Review Article

Peripheral Nerve Injury: A Review Article

Afsoun Seddighi, Amir Nikouei, Amir Saied Seddighi, Ali Reza Zali, Seyed Mahmood Tabatabaei, Ali Reza Sheykhi, Fatemeh Yourdkhani, Shoayb Naeimian

International Clinical Neuroscience Journal, Vol. 3 No. 1 (2016), 9 July 2016, Page 1-6

Traumatic peripheral nerve injuries are among most important cause of physical disability among young adults. Most partial injuries and some complete injuries recover without operative intervention, with early return of function appearing to be the most significant prognostic factor in these cases. Return of function over time depends to a great extent on the underlying neuropathologic condition of the nerve. Although some nerve injuries recover spontaneously, in some cases surgery is the only therapeutic option for the improvement of neurological deficits or control of neuropathic pain. We aimed to review the classification and management of peripheral nerve injury, with emphasize on clinical aspect.

Outcomes of Phosphorus-32 Intracavitary Irradiation for Craniopharyngiomas: A Review of The Literature

Parisa Azimi, Sohrab Shahzadi, Ali Montazeri

International Clinical Neuroscience Journal, Vol. 3 No. 1 (2016), 9 July 2016, Page 7-24

Purpose: To review on outcomes of Phosphorus-32 (32P) intracavitary irradiation for Craniopharyngiomas.

Methods: A literature review of all full publications in English biomedical journals (1981-2014) was performed. The search strategy included a combination of key words “phosphorus-32”, “craniopharyngioma”, “intracystic treatment”, “brain”, “cyst”, “tumor”, “brachytherapy”, “intracavitary irradiation”, “isotope” in the title and abstract of the manuscripts using the PubMed. The major findings were summarized, with a focus on outcome as visual acuity, complications, cyst volume, and irradiation dose delivered to the cyst wall in Gy. Finally, the future of 32P intracavitary irradiation for Craniopharyngiomas was explored.

Results: A total of 25 citations were identified and screened. In all, 19 citations were eligible for inclusion. The synthesis of the data showed several benefits and adverse events for 32P intracavitary. Overall benefits included improvements in visual, endocrinological, and neurological outcomes, while adverse effects included complications such as III palsy and diabetes insipidus.

Conclusion: In general 32P intracavitary irradiation was found to be a reasonable option in treatment of highly selected patients with newly diagnosed or recurrent cystic craniopharyngioma. This approach can be expected to overcome some limitations introduced by other approaches with a relatively low complication rates.

Original / Research Article

Effect of Magnetic Tacrine-Loaded Chitosan Nanoparticles on Spatial Learning, Memory, Amyloid Precursor Protein and Seladin-1 Expression in the Hippocampus Of Streptozotocin-Exposed Rats

Golamreza Hassanzadeh, Zahra Fallahi, Mohammad Khanmohammadi, Hamideh Elmizadeh, Mohammad Sharifzadeh, Simin Mahakizadeh, Adib Zendedel, Cordian Beyer, Homa Mohseni Kouchesfahani

International Clinical Neuroscience Journal, Vol. 3 No. 1 (2016), 9 July 2016, Page 25-31

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by memory and cognitive dysfunction due to neuronal cell loss in higher brain centers. Senile plaques containing amyloid β (Aβ) are associated with this disease as well as a reduction in cholinergic neuron numbers. Tacrine is a reversible cholinesterase inhibitor in clinical use to treat moderate forms of AD. Chitosan nanoparticles represent an effective systemic delivery system for drugs. The application of tacrine-loaded chitosan nanoparticles has been shown to selectively increase tacrine concentrations in the brain tissue. In this study, we compared magnetic and non-magnetic tacrine-loaded chitosan nanoparticles for their bioactivity and neuroprotective potency in streptozotocin (stz)-induced neurodegeneration, an accepted animal model for AD. Male rats received a single injection of stz via an implanted cannula into the lateral brain ventricle. Tacrine (tac)-loaded chitosan nanoparticles were delivered into the tail vein. Spatial learning and memory were analyzed using the Morris water maze task. Amyloid precursor protein gene (APP) and seladin-1 gene expression were studied in the hippocampus by real time-PCR. Tac-loaded non-magnetic and tac-loaded magnetic chitosan nanoparticles improved spatial learning and memory after stz treatment with magnetic nanoparticles being most effective. Similarly, tac-loaded chitosan nanoparticles increased seladin-1 and reduced APP gene expression. Again, magnetic nanoparticles were more effective. These data reveal that tac-loaded non magnetic and tac-loaded magnetic chitosan nanoparticles to a higher extent improve brain deficits related to stz application. We conclude that the magnetic target drug delivery system is a promising therapeutic strategy to protect AD-related degenerating in the CNS. 

