Alternative Medical Interventions Versus Conventional Treatment of Renal Colic: An Updated Systematic Review and Network Meta-Analysis

Ghazal Seghatoleslami, Mohammad Sadegh Sanie Jahromi, Roohie Farzaneh, Sara Rahsepar, Mehrdad Malekshoar, Majid Vatankhah, Reza Akhavan, Bita Abbasi, Hossein Akhavan, Samaneh Abiri, Lohrasb Taheri, Navid Kalani, Mahdi Foroughian, Arman Hakemi

Urology Journal, Vol. 19 No. 06 (2022), , Page 412-419

Purpose: To systematically review the recent alternative medical interventions on renal colic pain and compare their efficiency with conventional treatments.
Materials and Methods: This was a systematic review and network meta-analysis (NMA) study, based on the PRISMA guidelines on online databases of PubMed, Scopus, and web of science. We quarried these databases with relevant keywords for clinical trial studies that aimed at reducing renal colic pain in patients refereeing to the ED from after January 2011 to February 2022. Randomized clinical trials that used the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) for assessment of renal colic pain before and after medical interventions in adult patients were included in this study. NMA was conducted based on the continuous values of the mean difference of the pain after 30 and 60 minutes of the medication administration.
Results: Twenty-four studies that were meeting the inclusion criteria were included in our review with 2724 adult participants who were mostly male. Study arms included conventional medications (NSAID, Opioid, paracetamol), ketamine, MgSo4, desmopressin, and lidocaine. Based on the qualitative synthesis, ten studies (41.7%) did not find significant differences between conventional and alternative treatments. Also, there is no agreement on some more recent medications like using ketamine or desmopressin while MgSO4 and lidocaine use are supported by most studies. NMA revealed that desmopressin is significantly having worse pain reduction properties. NMA did not show any difference between ketamine, lidocaine, and MgSo4, versus the conventional treatment.
Conclusion: To conclude, lidocaine and MgSo4 might be good alternative treatments for renal colic when conventional treatments are contraindicated or pain is not responding to those. Ketamine might be indicated in patient-based circumstances. Desmopressin may be agreeably avoided in further research or clinics.


A Safe and Effective Two-Step Tract Dilation Technique in Totally Ultrasound-Guided Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy

Shao-Wei Dong, Su-Wei Hu, Shih-Ping Liu, Chia-Chang Wu, Chu-Tung Lin, Kuan-Chou Chen, Chen-Hsun Ho

Urology Journal, Vol. 19 No. 06 (2022), , Page 420-426

Purpose: To evaluate the safety and the efficacy of a radiation-free 2-step tract dilation technique in totally ultrasound-guided percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL).

Materials and Methods: From Oct 2018 to Mar 2020, we prospectively and consecutively enrolled 18 patients with 19 kidney units with urolithiasis. The nephrostomy tract was established by the following four steps: 1) ultrasound-guided renal puncture, 2) first-stage serial dilation to 16 Fr with Amplatz dilators, 3) check and adjustment of the partially dilated tract with a ureteroscope, 4) second-stage dilation with a 24-Fr balloon dilator.

Results: The median age was 62.0 [IQR 11.0] years, and 11 (61.1%) were male. The median stone size was 3.3 [3.6] cm2, and stone laterality was almost equal over both sides. Successful tract establishment on the first attempt without fluoroscopy was achieved in 18 (94.7%) operations. The median tract establishment time was 10.4 [4.9] mins, and the median operation time was 67.0 [52.2] mins. The median hemoglobin drop was 1.0 [1.1] g/dL, and none required blood transfusion. Three (15.8%) developed fever. Pleural injury occurred in two (10.5%) operations (both had supracostal puncture), and one required drainage with pigtail. Stone-free status was achieved in 15 (77.8%) operations at 3 months postoperatively.

