Review Article


Effect of differential and traditional trainings on electromyographic changes of upper torso muscles in performing and learning swimming breaststroke

Raha Nikravesh, Seyed Kazem Mousavi Sadati, jale bagherli, mohammad ali aslankhani

Journal of Clinical Physiotherapy Research, Vol. 7 No. 2 (2022), 15 November 2022,
https://doi.org/10.22037/jcpr.v7i2.38020

Objective: Making changes and variations in training components compared to repetitive training can lead to better learning of the movement based on the principles of system self-organization. The present study aimed at investigation of the effect of differential and traditional trainings on electromyographic changes of upper torso muscles in performing and learning swimming breaststroke.

Methodology: In this study, 36 swimmers aged 20 to 25 years who had no history of swimming training were selected as a sample and randomly divided into control, traditional exercises and differential exercises groups. They learned swimming breaststroke in traditional and different trainings. Before and after 12 training sessions, the muscle activity level was measured based on the root mean square and mean time of activity of Pectoralis major, Latissimus dorsi, biceps and triceps muscles of swimmers using electromyographic signal.

Return to Sports Following Lateral Ankle Sprain in Professional Athletes; A Review of Articles

Dr. Hassan Daneshmandi, Sara Asadi , Milad Fadaei Dehcheshmeh

Journal of Clinical Physiotherapy Research, Vol. 7 No. 2 (2022), 15 November 2022,
https://doi.org/10.22037/jcpr.v7i2.38853

Objective: Lateral ankle sprain (LAS) is one of the most common injuries during physical activity. Considering the high prevalence of this injury in athletes and the need to pay attention to athletes' return to the same level of sports performance as before the injury, the present study aimed to investigate the return to sport after lateral ankle sprains.

Materials and Methods: In this study, a comprehensive review of the published papers has been done considering English specialized keywords, including physical therapy, sport-specific movement, return to sport, ankle injuries, ligament injuries, return to play, lower extremity, ankle sprain, recurrent injury, ankle, sports injury, lateral ankle instability, chronic ankle instability, athlete, lateral ankle sprain. Therefore, databases i.e., Science Direct, Scopus, Pedro, Google Scholar, PubMed, SID, ISC, Madlib, Magiran and Irandoc were explored, and those researches published between 2000 to April 2022 about the return to sport and LAS injuries were studied.

Findings: After searching in the mentioned databases, first, the abstract of 370 articles on return to sport after LAS was found, and then the full text of 148 related papers was studied. After reviewing them based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria and eliminating duplicate items, 47 articles were scrutinized. Finally, 11 papers were identified about the return to sport after LAS injury. Most studies have reported that the recommended methods reduce the time to return to sport. In this regard, some studies have set a time to return to sport, and some have not reported the exact time. Studies have emphasized the use of specific tests and criteria for evaluating athletes to enter the final stage of rehabilitation as the most important principle of safely returning to sport.

Conclusion: Athletes' return to physical activity should be followed in a way that allows them to safely return to sport while minimizing the risk of recurrent injuries. Determining specialized criteria and tests for high and diverse populations in sports, especially those involved with lateral ankle sprains, is the key to success in safer return to sport. However, most studies have been conducted in limited populations and disciplines, and researchers must perform more research in this area.

Original Articles


Background and Objective: Acceptance and action-based therapy has six central processes that lead to psychological resilience. In fact, its purpose is not to make a direct change in the clients, but to help the clients to communicate with his experiences in different ways and be able to create a meaningful and value-based loss completely and seems to be able to help mothers with exceptional children. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of the acceptance and action approach based on the early maladaptive schemas mediated by emotion regulation difficulties on improving the quality of life of mothers with exceptional children.

Methodology: This study is an experimental-field research that was conducted by pre-test and post-test with the control group and also by correlation-modeling method. The statistical population includes all mothers with children with mental and physical disabilities in Kermanshah. 30 people were selected in a targeted manner and randomly divided into two groups. Acceptance and action-based treatment interventions were performed on the experimental group in one of the exceptional children's schools twice a week in eight 90-minute sessions. Data collection tools included Ware et al.'s (1996) Quality of Life Questionnaire, Hertzgertz & Roemer's (2004) Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Questionnaire, Yang's (2005) Adaptive Schema Scale (2005), and Bond et al.'s (2017) Acceptance and Action Questionnaire.

