ISSN: 1735-1308

Vol. 12 No. 1 (2015)


Causes and Risk Factors of Urinary Incontinence: Avicenna’s Point of View vs. Contemporary Findings

Fatemeh Nojavan, Hossein Sharifi, Zinat Ghanbari, Mohammad Kamalinejad, Roshanak Mokaberinejad, Maryam Emami

Urology Journal, Vol. 12 No. 1 (2015), 22 February 2015 , Page 1995-1998


Purpose: To extract the causes and risk factors of urinary incontinence from an old medical text by Avicenna entitled "Canon of Medicine" and comparing it with contemporary studies.

Materials and Methods: In this study, etiology and risk factors of urinary incontinence were extracted from Avicenna's "Canon of Medicine". Commentaries written on this book and other old reliable medical texts about bladder and its diseases were also studied. Then the achieved information was compared with contemporary findings of published articles.

Results: Urinary incontinence results from bladder dysfunction in reservoir phase. Bladder's involuntary muscles and voluntary external sphincter are two main components which are involved in this process. Urinary incontinence can exist without obvious structural and neuronal etiologies. According to Avicenna, distemperment of muscular tissue of bladder and external sphincter is the cause for urinary incontinence in such cases. Distemperment is the result of bothering qualities in tissue, i.e.: "wet" and "cold". They are the two bothering qualities which are caused by extracorporeal and intracorporeal factors. Interestingly, the positive associations of some of these factors with urinary incontinence have been shown in recent researches.

Conclusion: "Cold" and "wet" distemperment of bladder and external sphincter can be independent etiologies of urinary incontinence which should be investigated.




A Comparison of the Effects of Morphine and Sublingual Desmopressin Combination Therapy with Morphine Alone in Treatment of Renal Colic: A Controlled Clinical Trial

Maliheh Keshvari Shirvani, Mohammadreza Darabi Mahboub, Mahdi Ghazi, Alireza Delijani

Urology Journal, Vol. 12 No. 1 (2015), 22 February 2015 , Page 2001-2004


Purpose: To compare the therapeutic efficacy of combined desmopressin and morphine with morphine and placebo on acute renal colic.

Materials and Methods: In a single blind case-control clinical trial 81 consecutive patients, 54 males and 27 females with the mean age of 30.12 ± 9.88 years, presenting with acute renal colic to the urology emergency unit were studied. The patients were randomly assigned into two groups. The 40 cases were treated with 0.1 mg/kg IM morphine and 60 μg of sublingual desmopressin melt; whereas the 41 controls received the same dose of morphine beside a placebo.

Results: There were no significant statistical differences regarding the mean age, gender, stone size, location and affected side between the two groups. Our results showed a significantly higher acuity of pain in the study group in comparison to the controls at 10, 20 and 30 minutes of receiving the medication (P = .06, .017 and P = .008, respectively).

Conclusion: No superiority was found in adding desmopressin to morphine compared to the traditional treatments (opioids only) in relieving the pain of acute renal colic cases.


The Effectiveness of Flexible Ureterorenoscopy for Opaque and Non-opaque Renal Stones

Serhat Tanik, Kursad Zengin, Sebahattin Albayrak, Muhittin Atar, Muhammed Abdurrahim Imamoglu, Hasan Bakirtas, Mesut Gurdal

Urology Journal, Vol. 12 No. 1 (2015), 22 February 2015 , Page 2005-2009


Purpose: To evaluate the treatment success rate of flexible ureterorenoscopy (URS) for opaque and non-opaque renal stones.

Materials and Methods: Ninety-four patients, who underwent flexible URS for renal stones between October 2012 and January 2014, were included. The patients were divided into two groups according to stone radiolucency. The patients were evaluated with preoperative and postoperative (at the weeks 4) computed tomography. Success of the treatment was defined as stone-free status and residual fragments < 4 mm.

Results: Success of the treatment was observed in 79 (84%) patients. Sex, stone size, and stone location were factors affecting treatment success. Seventy-five (79.8%) patients had opaque stones, and 19 (20.2%) had non-opaque stones. The treatment success rates for opaque and non-opaque stones were 86.6% and 73.6%, respectively (P = .167). Flexible URS was a successful modality with acceptable morbidity to treat renal stones.

Conclusion: These results show that radiolucent and opaque stones can be effectively treated by flexible URS.



