Original Article

An In Vitro SEM Study on the Effectiveness of Smear Layer Removal of Four Different Irrigations


Iranian Endodontic Journal, Vol. 7 No. 4 (2012), 13 October 2012, Page 171-176

Introduction The aim of this study was to compare the smear layer removal efficacies of 3% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), 17% Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), SmearClear and BioPure MTAD using a common irrigation protocol.

Materials and Methods: Fifty freshly extracted human single rooted maxillary and mandibular teeth were prepared by a ProTaper rotary system up to an apical preparation file size F3. Prepared teeth were randomly divided into five groups (n=10); distilled water (Group A; negative control), EDTA (Group B), SmearClear (Group C), BioPure MTAD (Group D) and NaOCl (Group E). After final irrigation with tested irrigants the teeth were decoronated, split into two halves longitudinally and observed under a scanning electron microscope (SEM) for removal of the smear layer. The SEM images were then analyzed for the amount of smear layer present using a three score system. Data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney U test.

Results: Intergroup comparison of groups B, C, and D showed no statistical significant differences in the coronal and middle thirds, however, in the apical third the canal surfaces were cleaner in samples from group D (P<0.05).

Conclusion: BioPure MTAD was the most effective agent for the purpose of smear layer removal in the apical third of the root canals.

The Effect of Root Canal Preparation on the Development of Dentin Cracks

Amin Salem Milani, Mohammad Froughreyhani, Saeed Rahimi, Mohammad Asghari Jafarabadi, Sara Paksefat

Iranian Endodontic Journal, Vol. 7 No. 4 (2012), 13 October 2012, Page 177-182

Introduction: Root fracture is not an instant phenomenon but a result of gradual development of tiny craze lines in tooth structure. Recent studies have shown that canal instrumentation has the potential to cause dentinal cracks. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the formation of dentinal cracks caused by ProTaper rotary system to hand instrumentation.

Materials and Methods: This in vitro study was carried out using 57 mandible incisor teeth. The teeth were decoronated. The roots were then examined to exclude cracked samples. A standard model for PDL simulation was used. The teeth were randomly divided into two experimental and one control group (n=19). The teeth in the experimental groups were prepared using hand or ProTaper Universal rotary instrumentation. The teeth in the control group were left unprepared. The teeth were then sectioned horizontally 3 and 6 mm from the apex, and the number of various dentinal defects was recorded using a dental operating microscope. The differences between groups were analyzed with Fisher’s exact test.

Results: The hand group demonstrated significantly more defects than the control group (P=0.001). However, there was no significant difference between the rotary compared to the control and hand groups (P>0.05). There was no significant difference between groups with regards to fracture (P>0.05). Other defects including internal, external and surface cracks were more frequent in the hand than in the control or rotary groups (P=0.02), but the difference was not significant between the rotary and control groups (P>0.05).

Conclusion: Canal preparation, whether hand or rotary, produces structural defects in dentin. The ProTaper rotary system when used according to the manufacturer’s instructions, tends to produce fewer cracks and can be considered a safe preparation technique.

Introduction: The success of endodontic retreatment is related to the complete removal of the obturation material from the root canal system. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Mtwo R and ProTaper retreatment files in removing the Resilon/Epiphany system with or without chloroform during retreatment.

Materials and Methods: Sixty distal roots of first mandibular molars were prepared and laterally condensed with Resilon/Epiphany, then divided into four groups (15 each for retreatment): 1) Mtwo R/solvent; 2) Mtwo R; 3) ProTaper D/solvent; and 4) ProTaper D. The cleanliness of the canal walls was evaluated using radiography; a stereomicroscope and SEM. Data were subjected to ANOVA and Student’s t-test.

Results: Neither rotary system performed better than the other when considering the whole root canal, with or without solvent. In the apical portion, ProTaper/solvent showed the best result (P<0.05).

Conclusion: In Resilon/Epiphany retreatment cases, ProTaper/solvent was better in the apical portion; however when considering the whole canal, Mtwo R and the ProTaper D series had the same performance.

Introduction: Ca(OH)2-containing/forming materials are conventionally used for indirect pulp-capping and are theoretically able to release Ca2+ and OH- ions for hydrolytic dissociation. However, no evidence exists for ion diffusion through the remaining coronal dentin. The aim of this study was to design an innovative experimental set-up to test the ability of Ca(OH)2-containing and Ca(OH)2-forming pulp-capping materials to generate pulpward Ca2+ and OH- ion fluxes through coronal dentin after indirect pulp-capping in vitro.

Materials and Methods: Standardized class 1 cavities were prepared in erupted sound human molars. Pulp tissue was excised. A coronal Remaining Dentin Thickness (RTD) (1±0.2 mm thick) was prepared within an occlusal-to-pulp cavity system (coronal RD system). The whole system/sample was treated with 17% EDTA to remove the smear layer and the external surface was covered by nail varnish. Indirect pulp-capping was performed on coronal RDT using a conventional pulp-capping material covered by a glass ionomer cement, a composite and nail varnish. Chemically different Ca(OH)2 materials were used to test the reliability of the set-up. The leached Ca2+ and OH- ions were measured using ion-selective electrodes after soaking for 3 hours, 24 hours, and 7 days in deionized water (10 mL, 37°C).