Results: The obtained results indicate that disconnection and rejection, impaired autonomy and performance, other/directedness, hypervigilance and inhibition, impaired limits have a positive and significant effect on the difficulties in emotion regulation; Disconnection, rejection and impaired autonomy and performance, other/directedness and hypervigilance and inhibition have a positive and significant effect on action and acceptance. The curriculum based on action and acceptance causal model has been effective on the quality of life of mothers with exceptional children.

Conclusion: The results of this study can be used and exploited in order to improve the mood and psychological states and improve the quality of life of mothers with exceptional children.

Causal model of separation anxiety disorder based on differentiation and empathy of mothers; a mediating role of parent-child relationship

Gona Fathi, Maryam Akbari, Omid Moradi, Fardin Abdollahi

Journal of Clinical Physiotherapy Research, Vol. 7 No. 2 (2022), 15 November 2022,
https://doi.org/10.22037/jcpr.v7i2.38398

Introduction:Separation anxiety disorder is relatively common, but has serious repercussions on a child's life, and if left untreated will lead to chronic satiety. The purpose of this research is to determine designing a causal model of separation anxiety disorder according to differentiation and mother's empathy with the mediating role of child- Parent relationship.

Method: Research method was descriptive - correlation with structural equation modeling method. The statistical population was all of the Mothers with daughters with separation anxiety disorder syndrome whose child / children in one of the preschool centers in Kermanshah in the academic year 1399-99, and determined 600 people with table's Morgan and selected as sampling by ratio stratified random sampling method. The research data were collected through separation anxiety disorder Hahn, Hajinlian, Eisen, Winder & Pincus (2003), differentiation Drake and Moradi (2015), mother's empathy Baron-Cohen and Wheelwright (2004), child- Parent relationship Pianta (1994) questionnaires. Data analyzed in PLS software with structural equation modeling.

Results: The results show that analysis of the paths of the model show that there is significance the direct effect of differentiation and mother's empathy on child- Parent relationship. There is significance the direct effect of child- Parent relationship on separation anxiety disorder. The direct effect of Self-Handicapping and perfectionism on academic Engagement is also significant.

 Conclusion: There is directly and indirectly significant effect of differentiation and mother's empathy on separation anxiety disorder. Differentiation, mother's empathy, child- Parent relationship can decrease separation anxiety disorder.

Evaluation of Infection in Nylon and Staple Sutured Wounds in Surgeries of Intertrochanteric Femoral Fractures

Alireza Manafi Rasi, Bardia Hajikarimloo, Seyyed Mohammad Mirbehbahani, Mojtaba Baroutkoub

Journal of Clinical Physiotherapy Research, Vol. 7 No. 2 (2022), 15 November 2022, Page e60
https://doi.org/10.22037/jcpr.v7i2.38835

Introduction: Infection of surgical wounds is an important complication that delays recovery and the length of hospital admission. This study aimed to determine the infection rate in intertrochanteric femoral fracture surgeries by two methods of closure with nylon thread or staple. Materials &Methods: This retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted on 123 male and 77 female patients in Kosar Hospital, Semnan, Iran. In this study, patients who underwent intertrochanteric femoral fracture surgery via the dynamic hip screw (DHS) technique between 2017 and 2019 were participated voluntary. Demographic information, surgical complications, and infection history were extracted from the files and recorded in the data collection form. Data were analyzed by sing SPSS20 software through by chi-square, Fisher's exact test, 2-tailed t-test, and logistic regression. Results: in this study 61.5% of patients were male and 38.5% were female. The type of suture in 100 patients (50%) was a staple and in 100 patients (50%) was a nylon thread. A surgical complication was observed in 51 patients (25.5%) as inflammation, in 1 patient (0.5%) as serous secretion, and 3 patients (1.5%) as inflammation and serous secretion simultaneously, while145 patients (72.5%) developed no complications. There was no significant difference between gender, age, and underlying disease with suture type (staple and nylon suture) (P>0.05). The incidence of complications in the nylon group was 20% compared to the staple group (35%). There was a statistically significant difference between surgical complications with patients' suture type (P<0.05). Conclusion: Nylon thread sutures as a technique for surgical site wound closure in intertrochanteric femoral fracture surgeries, have more favorable results compared to staples due to lower complication rate and surgical site infection.