Systematic Review

A Systematic Review on Achilles tendon Injuries Prevalence

Ali Fatahi, Razieh Alizadeh, Razieh Yousefian Molla

Journal of Clinical Physiotherapy Research, Vol. 7 No. 1 (2022), 1 January 2022, Page e53

Introduction: The aim of this study was to present and discuss the knowledge gathered on various Achilles tendon injuries and to highlight the clinical implications for the evaluation and treatment of Achilles tendon injuries about the factors of Achilles tendon injuries. Study design: Systematic review. Materials and Method: A search of 5 databases including; Science Direct, Google scholar, PubMed, Ovid Medline, Scopus and Medline was performed using keywords related to Achilles tendon injury factors and a review of all usable manuscripts (the search was undertaken between 1980 to 2021). Result: One hundred and fifteen articles met the inclusion criteria. Among all the independent variables that were analyzed including age, obesity, athletes and normal people, professional or amateur sports, men and women, and Achilles tendon treatment methods were examined. Conclusion: Comparison of the prevalence of Achilles tendon injuries in athletes and non-athletes showed that the risk of Achilles tendon injuries were higher in 16-25 years old male than women, Also, the onset of injury in collision sports had the highest percentage.

Original Articles

Introduction: Although it is documented that cardiac rehabilitation has a positive effect on hemodynamics and functional biomechanics of the heart, the effect of various types of exercise in this field, in different periods of life such as middle-aged and older male adults, is thought-provoking. This study was undertaken to compare cardiac rehabilitation training on selected hemodynamic and biomechanical indices between middle-aged and older male adults with coronary artery disease following a cardiac event or therapeutic interventions. Materials and Methods: Thirty two middle-aged and older male adults with coronary artery disease were randomly and equally divided into two aerobic and concurrent exercise groups. With the permission of a cardiologist in the imaging center, the exercise test was performed in the pre-test stage. After eight weeks of cardiac rehabilitation training in the biomechanics laboratory of the physical medicine center, the post-test phase was performed. To analyze the data from mean and standard deviation, one-way analysis of variance with Bonferroni post hoc test was utilized to check differences between groups at the significant level of P≤0.05. Results: After eight weeks of aerobic training, a significant difference was observed in the improvement of functional capacity and diastolic blood pressure (P≤0.05) between the middle-aged and older male adults groups, but not for left ventricular ejection fraction indices, resting heart rate and systolic blood pressure (P>0.05). Followed by concurrent training as well, a significant difference was observed in the improvement of functional capacity indices, left ventricular ejection fraction, resting heart rate, and diastolic blood pressure (P≤0.05), but not for index of systolic blood pressure was not observed (P>0.05). Conclusion: The results of the research confirmed the effectiveness of both types of aerobic and concurrent training in improving hemodynamic and functional biomechanics of the heart. In the comparison between middle-aged and older male adults, the effect of aerobic exercise on the older male adults and the effect of concurrent exercise on the middle-aged can be considered more prominent. It seems that the priority of using concurrent training over aerobic training can be taken into consideration.

Comparison of Symmetry of Plantar Pressure Distribution in Adolescent’s Female with Selected Knee Abnormalities during Walking on Slope

Haniyeh Zehtab Asghari, Amir Ali Jafarnezhadgero, Mohammad Ali Azarbaijany

Journal of Clinical Physiotherapy Research, Vol. 7 No. 1 (2022), 1 January 2022, Page e57

Introduction: The plantar pressure acts between the foot and the support surface during everyday locomotor activity. Information derived from plantar pressure distribution symmetry is to be important in gait and posture researches for diagnosing lower limb problems, footwear design, injury prevention, and other applications. Hence, this paper aimed to evaluate plantar pressure distribution symmetry in adolescent girls with genu varum, genu valgum, and healthy knees. Materials and Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 45 adolescent females with genu valgum (n=15), genu varum (n=15), and healthy knees (n=15) in the age ranging from 14 to 17 years, who were selected after an invitation and diagnosis by an orthopedic doctor or a specialist, participated. The plantar pressure values were examined in 10 anatomical areas of plantar pressure on 0, and ±10% slopes in the stance phase of gait. Two-way analysis of variance with repeated measures was used for statistical analysis in significance level of 0.05. Results: No significant differences were observed in the symmetry variables of plantar pressure distribution among the groups. The maximum plantar pressure on the 1thmetatarsus had better symmetry in the slope of 10% for genu varum, -10% for genu valgum, and level zero for the healthy group. Conclusion: The results showed that genu varum and genu valgum abnormalities affect the symmetry indices of plantar pressure distribution in adolescent girls; Also, people with knee deformity had better symmetry at a ±10% slope, which can suggest correcting the deformation of adolescent girls. Therefore, the slope ±10% can suggest improving the plantar pressure distribution pattern in adolescent girls with genu varum and genu valgum knees.