Conclusions: Herein we present a radiation-free 2-step tract dilation technique, which is characterized by ureteroscopic check of the partially dilated tract in between the first dilation with serial fascial dilators and the second dilation with balloon. Our data suggest that it is a safe and effective method.


Laparoscopic vs Open Extravesical Ureteral Reimplantation in Pediatric Population: A Single-Center Experience

David Fernández-Alcaráz, José Iván Robles-Torres, Carlos García-Hernández, Andrés Heriberto Guillén-Lozoya, Sergio Landa-Juárez

Urology Journal, Vol. 19 No. 06 (2022), , Page 427-432

Purpose: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of conventional laparoscopic vs open Lich-Gregoir ureteral reimplantation in pediatric vesicoureteral reflux.

Material and methods: A retrospective study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital. Patients with vesicoureteral reflux who underwent open or laparoscopic Lich-Gregoir ureteral reimplantation from 2013-2020 were included.  The primary outcome was resolution of reflux. Complications and perioperative characteristics were evaluated. The outcomes between open and laparoscopic surgery were analyzed.

Results: A total of 110 patients and 150 ureters were included. The mean age was 4.5 years ± 3.4 and 73.6% were females. A total of 125 ureters (83.3%) underwent laparoscopic and 25 (16.6%) open Lich-Gregoir vesicoureteral reimplantation (5:1 Ratio). Resolution was reported in 112 (89.6%) for laparoscopy and 21 (84%) for open surgery (P = .42). Mean surgical time for laparoscopy and open surgery were 142.4 min ± 64.4 and 153 min ± 40, respectively (P =.29). Mean bleeding (9.5 mL ± 11.2 vs 29.6 mL ± 22.8) and length of hospital stay (2.4 days ± 2.3 vs 5.05 ± 3.1) were significantly higher with open surgery (P < .001). No significant difference in complications was reported between open surgery (32%) and laparoscopic approach (22.4%) (P = .305).

Conclusion: Conventional laparoscopic vesicoureteral reimplantation with the Lich-Gregoir technique has an acceptable success rate comparable with open surgery, with shorter hospital stay, less bleeding, and less need of transfusion.


Purpose: Transperineal template prostate biopsies (TPTPB) are now increasingly commonly performed for the diagnosis of prostate cancer. TPTPB are traditionally performed under general anaesthetic. However, this poses a significant strain on hospital theatre capacity. As such, local anaesthetic (LA) TPTPB are becoming more popular. We describe a novel technique in performing the standard TPTPB under LA in the outpatient setting.

Materials and Methods: Between February 2019- February 2021, 254 consecutive men (median age 69; range: 44-80 years) with a median PSA of 8.7 ng/ml (range: 2.2-76) underwent L/A TPTPB using our novel technique. This is whereby 50mls of 1% prilocaine was injected partially around the perineal skin and partially deep bilateral periprostatic areas. Multiple simultaneous prostate biopsies were then taken with the standard template grid and stepper.

Results: A total of 250/254 (98.4%) men underwent successful L/A TPTPB with a median visual analogue pain score of 4 (range: 2-8). The median prostate volume was 49cc (range: 14-240cc). The median number of cores taken were 18 (range: 14-24). A total of 163/250 men (65.2%) had a positive histology for prostate cancer with a median of 5 cores being involved with prostate cancer (range: 1-18). In addition, 101/163 men (62.0%) diagnosed with prostate cancer had either Gleason score 3+4=7 or greater. None experienced urosepsis and only 2/250 men (0.8%) had temporary urinary retention.

Conclusion: Our novel LA technique in performing the standard TPTPB is safe, feasible and well tolerated and associated with a high rate of prostate cancer detection.

Purpose: This study aimed to examine whether preoperative Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System v2 (PI-RADS v2) can predict pathological extracapsular extension (EPE) after radical prostatectomy. We also studied the preoperative factors which can predict EPE.

