Original Article

Investigation of Leukemia Frequency in Children of Qazvin Province and its Correlation with Gender, Age, and Blood Groups between 2006-2016

Tahere Dargahi, Mehdi Goudarzi, Naser Mobarra, Hoda Poorkarim, Sajjad Rahmani, Mojtaba Khalili, Mehran Amini, Javad Hamedani, Mehdi Azad

Novelty in Biomedicine, Vol. 4 No. 4 (2016), , Page 135-141

Background: About 8 percent of all cancers in human population are related to leukemia and it is one of the most common malignancies in children. The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of age, gender and blood group types with the frequency of leukemia among the children with leukemia in Qazvin province during the 2006 to 2016.

Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional analysis. Investigated population was 110 children and adolescents under 18 years in the hospitals of Qazvin province. The date collecting method was through review of medical records of the patients and their analysis performed by using SPSS version 16.

Results: According to data from this study, leukemia ALL-L1 is more frequent in Qazvin than other types of leukemia, and children with ages 0-5 years was more than other age groups. This disorder is more common in boys than girls, and among the patients, the people who has A and O blood groups, and Rh + are the most abundant.

Conclusion: such factors like age, gender and blood groups can use as prognostic factors in children leukemia. So that leukemia in children less than 5 years old is more than any other age. In addition to that; the incidence of leukemia ALL-L1 reduced with increasing age in the general population in Qazvin and number of boys with leukemia is more than girls.

Cloning and Expression of Luteinizing Hormone Subunits in Chinese Hamster Ovary Cell Line

Zeinab Soleimanifar, Mojgan Bandehpour, Bahram Kazemi

Novelty in Biomedicine, Vol. 4 No. 4 (2016), , Page 142-146

Background: Luteinizing hormone (LH) was secreted by the stimulating cells of the testes and ovaries in the anterior pituitary gland. The application of this hormone is in the treatment of men and women with infertility and amenorrhea respectively.

Materials and Methods: In the present study the alpha and beta subunits of human LH gene were cloned into the pEGFP-N1 expression vector and produced the recombinant LH hormone in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) eukaryotic system.

Results: Alpha and beta subunits of LH hormone were cloned between NheI and BamHI cut sites of pEGFP_N1 expression plasmid and confirmed by PCR.  Hormone expression was evaluated in CHO cell line by Western blotting using the specific antibody.

Conclusion: Alpha and beta subunits of LH hormone were expressed in CHO cell line perfectly.

Background: Many efforts have been done to find effective agents against resistant pathogens. Cuminum cyminum L. (Cumin) is an aromatic plant within the Apiaceae family. It has a variety of purposes and demonstrates antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. This study evaluated the activity of C. cyminum extract and essential oil against bacterial isolates which cause urinary tract infection, including Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus agalactiae, group A streptococci, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus saprophyticus isolated from patients with urinary tract infection.

Materials and Methods: Extract was prepared by maceration and essential oil was prepared by hydrodistillation from C. cyminum seeds. The study population was 95 patients with urinary tract infection without malignant diseases, diabetes and immunosupression. After identification of organism, susceptibility testing was carried out by disc diffusion method and MIC values by broth microdilution testing.

Results: C. cyminum essential oil can have a better effect on the gram-negative bacteria causing urinary tract infection than gram-positive bacteria. In addition, C. cyminum extract have good activity against both gram- positive and gram-negative bacteria. Our findings also showed that essential oil and extract of C. cyminum has better antibacterial activity on uropathogen isolates than amoxicillin and the difference was significant (P value<0.05) but the activity is not superior to other antibiotics.

Conclusion: These results suggest that the essential oil and extract of C. cyminum seeds might be considered as interesting sources of antibacterial components against uropathogenic bacteria.

Background: In this study, we evaluated the existence of blaNDM ,  blaDIM, blaIMP, blaVIM, blaCTX-M-15 beta-lactamase  genes among Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii strains isolated from hospitalized patients.

Materials and Methods: From June 2013 to May 2014, thirty-four nonduplicate nonconsecutive isolates of A. baumannii and P. aeruginosa were isolated from blood, respiratory tract, wound, sputum and urine samples of patients from hospitalized in two hospitals in Tehran, Iran. Antibiotic susceptibility test was performed by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method according to CLSI guidelines. In this study, the frequency of MBL (metallo-beta-lactamase) producers was evaluated by CDDT (Combined disk diffusion test) and prevalence of blaNDM, blaDIM, blaIMP, blaVIM and blaCTX-M-15  genes were evaluated  by PCR and sequencing methods among P. aeruginosa and  A. baumannii strains isolated from  hospitalized patient of Tehran during 2013 -2014 years.