Association between Tissue miR-141, miR-200c and miR-30b and Bladder Cancer: A Matched Case-Control Study

Ali Mahdavinezhad, Seyed Habibollah Mousavibahar, Jalal Poorolajal, Reza Yadegarazari, Mohammad Jafari, Nooshin Shabab, Massoud Saidijam

Urology Journal, Vol. 12 No. 1 (2015), 22 February 2015 , Page 2010-2013


Purpose: To evaluate the expression of microRNAs in tissue samples from patients with bladder cancer and to compare it with healthy adjacent tissue samples as controls.

Materials and Methods: Thirty five tissue samples from patients with newly diagnosed untreated bladder transitional cell carcinoma and 35 adjacent normal urothelium were collected during 2013 to 2014. TRIzol reagent was used to isolate total RNA including microRNAs. RNA concentration and purity were determined using a nanodrop spectrophotometer. Also 1% agarose gel electrophoresis was used to assess integrity of RNA. Real-Time Quantitative Reverse Transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) method was performed using the PARSGENOME microRNA RT-PCR system. Data was analyzed by STATA 11.

Results: A couple of patients were female the remainder were male. Mean age of patients were 71.06 ± 11.43 years. The expression level of miR-30b, miR-141 and miR-200c in case group were significantly higher than that of control normal tissue samples. miR-141 had higher expression rate in malignant tissue than two other miRNAs (P < .001).

Conclusion: There was a more expression rate of miR-200c, miR-141 and miR-30b in bladder cancer tissues than healthy adjacent control tissues. Further studies are needed to draw final conclusion.


Novel Approach for Pain Control in Patients Undergoing Prostate Biopsy: Iliohypogastric Nerve Block with or without Topical Application of Prilocaine-Lidocaine: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Fatih Hizli, Guldeniz Argun, Fatih Ozkul, Oguz Guven, Ali Ihsan Arik, Sinan Basay, Aydin Kosus, Halil Gunaydin, Halil Basar

Urology Journal, Vol. 12 No. 1 (2015), 22 February 2015 , Page 2014-2019


Purpose: To investigate the efficacy of a novel anesthetic technique called iliohypogastric nerve block (INB) for pain control in patients undergoing prostate biopsy.

Materials and Methods: A total of 59 consecutive patients who underwent transrectal ultrasound guided prostates biopsies were included in the study. Patients were randomized into four groups: (1) control, no method of anesthesia was administered, (2) intrarectal prilocaine-lidocaine cream application, (3) INB and (4) INB + intrarectal prilocaine-lidocaine cream application (combined group). Patients were asked to use a scale of 0-10 in a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) questionnaire about pain during probe insertion (VAS 1) and prostate biopsy (VAS 2).

Results: The mean VAS 1 and VAS 2 scores were 0.7 and 4.9 for controls, 0.5 and 1.8 for INB, 0.5 and 2.6 for the intrarectal cream group, and 0.4 and 1.8 for the combined group. The mean VAS 1 scores were not different between groups. However, the mean VAS 2 scores were significantly lower in INB, prilocaine-lidocaine cream and combined groups compared to the control group (P < .001). In addition, the INB group had significantly lower VAS 2 scores compared to the cream application group (P = .03). On the other hand, there was no difference between the INB and combined groups (P = .8).

Conclusion: Any form of anesthesia was superior to none. However, INB alone seemed to be superior to prilocaine-lidocaine cream application in patients undergoing prostate biopsy. Addition of prilocaine-lidocaine cream application to INB may not provide better analgesia.


Predictors of Urinary Continence Recovery after Modified Radical Prostatectomy for Clinically High-Risk Prostate Cancer

Guo-Liang Hou, Yun Luo, Jin-Ming Di, Li Lu, Yi Yang, Jun Pang, Jie Si-tu, Xin Gao

Urology Journal, Vol. 12 No. 1 (2015), 22 February 2015 , Page 2021-2027


Purpose: To retrospectively determine predictors of urinary continence (UC) recovery in clinically high-risk prostate cancer (PCa) patients treated with modified radical prostatectomy (RP).

Materials and Methods: A total of 184 patients with clinically high-risk PCa who underwent modified RP in a single Chinese center were retrospectively reviewed. Pelvic floor muscle training with biofeedback was routinely performed after catheter removal. UC was defined as wearing 0 or 1 protective pad daily. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses were performed to determine the predictors of UC recovery.

