Original Article

An Evaluation of Dentin’s Effect on the Antifungal Activity of MTA Cements

Zahed Mohammadi, Abbasali Khademi, Mohammad Hossein Toodehzaeim

Iranian Endodontic Journal, Vol. 2 No. 1 (2007), 1 April 2007, Page 1-4

INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dentin on the antifungal activity of gray and white-colored MTA (GMTA, WMTA) using a tube-dilution test. MATERIALS AND METHODS: MTA preparations were tested freshly mixed and after 24h on Candida Albicans (CA). The experiment was performed in 24-well culture plates. Fifty wells were used and divided into four experimental groups (freshly-mixed WMTA, freshly-mixed WMTA plus dentin powder, freshly-mixed GMTA, and freshly-mixed GMTA plus dentin powder) of 10 wells each and control groups of five wells each. Plates of Sabouraud dextrose agar mixed with CA served as positive control and Sabouraud dextrose agar without CA served as negative control. Fresh inoculate of CA was prepared by growing an overnight culture from a stock culture. Aliquots of CA were then taken from the stock culture and plated on the agar compound of the experimental and positive control group. All plates were incubated at 37°C for1h, 24h, and 72h. Growth of fungi was monitored daily by the presence of turbidity. Kruskal-Wallis test was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: Results showed the inhibitory effect of dentin powder on the antifungal effect of MTA cements during 24h and 72h incubation periods, whereas, there was no significant difference between 1h incubation groups. CONCLUSION: The antifungal effect of freshly mixed MTA cements was decreased in the presence of dentin.

SEM Study of Root Canal Walls Cleanliness after Ni-Ti Rotary and Hand Instrumentation

Noosha Khadivi Nia Javan, Ladan Mohajeri Baradaran, Shahram Azimi

Iranian Endodontic Journal, Vol. 2 No. 1 (2007), 1 April 2007, Page 5-10

INTRODUCTION: To compare the cleaning effectiveness of K3 and Race NiTi rotary systems with K-Flexo file instruments during the preparation of curved canals in extracted human teeth. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 50 root canals of mandibular and maxillary molars with curvatures ranging between 25º and 35 º were divided in three groups of 15 each and 5 as negative control groups. Canals were prepared using a low torque control motor in two rotary groups according to manufacturer’s instructions. Conventional Step back with S.S K files was the preparation technique in third group. The amount of debris and smear layer was quantified on the basis of a numerical evaluation scale. The data were statistically analyzed using Chi-Square and Likelihood Ratio tests. RESULTS: In general, no significant difference in terms of amount of debris were found among three groups, only in apical zones of Race and K-Flexo file groups a significant difference was detected (P=0.041). Race rotary system left significantly less smear layer than k-Flexo file in the middle (P=0.009) and apical thirds (P=0.012), respectively. K3 significantly achieved higher scores of cleanliness than K-Flexo file in apical third only (P=0.049). No significant difference between Race and K3 rotary groups for residual debris and formed smear layer was detected. CONCLUSION: Obtaining higher scores of cleanliness in various regions of the canals, crown down technique and the use of rotary instrumentation seem to be superior to conventional hand instrumentation with step back technique .No significant difference between K3 with three radial lands and Race with three cutting edges in terms of debris and smear layer formation was detected.

An In-Vitro Evaluation of Sealing Ability of Real Seal Using Fluid Filtration

Mina Zarei, Maryam Javidi, Jamileh Ghoddusi, Neda Naghavi, Ehsan Roohani

Iranian Endodontic Journal, Vol. 2 No. 1 (2007), 1 April 2007, Page 11-14

INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to compare the sealing ability of Real Seal (RS) and Gutta-percha (GP). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty nine extracted human maxillary central incisors were used. The coronal part of each tooth was removed; the root canal was prepared using the crown down technique and apical enlargement to rotary file # 40. The specimens were randomly divided in to 3 groups of 15 each and two control groups of 2 each. Group 1, was obturated with RS and group 2 and 3 were obturated with GP and AH26 sealer by lateral condensation technique. In group 1 and 3 the smear layer was removed by 5mL of 5.25% NaOCl and 3mL of 17% EDTA. Leakage of the obturated roots was measured using the fluid filtration technique. This method was done at 2 min intervals for 8 min. data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey tests. RESULTS: Statistical analysis indicated significant differences between groups 2 with 1 and 3. The most leakage value was observed in the group 2. CONCLUSION: Root canal filling with RS or GP in combination with smear layer removal showed better sealing. Therefore the smear layer has more effect one apical leakage than the obturation system.

INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this in-vitro study was to investigate the influence of the remaining calcium hydroxide (CH) as an intracanal dressing on the apical sealing ability of three endodontic sealers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty-six single and straight canals of recently extracted human permanent maxillary central incisors were used. All canals were prepared and sixty of them were randomly divided into two groups with (group 1) and without (group 2) CH medication. Each of these groups was divided into three experimental groups using AH26 (group a), Dorifill (group b), and Apexit (group c). Six remained teeth were divided into positive and negative groups of three each. Root canals were filled with gutta-percha and AH26 (groups 1a, 2a), Dorifill (groups 1b, 2b) and Apexit (groups 1c, 2c) using lateral condensation technique. The apical third of the roots were placed in Pelikan ink for one week. Linear dye penetration was recorded using a stereomicroscope and a digital caliper. Data were compared with analysis of variance (ANOVA). RESULTS: Observed leakage in groups which were filled with Apexit sealer was significantly different (P<0.002). There was no significant difference among groups which were filled with Dorifill and AH26. CONCLUSION: Calcium hydroxide did not influence the apical sealing ability of AH26 and Dorifill, while it did improve the apical sealing ability of Apexit sealer.