Materials and Methods: In our institute, 294 patients underwent robot assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) between December 2012 and August 2016. In this era, we performed MRI after biopsy to determine clinical stage before surgery. PI-RADS v2 scores were retrospectively reviewed using biparametric MRI and EPE in pathological mapping of resected specimens for each lobe.

Results: In the excised specimen, EPE was observed in 73 lobes (12%). The percentage of EPE by PI-RADS v2 score was score ‘1’: 6% (17/297 lobes), ‘2’: 3% (1/33 lobes), ‘3’: 12% (8/67 lobes), ‘4’: 19% (27/139 lobes), and ‘5’: 38% (20/52 lobes). The higher the PI-RADS score, the higher the percentage of EPE (P <0.01). When classified as PI-RADS score ≥4 and <4, the positive predictive value (PPV) was 24.6% (47/191 lobes, 95%CI: 0.187 – 0.313) and negative predictive value (NPV) was 93.5% (371/397 lobes, 95%CI: 0.906 – 0.957). By multivariate analysis, positive biopsy core percentage ≥60%, and PI-RADS score ≥4 were independent factors for predicting EPE. The positive rate of EPE in lobes with zero, one and two factors (PI-RADS ≥4 and positive biopsy core percentage ≥60%) was 4%, 19%, and 38%, respectively.

Conclusion: PPV and NPV of PI-RADS ≥4 for predicting pathologic EPE were 24.6% and 93.5%, respectively. PI-RADS ≥4 and positive biopsy core percentage ≥60% were independent risk factors for predicting EPE. The positive rate of EPE in lobes with zero, one and two factors (PI-RADS ≥4 and positive biopsy core percentage ≥60%) was 4%, 19%, and 38%, respectively.

Purpose: We aimed to investigate the effects of obturator nerve block (ONB) on obturator reflex, incomplete resection, perforation, progression and recurrence of tumor, presence of muscle tissue in the specimen, need for a second transurethral resection (TURBT) of bladder tumors, and postoperative complications in patients who underwent TURBT for intermediate-high risk lateral wall non-muscle invasive bladder cancers (NMIBC).

Material and Methods: Patients were assigned to one of two groups by drawing lots: ONB or none ONB. Early and late recurrence, tumor progression, obturator reflex beat, incomplete resection, perforation, presence of muscle layer in pathology, second TURBT application, operation time, postoperative hospital stay, and complications were compared between the two groups.

Results: The median follow-up time of the study was32 (23-41) months. Interquartile range (IQR) was 9. Tumor recurrence at the 3rd month cystoscopy controls was observed in 5 (9.8%) patients in the ONB group, while it was observed in 11 (20.8%) patients in the nONB group (p=0.01). Late tumor recurrence was observed in 10 patients (19.6%) in the ONB group, and in 20 patients (37.7%) in the nONB group (p=0.041). The RFS rate at 12th month was 84% in the ONB group, 69% in the nONB group, 79% in the ONB group at 36th month, and 58% in the nONB group at 36 months, the PFS rate was 94% in the ONB group, while it was 85% in the nONB group (p=0.041).

Conclusion: Our study showed that ONB decrease the early and late recurrence and increase recurrence free survival in patients with intermediate-high risk lateral wall bladder cancer.


Purpose: Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) is prevalent among elderly women. This study aimed to discuss the potential of muscle-derived stem cells (MDSCs)-based therapy in treating SUI by exploring the effect of Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) on transplanted MDSC and urethral sphincter function.

Materials and Methods: Bilaterally pudendal nerve-transected (PNT) female rats were divided into four groups: sham, PNT+ phosphate buffered solution (PBS) injection, PNT+IGF-1/MDSCs and PNT+ green fluorescent protein (GFP)/MDSCs. IGF-1 was expressed in MDSCs by lentiviral vector. Viable MDSCs were detected by laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM). The expression of Myosin heavy chain (MyHC), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR-2), microvessel density (MID) and urethral resistance function were assessed.