Results: The median age at surgery was 69.5 years (range 48-82), and the median follow-up duration was 40 months (range 12-111). Only 40 patients (21.7%) received a nerve-sparing procedure. For patients with restored UC, the median time to continence was 1 month (range 1-24). UC recovery at 1 month, 6 months, 12 months and the most recent follow-up was observed in 99 (53.8%), 158 (85.9%), 171 (92.9%) and 174 (94.6%) patients, respectively. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that patient age < 70 years (hazard ratio 1.684, P = .003) and smaller prostate volume (hazard ratio 0.989, P = .036), but not the surgical approach or treatment with a nerve-sparing procedure, independently predicted UC recovery.

Conclusion: Age < 70 years and smaller prostate volume were independent predictors of UC recovery in clinically high-risk PCa patients. The adverse factors of high-risk disease were not significantly associated with UC recovery. These results may help surgeons preoperatively counsel patients regarding expected UC outcomes following RP.



Does the Histopathologic Pattern of the Ureteropelvic Junction Affect the Outcome of Pyeloplasty?

Oktay Issi, Hasan Deliktas, Abdullah Gedik, Selver Ozekinci, Mehmet Kamuran Bircan, Hayrettin Sahin

Urology Journal, Vol. 12 No. 1 (2015), 22 February 2015 , Page 2028-2031


Purpose: To investigate the effects of the histopathologic pattern of obstructed ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) specimens, including collagen type 3, elastin, fibrosis and Cajal cells, on the outcome of pyeloplasty.

Materials and Methods: Histopathological specimens obtained following Anderson-Hynes pyeloplasty from 52 patients with intrinsic ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO) between January 2005 and January 2008 were evaluated histopathologically. Patients with extrinsic or secondary UPJO were excluded. Preoperative and postoperative radiographic evaluations were performed either via diuretic renography or intravenous pyelography, or both. Six months post-surgery the patients were divided into 2 groups, as successful surgery (group 1) and unsuccessful surgery (group 2). Histopathological findings (collagen type 3, elastin, fibrosis and Cajal cells) in each group were statistically compared.

Results: The study included 52 patients (21 female and 31 male). Mean age of the entire study population was 39.42 ± 14.5 years, versus 39.63 ± 14.9 years in group 1 (n = 47) and 37.4 ± 10.0 years in group 2 (n = 5). Median follow-up was 18 months. There weren't any significant differences in collagen type 3, elastin, fibrosis, or Cajal cells between the 2 groups (P > .05).

Conclusion: The histopathologic pattern of UPJ was not a factor associated with the success of pyeloplasty. Based on the present findings, we conclude that surgical technique is more important than the histopathologic pattern of UPJ for the successful treatment of UPJO.



Changing Concepts in Microsurgical Pediatric Varicocelectomy: Is Retroperitoneal Approach Better Than Subinguinal One?

Massimiliano Silveri, Francesca Bassani, Ottavio Adorisio

Urology Journal, Vol. 12 No. 1 (2015), 22 February 2015 , Page 2032-2035


Purpose: To compare and to assess two different microsurgical "lymphatic-sparing" techniques (subinguinal/inguinal vs. retroperitoneal) used for the treatment of a pediatric and adolescent varicocele in terms of success rate, complications and mean operative time.

Materials and Methods: A retrospective study included 54 consecutive patients affected by a varicocele and treated with a microsurgical (loupes - operating microscope) magnification. Thirty-four out of 54 (group 1) underwent subinguinal ligation with the help of loupes magnification (× 3); 20 out of 54 (group 2) underwent retroperitoneal (Palomo like) ligation with preservation of lymphatics and with the help of an operating microscope (× 6 to 10). The two groups were homogeneous in terms of mean age, clinical and color Doppler ultrasound grade of disease. Pre- and post-operative testicular volume was measured in all cases. All the procedures were performed under general anesthesia and in an outpatient basis.

Results: Mean post-operative follow-up time was 23.6 months. In group 1 we observed 3 (8.8%) early complications (wound's infection, transient hydrocele), 2 (5.8%) recurrences and 1 (2.9%) major complication (atrophy of the testis). Mean operative time was 45 ± 6 min. In group 2 we did not observe complications and/or varicocele recurrence and mean operative time was 38 ± 7 min. Comparison of mean operative time between the two groups resulted statistically significant differences (P < .05) such as the difference in testicular "catch-up" growth volume between pre- and post-operative evaluations.

Conclusion: Retroperitoneal microsurgical "lymphatic-sparing" varicocelectomy is safe and effective method. In our experience, it is preferable, in the pediatric and adolescent patient, to the subinguinal/inguinal approach in terms of success rate, complications and operative time duration.