Original/Research Article


The Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy on Reducing Symptoms of Depression, Pain Intensity, and Movement Limitation in Patients with Rheumatoid Rrthritis

NazAfarin Paknahad, Ezzatollah KordmirzaNikoozadeh, Majid Saffarinia, Abdulrahman Rostamian

International Journal of Applied Behavioral Sciences, Vol. 10 No. 3 (2023), 23 September 2023, Page 24-31
https://doi.org/10.22037/ijabs.v10i3.43353

Background and Aim:Rheumatoid arthritis is a disease that due to pain in the patient's joints, the patient cannot make strong movements due to the muscles around the joints are weakened and the patient's movement capability is reduced. Thus, this disease is associated with pain, depression, and also movement disability.Materials and Methods:This research is in the qualitative part of a semi-experimental design with a pre-test and post-test with a control group. The statistical population included people suffering from rheumatoid arthritis. In the quantitative part, based on the size of the population, 30 women with rheumatoid arthritis were and randomly replaced in the experimental and control groups. The experimental group in this study underwent cognitive behavioral therapy. The required information was collected by Beck’s Depression Questionnaire, McGill Pain Intensity Questionnaire (SF-MPQ-2), Osostria ODI Questionnaire, Physical Disability Assessment Questionnaire (Rowland & Morris, 1983), and Quebec Pain Disability Scale (QPDS). Also, for the measurement level of the desired variables and hypotheses, descriptive statistics such as mean, standard deviation, frequency distribution tables, and graphs were used in the descriptive section. In the inferential part, the assumptions of univariate and multivariate covariance analysis, Levine's test, and Sphericity were used.Results:The results of univariate and multivariate analysis of covariance showed that CBT reduces depression, pain, and their components; Motor disability, components of functional disability, physical disability, and back pain disability were effective in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. It was also stated that CBT has a higher effectiveness in reducing pain and its components (except emotional perception of pain) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.Conclusion:CBT has been effective in all four variables.

Designing a Hierarchy Process of Human Resource Motivation in Scientific-Research Systems

Roholah Hosseini, Ahmad Ali Khaefelahi

International Journal of Applied Behavioral Sciences, Vol. 10 No. 3 (2023), 23 September 2023, Page 32-39
https://doi.org/10.22037/ijabs.v10i3.42380

Background and Aim:Motivation encourages employees to engage in their jobs and, consequently, to achieve organizational goals. So, the purpose of this research is to design a Hierarchy process of human resource motivation in scientific-research organization based on fuzzy Approach.Materials and Methods:The population consists of academic experts. The data analysis was conducted in Yager Fuzzy Space. The present study is a survey and, in terms of objectives, is applied. Additionally, it is descriptive-survey in terms of the data collection method.Results:Based on MD (Fuzzy Degree of Membership), the internal motivation factors have a higher degree of membership compared to external factors, which shows the importance and effectiveness of internal factors in creating motivation, it also shows the applicability of this model according to the current situation. The research findings include the Interpretative Structural Integrated Model at four levels that is consistent with motivational models such as Maslow, Alderfer, and Herzberg.Conclusion:The optimization of service compensation plans is placed at the lowest level and the optimal work environment and the promotion of safety and health are placed at the highest level, i.e. the first level. The higher the elements are, the less their stimulus and the higher their degree of dependency would be. Therefore, the optimal work environment, enhancement of safety and health are the most dependent elements of the model and optimization of service compensation plans is the most driving element of the model.

The Relationship Between Deficits in Executive Functions and Processing Speed with PTSD Symptoms in Cancer Patients: The Mediating Role of Fatigue and Attention Bias

Farzaneh Vatankhah Amjad, Farideh Ameri, Roshanak Khodabakhsh Pirkalani, Gholam Reza Dehshiri

International Journal of Applied Behavioral Sciences, Vol. 10 No. 3 (2023), 23 September 2023, Page 1-12
https://doi.org/10.22037/ijabs.v10i3.40789

