Review Article

The Issue of Embryo Implantation in Women during the Coronavirus Outbreak: An Overview

Delsuz Rezaee, Hanieh Rezaee, Saiyad Bastaminejad, Yadollah Bahrami, Mohammad Salehi

Novelty in Biomedicine, Vol. 9 No. 3 (2021), , Page 138-144


The Coronavirus is a major health problem nowadays, which affects people's lifestyle. This pandemic virus shared a variety of phenomena in case of symptoms and side effects. One of the major issues regarding novel coronavirus is the effect of infection on pregnancy which accounts for an essential process of human life. Considering the pathogenesis of Coronavirus, overexpression of inflammatory cells and cytokines accounts a pivotal step in the development of symptoms. The over-expressed cytokines in response to covid-19 infection would render the inflammation and disruption of the immune system and tissue damage. Like coronavirus infection, implantation the main step of a successful pregnancy, activates the inflammatory cells and cytokines. The association of infection with pregnancy raises the concern about the effect of covid-19 on embryos and giving normal birth, especially in women who decide to get pregnant or are in the pregnancy period. The current review focused on immune system responses to the Coronavirus and comparison with immune system activation during implantation. It concluded that further laboratory research and studies are needed to better understand and draw general conclusions about the role of the virus in embryo implantation.

Original Article

Evaluation of Van A-B genes frequency in Vancomycin Resistant Enterococci spp., isolated from clinical samples of Imam Hossein Teaching Hospital in Tehran.: A molecular study of vancomycin-resistant-enterococci.

Abdolreza Javadi, Bahareh Behjoo, Homa Forouhesh Tehrani , Houman Vosough, Kazem Namadmal Torkashe, Masoumeh Foroumand, Kavian Barzegarian

Novelty in Biomedicine, Vol. 9 No. 3 (2021), , Page 111-117


Background: Antibiotic resistance is an important cause of treatment failure and re-infection in enterococci. In this study, the frequency of phenotype and genotype of Van A-B genes in Vancomycin resistant enterococcus isolated from a clinical sample of Imam Hossein Hospitals in Tehran was determined.

Materials and Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study in 2018, a total of 76 vancomycin-resistant enterococci in Imam Hossein Hospitals in Tehran were evaluated, including those from blood, urine, sputum, and wound. The frequency of phenotype and genotype of Van A-B genes in them was determined by MIC Epsilometer test and Multiplex Real-time PCR.

Results: The 160 isolates of enterococci collected from different hospital wards revealed that 76 (47%) enterococci were resistant by applying MIC E-test; interestingly, all VRE isolated showed high-level vancomycin resistance. The Real-time-PCR assay demonstrated vanA gene in 76 (100%) VRE isolates. Considering to controls no van B gene was detected in this assay. Based on bacterial phenotype tests, the results showed that 82% and 18% of the isolates were E. faecium and E. faecalis, respectively.

Conclusion: Totally, it may be concluded that Van A gene is more accompanied by high-level Vancomycin Teicoplanin resistance in common enterococci species. The frequency of Vancomycin resistance entrocooci is increasing especially among ICU admitted patients. For effective treatment MIC test and Van A-B genotyping seem to be essential.

COVID-19 infection control parameters in Iran: an epidemiological modeling

Kourosh Eftekharian, Hassan Eftekhar Ardebili, Sepehr Eftekharian, Ali Eftekharian

Novelty in Biomedicine, Vol. 9 No. 3 (2021), , Page 118-122


Background: We aimed to evaluate Iran's current COVID-19 infection, emphasizing the number of infection detection and the disease's reproductive number in its high peak in November and after the lockdown in December.

Materials and Methods: Using the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health Contact Tracing Evaluation and Strategic Support Application, we used the average weekly new cases and average case mortality in November and December 2020. The average case isolation and identification time (25%, Four days) and the average case contact within the household and community were entered into the application. We examined Two modeling systems with 50% and 70% case isolation for the November period as alternative scenarios for the current infection control rate.

Results: Our modeling showed only 11% and 30% of the infections were detected in November and December. The disease's reproductive number is similar to the natural reproductive number of the disease (2-3) in November. The two models used to increase the rate of case isolation to 50% and 70% did not significantly change the reproductive number.

Conclusion: The priority in Iran for COVID-19 infection control should be a dramatic increase in the number of testing to achieve the correct number of case detection and fulfill the contact tracing criteria to reduce the disease spread.

Investigating the Facilitating Factors of Drug Use Based on Personality and Ethnic Characteristics of Guilan Province

Ahmad Borjali, Hosein Eskandari, Faramarz Sohrabi Asmroud, Yahya Mohajer, Davood namazi

Novelty in Biomedicine, Vol. 9 No. 3 (2021), , Page 123-131


Background: Identifying ethnic and personality facilitation factors in drug use help to better diagnose and treat addiction identifying facilitation factors. It provides timely counseling, and psychological services can be partially preventable for addicts. This study aimed to investigate factors facilitating drug use based on ethnic and personality characteristics of Guilan province using the Cloninger personality system.

Materials and Methods: The study population consisted of four subcultures of Guilak, Talesh (Turk), Kord and others called Fars. The sampling method in this study was a mixed-method; the sample size was at least 200 people. The present study used data in the field section of Cloninger's personality and character questionnaire to determine personality components and their relationship. They were used with current norms. This study used in-depth interviews, observation and review of documents (questionnaires) and conventional oral literature on drug use.

