Values of Urinary Mineral Excretion in Healthy Iranian Children
Journal of Pediatric Nephrology,
Vol. 3 No. 1 (2015),
Introduction: Normal values of urinary mineral excretion differ in different geographic parts. The aim of this study was to determine age-related reference intervals for urinary minerals in healthy children in the south-west of Iran.
Materials and Methods: Midstream non-fasting urine samples were collected and the amount of calcium, oxalate, uric acid, phosphate, magnesium, citrate, and creatinine was measured in all urine samples. The urinary mineral concentrations were reported as mineral to creatinine ratios (mg/mg). Data were analyzed by SPSS software version 16 and independent t-test and T-Hoteling test was used.
Results: The study involved 232 children aged 7 to 10 years. The 5th and 95th percentile values of urinary minerals to creatinine ratios were determined. The mean urinary Ca/Cr ratio was 0.14± 0.18 with a 95th percentile value of 0.295. For oxalate to creatinine ratio, the mean value was 0.068± 0.09 mg/mg with a 95th percentile value of 0.23. The mean uric acid to creatinine ratio was 0.358±0.211 mg/mg with an upper 95th percentile value of 0.69 and the mean Ph/Cr ratio was 0.439 and the 95th percentile was 1.01 mg/mg.
Conclusions: We found out that the normal values of random urinary mineral to creatinine ratio differ in our region from the other countries and even from the other regions in Iran. We concluded that child's age and ethnicity should be taken into consideration when assessing the urinary mineral to creatinine ratio.Keywords: Urine Specimen Collection; Urine minerals; Child; Iran; Calcium; Oxalate; Citrate; Uric Acid; Phosphate.
How to Cite
Safarinejad MR. Urinary mineral excretion in healthy Iranian children. Pediatric Nephrology 2003;18(2):140-144.
Slev PR, Bunker AM, Owen WE, Roberts WL. Pediatric reference intervals for random urine calcium, phosphorus and total protein. Pediatric Nephrology 2010;25(9):1707-1710.
Öner A, Erdogan Ö, Çamurdanoglu D, Demircin G, Bülbül M, Delibas A. Reference values for urinary calcium and uric acid excretion in healthy Turkish children. International Pediatr 2004;19:154–7.
Nikibakhsh A, Seyedzadeh A, Mahmoodzadeh H, et al. Normal Values for Random Urinary Calcium to Creatinine Ratio in Iranian Children. Iranian Journal of Pediatrics 2008. 18(3):263-266.
Natalie P. So, Alexies V. Osorio, Stephen D. Simon, U. S. Alon. Normal urinary calcium/creatinine ratios in African-American and Caucasian children. Pediatric Nephrology 2001;16(2):133-139.
Honarpisheh A, Hooman N, Taghavi A. Urinary Calcium Excretion in Healthy Children Living in Kashan/ Iran. Iranian Journal of Pediatrics 2009. 19(2):154-158.
Chen YH, Lee AJ, Chen CH, Chesney RW, Stapleton FB, Roy III S. Urinary mineral excretion among normal Taiwanese children. Pediatric Nephrology 1994;8(1):36-39.
Vachvanichsanong P, Lebel L, Moore ES. Urinary calcium excretion in healthy Thai children. Pediatric Nephrology 2000;14(8-9):847-850.
Koyun M, Güven AG, Filiz S, et al. Screening for hypercalciuria in schoolchildren: what should be the criteria for diagnosis? Pediatric Nephrology 2007;22(9):1297-1301.
SrivastavaT, WinstonMJ, AuronA, AlonUS. Urine Calcium/Citrate Ratio in Children With Hypercalciuric Stones. Pediatric Research 2009; 66, 85–90.
Reusz GS, Dobos M, Byrd D, Sallay P, Miltényi M, Tulassay T. Urinary calcium and oxalate excretion in children. Pediatric Nephrology 1995;9(1):39-44.
Sáez-Torres C, Rodrigo D, Félix Grases F, et al. Urinary excretion of calcium, magnesium, phosphate, citrate, oxalate, and uric acid by healthy schoolchildren using a 12-h collection protocol.Pediatric Nephrology 2014;29(7):1201-1208.
Jones AN, Shafer MM, Keuler NS, Crone ME, Hansen KE. Fasting and postprandial spot urine calcium-to-creatinine ratios do not detect hypercalciuria. Osteoporosis International 2012;23(2):553-562.
Seifert-Mclean CM, Cromer BA, Mosher G. Urinary calcium excretion in healthy adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Health Care 1989;10(4):300-304.
Emamghorashi F, Davami MH,Rohi R. Hypercalciuria in Jahrom’s School-Age Children, What is Normal Calcium-Creatinine Ratio? IJKD 2010;4:112-5.
Ceran O, Akin M, Aktürk Z, Ozkozaci T. Normal urinary calcium/creatinine ratios in Turkish children. Indian Pediatrics 2003, 40(9):884-887.
Matos V, Van Melle G, Werner D, et al. Urinary oxalate and urate to creatinine ratios in a healthy pediatric population. AJKD 1999;34(2):el. 18. Pal M, Datta S, Pradhan AK, et al. Determination of upper reference value of urinary calcium-creatinine ratio for the paediatric population in Burdwan district. Advances in Biological Chemistry 2013;3(5): Article ID:37801,5 pages.
Sweid HA, Bagga A, Vaswani M, Vasudev V, Ahuja RK, Srivastava RN. Urinary excretion of minerals, oxalate, and uric acid in north Indian children. Pediatric Nephrology 1997;11(2):189-92.
PoyrazoğluHM, DüşünselR, YaziciC, et al. Urinary uric acid:creatinine ratios in healthy Turkish children. Pediatrics International 2009;51(4):526-529.
Matos V, Melle GV, Boulat O, et al. Urinary phosphate/creatinine, calcium/creatinine, and magnesium/creatinine ratios in a healthy pediatric population. J of Pediatrics 1997;252-257.
Grases F, Saez-Torres C, Rodriguez A, et al. Urinary phytate (Myo-inositol hexaphosphate) in healthy school children and risk of nephrolithiasis. J of Renal Nutrition 2014; july:219-223.
- Abstract Viewed: 304 times
- PDF Downloaded: 187 times