Background and Aim:The rapid and increasing growth of cancer disease in developed and developing countries and its multi-factorial and destructive personal, social and economic consequences have drawn this disease as a deliberate problem that threatens people's mental health, drawing special attention from specialists and researchers in the health field.. theaim of this research is to analyze the relationship between deficits in "executive function" and "processing speed" with "PTSD symptoms" in cancer patients, by examining the mediating role of fatigue and attention bias.Materials and Methods:This research was conducted by the path analysis-correlation method. Its statistical universe was all patients with gastrointestinal cancers (esophagus, stomach, colon, liver, and pancreas) referring to Tehran hospitals and medical centers (Iran) in the first six months of 2022. The statistical sample of this research was 158 men and women referring to two referal hospitals, who were selected for convenience sampling and participated in this research after obtaining informed consent. The research has used the post-traumatic stress disorder checklist (PCL-5), the Barkley Deficit in Executive Functioning Scale (BDEFS), Cancer Fatigue Scale (CFS), the Attention to Positive and Negative Information Scale (APNIS), and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS). The research data was tested using structural equation modeling method (path analysis); SPSS version 21 statistical software and Lisrel software were used to analyze the data.Results:According to the results of the path analysis, the direct path of the "executive function" ( β=-0.249, T=-3.328), the direct path of the "cancer fatigue (CRF)" (β=0.31, T=64.979), and the direct path of "positive attention bias"(β=-0.341, T=-4.648), " to the "PTSD symptom" is significant. However, the direct path of the "processing speed"(β=-0.024, T=-0.501) and the direct path of "negative attention bias" (β=-0.104, T=-1.774) to the "PTSD symptom" are not significant.The direct path of "executive function" to "cancer fatigue" (β=0.623, T=10.081) is significant, but, the direct path of the "processing speed" to "cancer fatigue" (β=0.119, T=1.932), direct path of "processing speed" to "positive attention bias" (β =-0.008, T=-0.132) and direct path of "executive function" to (β=-0.367, T=-4.782)  to "negative attention bias" is insignificant.Moreover, according to the results, the indirect effect of the "executive functions" on the "PTSD symptoms" through "positive attention bias" is significant (b=0.077, P<0.05); but, the indirect effect of the "executive functions" on the "PTSD symptoms" through "negative attention bias" is not significant (b=0.013, P>0.05). The indirect effect of the "processing speed" to the "PTSD symptoms" through " cancer fatigue"(b=0.066, P>0.05), the indirect effect of the "processing speed" to the "PTSD symptoms" through "positive attention bias"(b=0.005, P>0.05), and the indirect effect of the "processing speed" to the "PTSD symptoms" through "negative attention bias" is not significant (b=-0.001, p>0.05).Conclusion:According to the existing research evidence, people show different reactions after being diagnosed with cancer, and during the treatment process, as a traumatic event.Considering the research results, it can be concluded that the experience of cancer-related stress disorder is influenced by cancer fatigue (CRF), information processing speed, and positive and negative attention bias. These results can be the basis for designing an intervention program to reduce symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in people with cancer, especially gastrointestinal cancers.

The Comparison of Effectiveness of Emotion-Focused Therapy With and Without Health-Promoting Behaviors Training on High-Risk Behaviors and Healthy Lifestyles in Secondary School Students

Seyedeh Katayoun Hedayat, Isaac Rahimian Boogar, Nematullah Sotoudeh Asl, Ameneh Moazedian

International Journal of Applied Behavioral Sciences, Vol. 10 No. 3 (2023), 23 September 2023, Page 13-22
https://doi.org/10.22037/ijabs.v10i3.42958

Background and Aim:The conducting studies to achieve gold standards in intervention for high-risk behaviors and improving a healthy lifestyle is important. The aim of the research was to compare the effectiveness of emotion-focused therapy with and without teaching health-promoting behaviors on high-risk behaviors and healthy lifestyles in secondary school students.Materials and Methods:The research design employed a semi-experimental approach with a pretest-posttest design and a control group. From three high school girls in the fifth region of Tehran, 45 participants were selected through cluster random sampling and then randomly assigned to two treatment groups and one control group. Data collection utilized the Risky Behaviors Scale (RBS) and the lifestyle questionnaire (LSQ), and analysis was performed using covariance analysis and Duncan's Multiple Range test (DMRT) with SPSS-26.The first treatment group underwent emotion regulation intervention over eight sessions lasting 90 minutes each. The second treatment group received emotion regulation intervention combined with health promotion behavior training across seven sessions of 90 minutes each. The control group did not receive any intervention.Results:The emotion-focused therapy with and without health-promoting behavior training is effective in reducing risky behaviors (F=23.266, P=0.001) and promotion of healthy lifestyle F=54.084, P=0.001) and comparing these two interventions indicate the greater effectiveness of the integrated emotion-focused therapywith health-promoting behavior training.Conclusion:It is recommended to use emotion-focused therapy in combination with the training of health-promoting behaviors for intervention in risky behaviors and unhealthy lifestyles in adolescence .Also, these results require further investigation in future studies.

The Mediating Role of Rumination in Structural Model ofAnorexia Nervosa

Sara Kashani Vahid, Alireza Mohammadi Aria, Khadijeh Abolmaali Alahosseini

International Journal of Applied Behavioral Sciences, Vol. 10 No. 3 (2023), 23 September 2023, Page 40-48
https://doi.org/10.22037/ijabs.v10i3.41627

Background and Aim:Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a critical psychological disorder characterized by life-threatening distress, significant weight loss, and distorted body image. This study aimed to explore the mediating role of rumination in the relationship between behavioral inhibition/approach systems (BIS/BAS), metacognitive beliefs (MCB), attachment styles (AS), and AN.Materials and Methods:Conducted as modeling research, this study focused on Tehran's student population, employing a multi-stage cluster sampling method. The research involved 215 girl students who completed assessments included the Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale, Ruminative Responses Scale, sensitivity to reinforcement scale, metacognitive beliefs-30, and attachment styles. Data analysis employed the partial least squares method in SPSS and Smart-PLS software.Results:The results indicate that the revised model of the structural relationship among sensitivity to reinforcement, metacognitive beliefs, attachment styles, and AN, with the mediation of rumination, exhibits appropriate fitness characteristics.Conclusion:The confirmed mediation of rumination in the complex interplay of BIS/BAS, MCB, AS, and AN reveal a crucial cognitive pathway, deepening our understanding of the disorder's etiology. This underscores the potential efficacy of interventions targeting rumination, prompting a paradigm shift in therapeutic strategies. Recognizing rumination as a central mediator allows for a focused approach, addressing the multifaceted aspects of AN and opening avenues for more effective interventions to support individuals grappling with the disorder.