Results: Of thirty-four non-fermenter isolates, 24 (70.58%) P. aeruginosa and 10 (29.41%) as A. baumannii were isolated and identified. High rate of resistance to common antibiotics were detected specially among A. baumannii isolates that showed 100% resistance to 4 of tested antibiotics. The CDDT results reveal that 4 (16.66%) of the P. aeruginosa isolates and 1 (10%) of the A.baumannii were positive for production of MBLs. The prevalence of blaCTX-M-15 gene among 10 A. baumannii isolates was 4 (40%), and for IMP-1, 2 (20%). The 𝑏𝑙𝑎OXA-51 has been investigated and was detected in all A. baumannii isolates. Also the prevalence of blaCTX-M-15 gene among 24 P.aeruginosa isolates was 11 (45.83%), and for IMP-1, 3(12.5%). Fortunately, 𝑏𝑙𝑎NDM, blaVIM, blaDIM gene was not detected in all isolates.

Conclusion: The detection of MBL-producing A. baumannii and P. aeruginosa strains detected in this research is of great concern and highlights the need of infection control measures, including antimicrobial management and prompt detection of beta-lactamase-producing isolates.


YKL-40 Gene Expression and Plasma Levels of CD30 are not Affected by Isoflurane or Propofol: Pilot Study

Shirin Lak, Shayesteh Khorasanizadeh, Farshid Yeganeh, Mohammad Esmaeil Akbari, Mostafa Haji Molla Hoseini

Novelty in Biomedicine, Vol. 4 No. 4 (2016), , Page 159-165

Background: It has been hypothesized that the body's response to anesthesia techniques can increase risk of cancer recurrence and metastatic disease after surgery and also can modulate immune responses. Some acute inflammatory markers have been measured to survey the immunomodulatory effect of anesthesia, but in this research, we studied the plasma level of CD30 and YKL-40 gene expression which can present major changes of the immune system.

Materials and Methods: Our study was a controlled before and after study. 34 women with biopsy-proven breast cancer were randomized to receive either propofol general anesthesia (n=17) or standard isoflurane general anesthesia (n=17). There were no significant differences between the two patient groups in age, body weight, and height, length of general anesthesia, operative time and group of surgery. The blood samples were collected in two different sets, before anesthesia and 72-h postoperatively. Soluble CD30 (sCD30) plasma level was measured by ELISA and YKL-40/CHI3L1 gene expression was evaluated by real-time-PCR.

Results: The results showed that the anesthetics, propofol and isoflurane, have no effect on the expression of YKL-40. Despite increased in the expression of YKL-40 that was observed in patients receiving isoflurane, this increase was not statistically significant. There was no significant increase or decrease in plasma concentrations of sCD30.

Conclusion: YKL-40 and sCD30 are not affected by isoflurane or propofol.  So, in immunological perspective, there is no preference in use of isoflurane or propofol in breast cancer patients.

Nail fold Capillaroscopic Findings in Iranian Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

Alireza Rajaei, Pooneh Dehghan, Saideh Ariannia

Novelty in Biomedicine, Vol. 4 No. 4 (2016), , Page 166-172

Background: Systemic Lupus Erythematosus is a progressive autoimmune disease with a wide range of morphological and functional changes in microscopic examination of small blood vessels. Identification of vascular diseases at early stage, plays an essential role in the prevention of its’ vascular complications. Nailfold capillaroscopy (NFC) is a non-invasive, easy, painless, and accurate method for evaluation of microcirculation and could be used for this purpose. The vast majority of studies on capillaroscopy in lupus patients have shown that changes are not specified to lupus –unlike Systemic Sclerosis- and are more likely to overlap with other diseases. Therefore, it was decided to check capillaroscopic changes and evaluate morphological changes and capillary structure in terms of quality and quantity in lupus patients.

Materials and Methods: Nail fold capillaroscopic findings of 114 patients aged 19-75 years old were reviewed in this study. The results were categorized as: a) normal, b) non-specific morphological abnormalities, and c) Scleroderma-like pattern.  Results were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively using SPSS 21 software. "Chi square" test was used to analyze the relationships between variables (P<0.05 was considered significant).

Results: Our results show that Lupus –independent of any other microvascular risk factor can significantly affect the morphology and structure of blood circulation and these changes are shown with detail by nail fold capillaroscopy.

Conclusion: Most of the findings are in line with similar studies performed by other investigators in this field. However, no specific pattern was recognized and microbleeding was higher in our patients with scleroderma-like pattern of involvement.

Comparison of Insulin Expression Levels in White Blood Cells of infants with and without Family History of Type II Diabetes

Reza Mazhari, Reza Mirfakhraie, Mojgan Asadi, Nasrin Alipour Olyaei, Hamidreza Kheiri, Elham Moslemi, Mahnaz Khanmohamadi, Elham Tohidnejad, Vahid Reza Yasaee

Novelty in Biomedicine, Vol. 4 No. 4 (2016), , Page 173-180

Background: Type II diabetes is known as one of the most important, prevalent, and expensive diseases of mankind. Late diagnosis and subsequent delayed initiation of treatment or surveillance of patients create a variety of problems for affected individuals. This has raised increasing concerns for public health authorities throughout the world. In the current study, we aimed to find a new approach for early identification of high-risk individuals at initial months of their life. This allows us to take preventive measures as early as possible.