Results: This study showed that between ethnic facilitation factors (drug and drug counseling, folk beliefs in oral literature, and beliefs about rituals and companionship) and personality traits (nature and character), except the avoidance factor at the significant level of 0.01, there was a significant and positive relationship. Variables of personality traits/"nature and character" and components of perseverance, novelty, reward-dependence, self-direction, cooperation can predict common beliefs in the propensity to medication and therapy. The personality facilitator variable of "nature and character" and all its components, except for themselves, was able to predict the popular beliefs existing in oral literature. The personality facilitator variable of "nature and character" and the components of novelty, reward-dependence, and cooperation could predict common beliefs about rituals and companionship.

Conclusion: Research showed a significant relationship between ethnicity and propensity for drug and drug counseling, popular beliefs in oral literature, and celebration and celebration beliefs.

Efficient of Toll‐Like Receptor 4 Knockout in Mouse Zygotes by CRISPER/Cas9

Delsuz Rezaee, Sara Hosseini, Vahid Jajarmi, Mohammad Salehi

Novelty in Biomedicine, Vol. 9 No. 3 (2021), , Page 132-137


Background: Transgenic animals are genetically modified animals to create a specific trait that imitates an indication of pathogenesis in humans. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are implicated in immune regulation of the female reproductive tract and, subsequently, infertility rate. This study produced Toll-like receptor 4 (Tlr4) knockout blastocysts with single-guide RNA targeting for Tlr4 by CRISPER/Cas9 technique.

Materials and Methods: Web CRISPER design tools designed single-guide RNAs (sgRNAs) targeting Tlr4 gene were designed by web CRISPER design tools. Then, two strands of sgRNAs were cloned into a linearized vector for producing a gRNA-expressing eCAS9-GFP vector. The vector was then injected into the male pronucleus in the fertilized oocytes in vitro fertilization (IVF) and do polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing.

Results: Gene deletion with acceptable efficiency (38%, p<0.05) successfully was confirmed by sequencing and PCR analysis.

Conclusion: Our result showed that the CRISPER/Cas9 technique is an effective knockout method in mouse zygotes, potentially producing disease animal models.

Case Report

Unusual Airway Obstruction during General Anesthesia following Endotracheal Tube Cuff Herniation; A Case Report

Houman Teymourian, Firoozeh Maddadi, Shayesteh Khorasanizadeh, Atieh Tizghadam, Hamidreza Azizi Faresani, Faranak Behnaz, Masih Ebrahimi Dehkordi

Novelty in Biomedicine, Vol. 9 No. 3 (2021), , Page 145-148


Background: Airway management is always of great concern for anesthesiologists especially in the prone position. Utilizing an Armored endotracheal tube is considered to be safe in such patients.

Cases Report: In this current case, we introduce a patient undergoing a wake-up test during spinal surgery who suffered from hypoventilation at the end of surgery. His condition improved only after extubation. After extubation, we confronted a herniated cuff that was not deflated, although we tried twice. We concluded that the patient's respiratory effort against obstructed airway produced a negative pressure, which made the cuff herniated, resulting in airway obstruction. Moreover, the patient biting the tube during the wake-up test damaged the tube and cuff deflation pathway.

Conclusion: It is important to consider cuff herniation as a cause of obstruction when other possible etiologies are ruled out.

Background: Postpartum infections, also known as puerperal fever, are bacterial infections of the female reproductive tract following childbirth or miscarriage. Symptoms usually include a fever greater than 38.0°C (100.4°F), chills, lower abdominal pain, and possibly bad-smelling vaginal discharge. It usually occurs after the first 24 hours and within the first ten days following delivery, but life-threatening infection may occur within hours of delivery.

Cases Report: We reported a case of severe parametritis in the first 24 hours of delivery. Cesarean section is a risk factor for postpartum infections, and response to treatment is lower than vaginal delivery. Our case was a severe pelvic infection after vaginal delivery, and its risk factor was prolonged rupture of the membrane. Therefore, rapid diagnosis and treatment are necessary to prevent abscess formation and sepsis.

Conclusion: In this case, rapid treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics prevented abscess formation, sepsis, and hysterectomy.

Positive Result for SARS-CoV-2 RNA Test after a Long Time for the Patient with COVID-19 even after Discharge from the Hospital

Maryam Fazeli, Saman Pazira, Behzad Pourhossein, Azadeh Rasooli, Nastaran Ansari, Farid Azizi Jalilian

Novelty in Biomedicine, Vol. 9 No. 3 (2021), , Page 152-155

Background: Ruthin's coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) diagnosis is based on the positive result of real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from the nasal and oropharyngeal swab. However, chest CT scans can play an important role in diagnosing patients with COVID-19.

Cases Report: In this study, we reported a 44 years old female with a mild form of the COVID-19 who showed a positive result for the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA for 44 days after symptom onset. The suspected case was detected using real-time PCR. After two weeks of hospitalization, the patient was discharged, but her molecular tests were performed twice after one month and 44 days, and they remained positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA.

Conclusion: In theory, if the patient becomes re-infected or the virus reacts, these individuals may serve as a transmission source. So far, the only way to screen for possible reinfection has been by using PCR on separate specimens.