Diagnosis and Management of Common Arrhythmias in Pediatric Chronic Kidney Disease; A Review
Journal of Pediatric Nephrology,
Vol. 8 No. 4 (2020),
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) was recognized as a major cause of mortality and morbidity in adults with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Recent data indicate that cardiac complications are already present in children with advanced CKD. The main risk factors associated with cardiovascular mortality in adults include Coronary artery disease, left ventricular hypertrophy. Little is known regarding the specific risk factors for developing CVD morbidity and mortality in children. Based on recent reports, arrhythmia and cardiac arrest followed by cardiomyopathy and congestive heart failure were the leading causes of cardiac death in this pediatric population. This review summarizes the current literature on causes and pathophysiologic mechanisms of arrhythmias in the pediatric population with CKD, as the most common and life-threatening cardiac events. Herein, we focused our discussion on prompt diagnosis and management of common arrhythmias in children with CKD.
- cardiac disease, chronic kidney disease, arrhythmia, pediatric
How to Cite
1-Shroff R, Dégi A, Kerti A, Kis E, Cseprekál O, Tory K, et al. . Cardiovascular risk assessment in children with chronic kidney disease. Pediatr Nephrol. 2013; 28:875-884
2- Collins AJ, Foley RN, David T, Gilbertson DT, Chen S. United States Renal Data System public health surveillance of chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease. Kidney Int Suppl. 2015;5(1): 2–7
3- Mitsnefes MM. Cardiovascular Disease in Children with Chronic Kidney Disease. J Am Soc Nephrol .2012;23: 578–585
4- The USRDS Dialysis Morbidity and Mortality Study: Wave 2. US Renal Data System. Am J Kidney Dis 30(Suppl 1):S67–S85, 1997
5- Silberberg JS, Barre PE, Prichard SS, Sniderman AD. Impact of left ventricular hypertrophy on survival in end-stage renal disease. Kidney Int.1989; 36:286–290
6- Levey AS, Beto JA, Coronado BE, Eknoyan G, Foley RN, Kasiske BL,et al. Controlling the epidemic of cardiovascular disease in chronic renal disease: what do we know? What do we need to learn? Where do we go from here?National Kidney Foundation Task Force on Cardiovascular Disease. Am J Kidney Dis.1998; 32:853–906
7- Anavekar NS, Pfeffer MA. Cardiovascular risk in chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int Suppl. 2004; 92: S11-S15
8- Gansevoort RT, Correa-Rotter R, Hemmelgarn BR, Jafar TH, Mann JF, Matsushita K, et al. Chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular risk: epidemiology, mechanisms, and prevention. Lancet. 2013; Jul 27;382(9889):339-352
9- Kavey RE , Allada V, Daniels SR, Hayman LL, McCrindle BW, Newburger JW, et al. Cardiovascular risk reduction in high-risk pediatric patients: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association Expert Panel on Population and Prevention Science; the Councils on Cardiovascular Disease in the Young, Epidemiology and Prevention, Nutrition, Physical Activity and Metabolism, High Blood Pressure Research, Cardiovascular Nursing, and the Kidney in Heart Disease; and the Interdisciplinary Working Group on Quality of Care and Outcomes Research: endorsed by the American Academy of Pediatrics. Circulation. 2006; 12;114(24):2710-38.
10- Chavers BM, Li S, Collins AJ, Herzog CA. Cardiovascular disease in pediatric chronic dialysis patients. Kidney Int. 2002; 62(2):648-53.
11- Groothoff JW, Gruppen MP, Offringa M, Hutten J, Lilien MR, Van De Kar NJ. Mortality and causes of death of end-stage renal disease in children: a Dutch cohort study. Kidney Int.2002; 61:621–629
12- Paoli S, Mitsnefes MM. Coronary artery calcification and cardiovascular disease in children with chronic kidney disease. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2014; 26:193-197
13- Bonato FoB, Canziani MEF. Ventricular arrhythmia in chronic kidney disease patients. J Bras Nefrol. 2017;39(2):186-195
14- Becherucci F, Roperto RM, Romagnani P, Materassi M. Chronic kidney disease in children. Clinical Kidney Journal.2016; 9 (4):583–591
15- Yao Q , Pecoits-Filho R, Lindholm B, Stenvinkel P. Traditional and non-traditional risk factors as contributors to atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in end-stage renal disease. Scand J Urol Nephrol. 2004;38(5):405-16
16- Lilien MR, Groothoff JW. Cardiovascular disease in children with CKD or ESRD. Nat Rev Nephrol. 2009;5(4):229-235
17-Tripepi G, Mallamaci F, Zoccali G. Inflammation markers, adhesion molecules, and all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in patients with ESRD: searching for the best risk marker by multivariate modeling. J Am Soc Nephro. 2005; 16 Suppl 1:S83-88
18-Paoli S , Mitsnefes MM. Coronary artery calcification and cardiovascular disease in children with chronic kidney disease. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2014;26(2):193-197
19- Safder O, sharif SA , Kar JA. Pediatric CKD and cardiovascular disease. Cardiovasc Hematol Disord Drug Targets. 2014;14(3):177-184
20- Matsushita K, Sang Y, Ballew SH, Shlipak M, Katz R, Rosas SE, et al. .Subclinical atherosclerosis measures for cardiovascular prediction in CKD. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2015;26(2):439-447
21- Matsushita K , Sang Y , Ballew SH, Shlipak M , Katz R , Rosas SE, et al.
