopramide was considerably higher. Since these complications can have adverse effects on the treatment of patients with brain injury, it is suggested that it may be better to use ondansetron in these patients.