Results: IGF-1 promoted the survival and differentiation of MDSCs. IGF-1-expressing MDSCs facilitated local angiogenesis and muscle fiber regeneration, and alleviated symptoms of SUI.

Conclusions: IGF-1-expressing MDSCs may be used as a novel treatment for patients with SUI.


An investigation into the Effects of Intravenous Vitamin C on Pulmonary CT Findings and Clinical Outcomes of Patients with COVID 19 Pneumonia A Randomized Clinical Trial

Shabnam Tehrani, Davood Yadegarynia, Alireza Abrishami, Hamideh Moradi, Babak Gharaei, Masoomeh Rauofi , Fatemeh Maghsoudi Nejad, Shahnaz Sali, Neda Khabiri

Urology Journal, Vol. 19 No. 06 (2022), , Page 460-465

Purpose:In late December 2019, a series of unexplained cases of pneumonia were reported in Wuhan, China. On January 12, 2020, the World Health Organization temporarily named the virus responsible for the emerging cases of pneumonia as the 2019 coronavirus. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) due to Covid-19 has rapidly spread around the world, and while no specific treatment or vaccine has been reported, mortality rates remain high. One of the suggested treatments for cellular damage in the pathogenesis of ARDS caused by the coronavirus is the administration of high doses of intravenous vitamin C. Considering the paucity of literature on the therapeutic effects of high doses of intravenous vitamin C in patients with ARDS resulting from the coronavirus, this study was conducted to assess this therapeutic supplement in these patients.

Materials and Methods: This study was performed as a single-center clinical trial in patients with a documented diagnosis of COVID-19 pneumonia. 54 eligible patients with moderate to severe COVID-19 symptoms, based on specific inclusion and exclusion criteria, were included in the investigation and randomly divided into two groups. The control group consisted of 26 patients who received standard treatment, whereas the treatment group was comprised of 18 patients administered intravenous vitamin C at a dose of 2 g every 6 hours for 5 days in addition to standard treatment. Demographic characteristics, underlying diseases, length of hospital stay, and mortality rates were reviewed and collected. Oxygen saturation, respiratory rates, serum C Reactive Protein (CRP) levels, lymphopenia and lung parenchymal involvement on CT were investigated at the time of admission and on the sixth day after hospitalization. Finally, all variables were analyzed with IBM SPSS Statistics 23 software and a significant statistical difference was defined for all variables, P <0.05.

Results: Of these variables, the amount of oxygen saturation in the vitamin C group increased significantly from 86±5% on the first day of hospitalization to 90±3% on the sixth day of hospitalization (P value=0.02). Also, the respiratory rate in the vitamin C group decreased significantly from 27±3 on the first day of hospitalization to 24±3 on the sixth day of hospitalization (P value=0.03). Lung CT scans of patients in the two groups reported by two radiologists were also compared. Based on the report of the radiologists, the rate of lung involvement in the vitamin C group was significantly lower than in the control group at the end of treatment (P value=0.02).

Conclusion: Due to the effectiveness of high doses of intravenous vitamin C on reducing lung involvement and improving clinical symptoms, further studies with a larger sample size are recommended to demonstrate the effects of this drug supplement.


Does Renal Mass with Venous Thrombosis always Indicate Renal Cell Carcinoma? A Case Series

Hamidreza Ghorbani, Mehdi Farzadnia, Alireza Golshan

Urology Journal, Vol. 19 No. 06 (2022), , Page 466-471

Intravascular tumor extension in the major renal veins or their tributaries, as a rare but important clinical entity that can change the disease stage, prognosis, and approach to treatment. There is limited literature on the obstruction of renal vein and IVC by tumor thrombus in other types of renal tumors that are not of RCC type. We presented four different renal tumor cases with the presence of gross renal vein or IVC thrombosis.

Although the incidence of renal vein and IVC tumor thrombus might be suggestive of (often diagnosed as) RCC, the possibility of other non-RCC renal tumors should be included in the differential diagnosis.