Sudden death due to cardiac arrhythmias. N Engl J Med. 2001;345:1473-82
22- Boriani G, Savelieva I, Dan GA, Deharo JC, Ferro C, Israel CW, et al. Document reviewers. Chronic kidney disease in patients with cardiac rhythm disturbances or implantable electrical devices: clinical significance and implications for decision making-a position paper of the European Heart Rhythm Association endorsed by the Heart Rhythm Society and the Asia Pacific Heart Rhythm Society. Europace 2015;17:1169-96
23- Mitsnefes MM. Cardiovascular complications of pediatric chronic kidney disease. Pediatr Nephrol.2008; 23:27–39
24- Turakhia MP, Blankestijn PJ, Carrero JJ, Clase CM, Deo R, Herzog CA, et al. Chronic kidney disease and arrhythmias: conclusions from a Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) Controversies Conference
Conference Participants. Eur Heart J. 2018; 21;39(24):2314-2325.
25-Parekh RS, Carrol CE, Wolfe RA, Port FK .Cardiovascular mortality in children and young adults with end-stage kidney disease. J Pediatr .2002;141:191–197
26- Parekh RS , Lucy A, Meoni LA, Jaar BG , Sozio SM, Shafi T ,et al. Rationale and design for the Predictors of Arrhythmic and Cardiovascular Risk in End Stage Renal Disease (PACE) study BMC Nephrol . 2015;24:16:63.
27- Rantanen JM, Riahi S, Schmidt EB, Johansen MB, Søgaard P, Christensen JH. Arrhythmias in Patients on Maintenance Dialysis: A Cross-sectional Study.
Am J Kidney Dis. 2020;75(2):214-224
28- Bozbas H, Atar I, Yildirir A, Ozgul A, Uyar M, Ozdemir N, Muderrisoglu H, Ozin B. Prevalence and predictors of arrhythmia in end stage renal disease patients on hemodialysis. Ren Fail. 2007;29(3):331-339
29- Bosch A, Ulmer HE, Keller HE, Bonzel KE, Schärer k. Electrocardiographic monitoring in children with chronic renal failure. Pediatr Nephrol.1990;4:140–144
30- Malik R, Waheed S, Parashara D, Perez J, Waheed S. Association of QT interval with mortality by kidney function: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Open Heart. 2017;4(2):e000683
31- Crosson J, Hanash C. Emergency diagnosis and management of pediatric arrhythmias. Journal of Emergencies, Trauma, and Shock. 2010; 3(3), 251-260
32- Clausen H, Theophilos T, Jachno K, Babl F. Arrhythmias of children in the emergency department: incidence, management and outcome. Archives of Disease in Childhood. 2010; 95:A42
33- De Caen AR, Berg MD, Leon Chameides L, Gooden CK. Hickey RW, Scott HF, et al. 2015 American Heart Association Guidelines Update for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care. Circulation. 2015;132(18)_suppl_2Part 12: Pediatric Advanced Life Support
34- Walsh WP, Berul CI, Triedman JK. Cardiac Arrhythmias. In: Keane JF, Lock JE, Fyler DC, editors. Nadas’ Pediatric Cardiology. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier Inc; 2006.
35- Cain N, Irving C, Webber S, Beerman L, Arora G. Natural history of Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome diagnosed in childhood. Am J Cardiol. 2013; 112:961-965
36- Liu P, Han D, Sun X, Tan H, Wang Z, Liu C, et al. Prevalence and risk factors of acquired long QT syndrome in hospitalized patients with chronic kidney disease. J Investig Med. 2019;67(2):289–294
37- Di Iorio BR, D'Avanzo E, Piscopo C, Grimaldi P, Cucciniello E, Cillo N, et al. Progression of vascular calcification increases QT interval in hemodialysis patients. Nephrol Dial Transplant.2006;21:3609-10
- Abstract Viewed: 150 times
- PDF Downloaded: 138 times