Pattern of Antibiotic Prescription among Dentists in Iran

Shahla Kakoei, Maryam Raoof, Fahimeh Baghaei, Shahrzad Adhami

Iranian Endodontic Journal, Vol. 2 No. 1 (2007), 1 April 2007, Page 19-23

INTRODUCTION: This study examines the antibiotic prescription in dentists participated in 9th Congress of Iranian Association of Endodontists in Esfahan/2006. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A questionnaire for this cross sectional study was designed for evaluating the patterns of antibiotic prescription. It included some demographic information, clinical signs, and conditions in need for antibiotic and prophylactic prescription and their choices. Data was analyzed using Pearson’s Chi-square test. RESULTS: High percentage of responders prescribe antibiotic for fever (78.2%) and diffuse swelling (85.1%). However, some situations such as acute pulpitis, chronic periapical lesions and marginal gingivitis were irrationally prescribed. CONCLUSION: This study showed a fairly good pattern of antibiotic prescription but it was far from ideal.

Presence of Candida Albicans in Root Canal System of Teeth Requiring Endodontic Retreatment with and without Periapical Lesions

Hengameh Ashraf, Mohammad Samiee, Gita Eslami, Mohammad Reza Ghodse Hosseini

Iranian Endodontic Journal, Vol. 2 No. 1 (2007), 1 April 2007, Page 24-28

INTRODUCTION: An important consideration in endodontic treatment is the elimination of microorganisms, including fungi, from the complex three- dimensional root canal system. Candida Albicans (CA) has a major role in endodontic treatment failure as the most important fungus isolated from the root canal system. The present study was carried out to evaluate the presence of CA in the teeth requiring endodontic retreatment, with or without periapical lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was carried out on 60 root canals from human molars requiring endodontic retreatment. The root canals were randomly divided into two equal groups of 30 canals with versus without periapical lesions. Samples were collected from the root canals and cultured on MacConkey and blood agar culture media. The samples suspected of having CA were streaked on Sabouraud’s Dextrose Agar (SDA) and evaluated under a light microscope. Data was analyzed and compared using Chi- square and Kappa tests. RESULTS: CA was found in 11 patients (36.7%) with periapical lesions. In the patients without periapical lesions only 4 samples demonstrated CA in the root canal systems (13.3%). The difference between the two groups as to the presence of CA was statistically significant (P<0.037). In addition, evaluation of salivary samples revealed 15 cases (50%) of CA presence in the patients with periapical lesions and 16 cases (53.3%) of CA in the patients without periapical lesions, demonstrating no statistically significant difference between the two groups. CONCLUSION: Considering the fact that the presence of CA in the root canal systems of teeth with periapical lesions was more noticeable and statistically significant compared to the teeth without periapical lesions, the elimination of this microorganism from the root canal system, using appropriate intracanal solutions and medications is of utmost importance.

Analysis of Anxiety Scale and Related Elements in Endodontic Patients

Hengameh Akhavan, Payman Mehrvarzfar, Mahshid Sheikholeslami, Masomeh Dibaj, Shahrooz Eslami

Iranian Endodontic Journal, Vol. 2 No. 1 (2007), 1 April 2007, Page 29-31

INTRODUCTION: Anxiety of patients is one of the problems in dentistry which are considered in recent years, and it prevents them from having a treatment out of stress. This study was conducted to specify anxiety prevalence and related elements among endodontic patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted on 150 patients referred to Endodontic department of dental school of Islamic Azad University, using a cross sectional descriptive method in 2006. Using background characteristics, the patients were classified as a matter of age, sex, education and related factors such as previous dental visit, unfavorable experience in dental office, and the most prevalent cause of referring to dentist. In this regard, Dental Fear Survey (DFS), questionnaire was used and patients were divided in three groups of anxiety level. The results were analyzed using Chi-square and Fisher exact tests. RESULTS: The findings showed highest anxiety scales among dental office referents were statistically significant for age group of 20-30, women, and under diploma education (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Improving the knowledge about causes of anxiety and its preventive methods are suggested to dentists. They should also provide treatments without annoyance and trauma.

Case Report

Maturogenesis of a complicated crown fracture: A case report with 8 years follow-up

Masoud Parirokh, Shahla Kakoei, Ali Eskandarizadeh

Iranian Endodontic Journal, Vol. 2 No. 1 (2007), 1 April 2007, Page 32-36

This report describes a case of a 7 years old girl who suffered from complicated crown fracture of right mandibular central incisor because of a bicycle accident. For the tooth partial pulpotomy with calcium hydroxide, capping was performed in order to achieve apexogenesis and the tooth was restored with a double-seal of glass ionomer cement and composite resin. The patient was reviewed over 8 years. The tooth showed continued root development and complete apex formation.