Relation of Nature and Environment with Pleasant Emotions of Humans in Daily Life

Mahsa Abdi Bastami, Mana Hosseini Bay, Afsoun Seddighi

International Clinical Neuroscience Journal, Vol. 3 No. 1 (2016), 9 July 2016, Page 32-38

Happy feeling has essential role in life of human beings during the generations. People always try to pass their life with satisfactions and happiness and to be adopted themselves.On this base we have done two different statistical analyses. At first we studied different relational samples with nature and happiness indicators in 250 ordinary people (community) through social network applications.In second case we studied mentality relations in other statistical community with 200 people to assess anticipate of general happiness relations. The results of two surveys showed that environmental relations can be a way for ensuring happiness and healthiness of humans beside endurance of environment.

Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor is Produced in Escherichia Coli Using Transforming Plasmids

Reza Taherian, Mahdi Taherian

International Clinical Neuroscience Journal, Vol. 3 No. 1 (2016), 9 July 2016, Page 39-43

Background and purpose: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is present in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex in high concentrations and has an important role in development, maintenance and regeneration of the nervous system. The aim of this study was to produce active BDNF in E.coli using transforming plasmid.

Methods: To construct an expression plasmid of BDNF, a gene coding for it was obtained from human BDNF DNA. The plasmid was then transformed in the E.coli. After the extraction of plasmids, they were treated by BamHI and SacI restrictions endonuclease and the produced fragments were inserted in pTRSBDNF vector.

Results: After transformation of the recombinant vector into E.coli HB101 cells, the recombinant plasmid was transformed into E.coli C600 cells to express BDNF gene. SDS-PAGE confirmed the expression of recombinant protein of BDNF in the E.coli.

Conclusion: BDNF, as an important protein of nervous system, can be produced in the E.coli by use of transforming plasmids. 

Evaluation of Blood Hemodynamics in Patients with Cerebral Aneurysm

Keyvan Hajirayat, Seifollah Gholampour, Amir Saeed Seddighi, Nasser Fatouraee

International Clinical Neuroscience Journal, Vol. 3 No. 1 (2016), 9 July 2016, Page 44-50

Background: Aneurysm is a blood-filled bulge in the wall of vessels that occurred in abdominal aortic and cerebral vessels. The dilation of artery leads to aneurysm.

Methods: Three dimensional modelling was utilized for a patient with cerebral aneurysm and a normal subject, and additional fluid-structural interaction simulation was performed. We consider pulsatile blood velocity as inlet, and blood pressure as outlet of flow.

Results: The main results including blood velocity, wall shear stress (WSS) of vessel and displacement of wall of vessel. The maximum velocity in normal subject has been 0.2 m/s, that this value in a patient has increased into 0.27 m/s. Blood flow in normal subject and patient remained in limitation of laminar flow and occurrence of aneurysm, has not lead into the turbulent flow. The results showed, WSS in the of vessel after occurrence of aneurysm has increased into 6.3 times greater than normal, which this difference revealed that this parameter was proper index for evaluation of aneurysm. Also, the phase lag of WSS between the normal subject and patient has been 98º that this phase lag was significant in two cases. Due to occurrence of aneurysm, the thickness of the wall decreased during the disease by up to 10% which the continuation of disease progress result in rupture of vessel.

Conclusion: To help the physician, besides analysing hemodynamic parameters of blood flow through non-invasive method, the effective numerical indices (WSS magnitude and WSS phase lag between patient and normal subject) introduced in order to evaluation cerebral aneurysm conditions.

Case Report

Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis after Submandibular Abscess: A Case Report

Reza Taherian, Elham Gharib

International Clinical Neuroscience Journal, Vol. 3 No. 1 (2016), 9 July 2016, Page 51-53

Infection-related cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) is a rare cerebral vascular diseases which has no pathognomonic sign or definite diagnostic approach. It is crucial to early suspect and recognize the disease to lower morbidity and mortality of it. However, its low incidence and atypic presentation often leads to misdiagnosis and treatment delay which increase complications and mortality of septic CVST. The patient of this study is a 26-year-old man presented with complaint of agitation, ataxia, weakness and confusion three weeks after abscess drainage. On examination, right abduscent nerve palsy, bilateral papilledema, left eye vision loss (hand motion at 1 meters), right hemiparesis, right central facial hemiparesis and fever (T: 38.4) were noted. Magnetic resonance imaging and venography was performed which showed CVST with left occipital lobe infarction. The patient received antibiotics and his symptoms and signs subsided gradually.

Glioblastoma Simultaneously Present with Adjacent Meningioma: Case report

Mohammad Reza Shahmohammadi, Hamed Javadian, Asra Asgari, Reza Jalili Khoshnoud

International Clinical Neuroscience Journal, Vol. 3 No. 1 (2016), 9 July 2016, Page 54-58

In this article, we report a 49-year-old woman with simultaneous meningioma and astrocytoma occurrence in the same patients without radiotherapy, phacomatosis, or any genetic disorders. We aimed to define surgical management and the etiopathogenic correlations of meningioma with glioblastoma.