The Effect of Eight Weeks of Endurance Training on Positive and Negative Slopes on the Selected Biomechanical Parameters of the Femur Bone in Male Wistar Rats

Azita Ravvaz, Ali fatahi, Mohammad Ali ‬‬‬ Azarbayjani

Journal of Clinical Physiotherapy Research, Vol. 7 No. 1 (2022), 1 January 2022, Page e56

Introduction: Regular exercise and physical activity is one way to promote health and prevent physical and mental diseases. This study aimed to investigate the effect of endurance training (ET) on positive and negative slopes (ETPS and ETNS, ±15°) on the biomechanical properties of the femur bone in male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: This experimental study was performed on 15 male Wistar rats with an approximate age of eight weeks and a weight range of 180-200 g. For this purpose, the rats were divided into three groups, namely, the control (without activity), ETPS, and ETNS groups. The ET program was performed five days a week for eight weeks. The obtained data were statistically analyzed using the one-way ANOVA test at P<0.05. Results: Significant improvement was observed in biomechanical variables including maximum force, strength, deformation, and maximum absorbed energy of the femur bone in the ETPS group compared with the other two groups. However, the ETNS reduced all biomechanical variables of the femur bone. Conclusion: The results indicated that ETPS is effective in improving bone indices. Given the significant difference between the ETPS and ETNS groups in the biomechanical parameters of the bone, it is suggested that a training program with different intensity and duration levels be implemented in other age groups on different slopes.

The Effectiveness of Aerobic Training on Psychological Well-Being of Children with ADHD

Zahra Shakib, Sahar Froumandi, Sahar Nemati, Neda Khodadadi, Hanieh Gholamhoseinpour, Moslem Akbari

Journal of Clinical Physiotherapy Research, Vol. 7 No. 1 (2022), 1 January 2022, Page e59

Introduction: Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) face many psychological and social problems. This study aimed at investigating the effect of aerobic exercises on the components of psychological well-being of children with ADHD. Materials and Method: For this study, a sample of 30 children diagnosed with ADHD from Qum city was selected by simple convenience sampling and then divided into 2 fifteen-member groups of experimental and control. After that, aerobic exercise training was performed on the experimental group during an eight- week period, three-45 minute session per week. No exercise intervention was applied to the control group. Data analysis was performed using multivariate analysis of covariance via SPSS-22 software. Results: The results of comparing the psychological well-being scores in the post-test compared to the pre-test show a significant increase in the test group after performing aerobic exercises. Conclusion: Aerobic exercise seems to be a suitable treatment strategy without side effects to improve and enhance the psychological well-being of children with ADHD. This finding emphasizes the need for physical activity.

Comparison of Electrical Activities of Lower Limb’s Muscles during Landing on Different Surfaces in Elite Volleyball Players

Saba Abrifam, Ali Fatahi, Hassan Matin Homayi

Journal of Clinical Physiotherapy Research, Vol. 7 No. 1 (2022), 1 January 2022, Page e54

Introduction: The importance of the surface on which a person moves has now been proven as a potential factor in the frequency and severity of lower limb injuries. The aim of the present study was to compare the electrical activities of lower limb’s muscles during landing on Different surfaces in elite volleyball players. Materials and Methods: This was Quasi-experimental causal-comparative study. Participants were 14 volleyball players between 18 and 20 years old. Electrical activity of four selected lower limb muscles was recorded by 8-channel electromyography according to the SENIAM protocol during landing on three surfaces of tatami, grass and sand. Results: Repeated measurement tests showed a significant difference between the peak of muscle activity in Vastus lateral is biceps femora’s muscles and during landing on tatami, grass and sand (P>0.05). However, the peak electrical activity during landing on different surfaces was significantly different in the tibia is anterior and gastrocnemius muscles (P=0.00). Also, there was no significant difference between knee and ankle joint’s contractions (P>0.05). In the knee and ankle joint’s, the highest and lowest mean contractions were observed on grass and sand, as well as tatami and sand, respectively. Conclusion: surfaces with higher stiffness are not the absolute factor to exert force applied to the muscles and joints. Conversely, a softer surface that reduces these forces and also reduces damage to bone elements.