Materials and Methods: In our study, 102 infants - from one to six months - were selected and placed in two case and control groups. The case group contained 52 babies with at least one of their parents identified as a type II diabetic patient. The control group comprised 50 babies with no family history of type II diabetes in paternal and maternal first-degree relatives. Afterwards, the expression level of insulin gene was analyzed in white blood cells of both groups. Information related to infants - referred to outpatient and inpatient wards of three main pediatric hospitals placed in Tehran - and their parents were collected through questionnaires within a two-year period. The study inclusion criteria for infants were confirmed type II diabetes in at least one of their parents, the absence of any metabolic disorder, and the absence of any disturbing vital signs. After drawing 2 ml of babies’ peripheral blood, total RNA of white blood cells (WBC) was extracted, and used for cDNA synthesis. Real-Time PCR was then applied to quantitatively evaluate the expression levels of insulin gene. The results of Real-Time PCR were statistically analyzed by non-parametric tests of Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis.

Results: The expression of insulin gene was observed in white blood cells of all samples. However, there was a significant difference in expression levels between case and control groups (p<0.05). There was a statistically significant difference in mean levels of gene expression among babies with diabetic mother, and healthy groups (RQ=0.5, P-value=0.002), but this value wasn’t significant for babies with diabetic father (RQ=0.78, P>0.05).

Conclusion: Numerous genes contribute to the development of diabetes and novel disease-causing genes are increasingly being discovered. Identification of disease-prone individuals through examining merely one underlying gene is complicated and challenging. Interestingly, all of these abnormally functioning genes finally manifest themselves in the altered expression levels of insulin gene. The expression status of insulin gene in WBCs could be suggested as a useful approach for identification of individuals at high risk for developing diabetes. This paves the way for taking appropriate measures at infancy period in order to prevent the disease as well as inhibit its various side effects in the following years of patient’s life.

Case Report

First Report of Vermamoeba vermiformis in the Island of El Hierro, Canary Islands, Spain

María Reyes-Batlle, Maryam Niyyati, Carolina Wagner, Carmen M. Martín-Navarro, Atteneri López-Arencibia, Ines Sifaoui, Basilio Valladares, Enrique Martínez-Carretero, José E. Piñero, Jacob Lorenzo-Morales

Novelty in Biomedicine, Vol. 4 No. 4 (2016), , Page 181-184

Background: Free-living amoebae (FLA) are group of protozoa distributed worldwide in many habitats mainly water and soil related sources. Some members of FLA are able to act as opportunistic pathogens and are environmental carriers of other pathogenic agents such as bacteria and viruses. Vermamoeba vermiformis is a highly abundant FLA species in water bodies and has recently gained environmental importance as it acts as a vehicle of many pathogenic bacteria such as Legionella pneumophila.

Cases Report: In this study, water samples were collected from the island of El Hierro, Canary Islands, Spain during 2015. El Hierro island was designated by UNESCO as a biosphere reserve and it is currently the less populated of the Canary Islands. The water samples were culture on 2 % Non-Nutrient Agar (NNA) plates covered with a thin layer of heat killed E. coli and checked daily for the presence of FLA. After a week, V. vermiformis amoebae were observed in the plates incubated at room temperature and 37 ºC. Molecular characterization was carried out by amplifying the 18S rDNA gene and DNA sequencing, confirming that the isolated strain belonged to Vermamoeba vermiformis species.

Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of Vermamoeba vermiformis isolation in the island of El Hierro and the second report of this species in the Canary Islands.

Short Communication

Identification of Zoonotic Parasites isolated from Stray Dogs in Bojnurd County Located in North-East of Iran

Kourosh Arzamani, Soheila Rouhani, Ahmad Mousazadeh-Mojarrad, Simin Sedeghi, Mehrdad Rostami, Saber Raeghi

Novelty in Biomedicine, Vol. 4 No. 4 (2016), , Page 185-188

Dog can represent as an important source of zoonotic disease and important health problem for human. They can carry dangerous parasitic diseases such as hydatidosis, toxocariasis and Coenurus cerebralis to humans and animals. This study was performed in order to determine the prevalence and intensity of zoonotic parasites among stray dogs from Bojnurd, the capital city of North Khorasan province in North West of Iran. During a program performing by Bojnurd municipal on the slow killing of stray dogs, 32 dogs from Jun 2013 till March 2015 were selected. At necropsy their alimentary canals were removed and to identify the species of helminthes, the nematodes were cleared in lactophenol and cestodes were stained using carmine acid. Intestinal protozoan parasites were detected with parasitological methods. 28 (87.5%) of 32 stray dogs infected at least with one helminth. Seven species of cestodes were isolated from examined dogs and three species of nematode were detected. Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium sp. detected from fecal samples. This is the first study of the prevalence of intestinal zoonotic parasites in dogs in this area. It seems control of bearing stray dogs can help human health and reduction economic losses caused by stray dog’s zoonotic parasites.