Research Article


The aim of this study was to translate and evaluate psychometric properties of Kendall chronic sorrow instrument (KCSI) in Iranian mothers of children with cancer.


In this methodological study, Kendall chronic sorrow instrument (KCSI) was translated and back translated. Its content and face validity were determined by 15 faculty members specialized in different fields of nursing and psychology. Among mothers of children with cancer, 264 mothers were selected by convenient sampling and completed Persian instrument. Construct validity and internal consistency reliability were investigated by exploratory factor analysis and determining Cronbach's alpha. To determine stability, test-retest method was used for 20 participants with a two-week interval.


Factor analysis confirmed the presence of three factors that explained 49.92% of instrument variance. Cronbach's alpha for the total instrument (α=0.84) indicated its internal consistency. Pearson correlation coefficient r=0.86 (p<0.001) confirmed the stability of the instrument. Chronic sorrow mean score of participants in this study was 76.39 (SD=15.81).


Persian version of Kendall chronic sorrow instrument (KCSI) can be used as a valid and reliable instrument to measure chronic sorrow in mothers of children with cancer.


How to Cite This Article: Nifarid L, Rassouli M, Borimnejad L, Alavimajd H. Translation and Psychometric properties of Persian Version of “Kendall Chronic Sorrow Instrument” in Mothers of Children with Cancer. Supportive and Palliative Care in Cancer 2016; in press. 

The Effects of Spiritual Care on Anxiety in Adolescents with Cancer

Faezeh Torabi, Moosa Sajjadi, Manighea Nourian, Nasrin Borumandnia, Azam Shirinabadi Farahani

Supportive & Palliative Care in Cancer, Vol. 1 No. 1 (2017), ,

Introduction: Anxiety is one of the psychological complications of cancer in adolescents and it is due to various factors. Since this complication leaves undesirable effects on physical and mental health and also on the adolescents’ quality of lives, one of the main nursing cares in adolescents with cancer is using various strategies to reduce the anxiety. Experience of living with cancer shows spirituality creates purpose and meaning in life for patients.

Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the effects of spiritual care on anxiety in adolescents with cancer.

Methods: This is a quasi-experimental study with one- group time-series design. 32 hospitalized adolescents were selected by purposeful sampling method based on the inclusion criteria. The spiritual care program was performed for adolescents in 6 sessions of 45 minutes class during their hospitalization. Data was collected by questionnaires of “personal and clinical characteristics” and “Speilberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory”. The data were analyzed with the SPSS-19 software using descriptive and inferential statistical tests.

Results: According to the results of this study, the difference between the mean score of pretest (55.96±11/34) and posttest (42.84±6/19) was significant. However the difference between mean scores of posttest and follow up (48.40±7/18) was not significant (P < 0.001).

Conclusion: Implementation of spiritual care by nurses may affect the mental situation of adolescents with cancer and is a suitable method to reduce anxiety. Therefore it is necessary for nurses to use spiritual interventions during implementation of comprehensive nursing care.



Cite to Article: Torabi F, Sajjadi M, Nourian M, Borumandnia N, Shirinabadi Farahani A. The effects of spiritual care on anxiety in adolescents with cancer. Supportive and Palliative Care in Cancer 2016; in press.

The Effect of Rhythmic Movements on Mild Anxiety in Children of 7 to 12 Years Old with Cancer

Zahra Ebadinejad, Maryam Rassouli, Abolfazl Payandeh, Ghazal Zahed, Ali Dashtgard, Mohammad Hadi Sarvari

Supportive & Palliative Care in Cancer, Vol. 1 No. 1 (2017), ,


Background and Aim: Cancer is a chronic childhood disease with many unpleasant psychological consequences such as anxiety. The study conducted to assess the effect of rhythmic movement on mild anxiety of children with cancer.

Material and Methods: This study was a Quasi-experimental study. The study population included all children aged 7 to 12 years old diagnosed with cancer who were hospitalized in oncology ward of a pediatrics hospital affiliated with Shahidbeheshti University of Medical Sciences in Tehran, Iran. Sampling was through convenient sampling and based on the inclusion criteria. 31 children with mild anxiety chosen according to ʺSpielberger Anxiety Inventoryʺ were recruited. Rhythmic movements with hip-hop style along with playing music performed in the playing room for 45 minutes during 6 sessions. Questionnaires were recompleted on the final day of intervention (sixth day) and 3 weeks later through reading the items for children and filling by researcher. Data analyzed using SPSS V.18 by repeated analysis of variance (ANOVA).

Results: The results showed significant differences between the mean values of anxiety (P<0.05) score before intervention and at the end of day 6 and weeks 3.

Conclusion: Rhythmic movements as a non pharmacologic intervention reduce mild anxiety in children with cancer. It is recommended that nurses use non pharmacological approaches such as rhythmic movements to reduce the psychological effects of cancer instead of using drugs.

Effectiveness of Emotional Intelligence Training on the Quality of Life of Mothers of Children with Leukemia

Behnaz Taghizadeh, Anahita Masoumpoor, Azam Shirinabadi Farahani, Nasrin Borumandnia

Supportive & Palliative Care in Cancer, Vol. 1 No. 1 (2017), ,



Background and Objectives: Leukemia is highly prevalent among children, and affects the family in addition to the child's life. The present study aimed to assess the effectiveness of training emotional intelligence on the quality of life of mothers of children with leukemia.

Materials and Methods: The present quasi-experimental pretest-posttest uncontrolled study was conducted on 35 mothers of children with leukemia selected by convenient sampling from those attending selected hospitals affiliated to Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences. Data were collected using mothers’ and children’s demographic details and the Persian version of Caregiver Quality of Life Index-Cancer questionnaire. Participants were assessed over 4 two-hour educational sessions using group discussion method (5 to 8 people). Two weeks after the intervention, questionnaires were completed by mothers again.

Results: The results obtained using paired t and Wilcoxon tests showed significant reductions in the scores of mothers' quality of life two weeks after intervention in disruptiveness, and mental, physical, and financial concern dimensions (P<0.005) and a significant increase in positive adaptation dimension (P<0.005).

Conclusion: The results obtained showed that training emotional intelligence skills can improve the quality of life of mothers of children with leukemia. It is therefore recommended that these skills be taught to mothers in order to improve their quality of life.

Keywords: Emotional Intelligence, Quality of Life, Mothers, Children, Leukemia


Review Article

Futurology identifies and lists the most desirable possible future(s) out of the most likely ones, and plans for the best options according to these possibilities. Future studies in health are an instance of future studies in medical activity that have a great application in real life and present strategies that can help achieve better conditions. Palliative care for cancer is a major challenge faced by the national health system in Iran. Analyzing the trend of palliative care through exploring the current status of palliative care for cancer in the country and finding strategies to fill the gap between the current status and the desirable one is an important subject in health studies. This article addresses the trend of palliative care in Iran from the past to the present by reviewing articles, books, documents, and news in online databases, and gives an overview of the future in the context of the presenting challenges and opportunities. Although palliative care in Iran has had a slow progress, recent efforts made to promote its status appear promising. This article seeks to help improve the status of palliative care in Iran, even if only moderately, so that cancer patients can live the rest of their life in comfort.