Results: Calcium ions were detected and a rise in pH was observed in the treated water after a few hours for all tested materials.

Conclusion: The experimental set-up proved to be an easy and effective method for testing the different Ca(OH)2-containing and Ca(OH)2-forming materials ability to induce a pulpward flux of calcium and hydroxyl ions through coronal remaining dentin after indirect pulp-capping. The new system will allow the screening of current pulp-capping materials.

The Dissolving Ability of Different Organic Solvents on Three Different Root Canal Sealers: In Vitro Study

mubashir mushtaq, ajaz masoodi, riyaz farooq, fayiza khan

Iranian Endodontic Journal, Vol. 7 No. 4 (2012), 13 October 2012, Page 198-202

Introduction: The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate three common gutta-percha solvents’ effectiveness in dissolving three different types of root canal sealers.

Materials and Methods: The solubility of three different root canal sealers (AH Plus, Apexit Plus and Endoflas FS) was assessed in xylene, refined orange oil, tetrachloroethylene and distilled water (control). One-hundred twenty samples of root canal sealers were prepared and then divided into three equal groups (n=40). Each group was further divided into four equal subgroups (n=10) for immersion in the respective solvents for a 10 minute immersion period. The mean amount of weight loss was determined for each material in each solvent during the specified immersion period, and the values were subjected to statistical analysis.

Results: Xylene exhibited the greatest dissolving efficacy for AH Plus, followed by refined orange oil and tetrachloroethylene. Xylene was also able to dissolve the greatest amount of Apexit Plus, followed by refined orange oil and tetrachloroethylene which were equally effective in dissolving Apexit Plus. For Endoflas FS, maximum dissolving efficacy was seen with tetrachloroethylene followed by refined orange oil and xylene.

Conclusion: The results showed that xylene, refined orange oil and tetrachloroethylene can be used for the removal of AH Plus, Apexit plus and Endoflas FS sealers during endodontic retreatment. Further clinical investigations are needed to evaluate the efficacy of these solvents on different sealers.

Case Report

The Multidisciplinary Management of Avulsed Teeth: A Case Report

Adriana Jesus Soares, Maíra Prado, Thiago Farias Lima, Alexandre Zaia, Francisco Souza-Filho

Iranian Endodontic Journal, Vol. 7 No. 4 (2012), 13 October 2012, Page 203-206

This paper reports multidisciplinary treatment of a dental trauma case to achieve a favorable prognosis. A healthy 14-year-old girl reported avulsion of teeth 11 and 21 which had occurred three months earlier. The initial treatment consisting of replantation with a semi-rigid splint was performed in hospital. At presentation, the patient was still using the semi-rigid splint. The clinical examination revealed the presence of increased mobility in teeth 11 and 21, and absence of vitality in both. Radiographic examination showed the presence of inflammatory external root resorption in both teeth. The treatment proposed consisted of teeth extraction, a temporary prosthesis followed by adhesive prosthesis, and finally, implant surgery associated with porcelain crowns.

Mandibular First Premolar with Three Roots: A Case Report

pooja kakkar, Anant Singh

Iranian Endodontic Journal, Vol. 7 No. 4 (2012), 13 October 2012, Page 207-210

Anatomy of the root canal system always effects endodontic treatment outcome. Mandibular premolar teeth show extreme variations in root canal morphology. First premolars usually exhibit basic one root and one canal anatomy. The occurrence of three roots in mandibular first premolar has not been commonly reported in literature. This article reports a case of successful nonsurgical endodontic management of mandibular first premolar with three canals and three different apical foramina.

Non-Surgical Repair of Internal Resorption with MTA: A Case Report

Zahed Mohammadi, Mohammad Yazdizadeh, Sousan Shalavi

Iranian Endodontic Journal, Vol. 7 No. 4 (2012), 13 October 2012, Page 211-214

Internal resorption is rare in permanent teeth. Treatment is usually performed through warm gutta-percha technique. If the resorptive process perforates the root, treatment may be more difficult and is usually performed via surgical approach. Non-surgical repair of a perforating internal root resorption with MTA was conducted in this case. Before repairing the resorption, a master gutta-percha point was placed in the canal to maintain negotiability of the original canal path. Then, MTA was prepared and applied with a small carrier in the resorption area and compacted. Thereafter gutta-percha was retrieved and the access cavity was closed with a temporary filling material. In the second visit, the root canal was obturated with gutta-percha and AH26 sealer using lateral compaction technique and subsequently, the crown was restored. The symptoms and signs ceased and the result was satisfactory at the 18 month follow-up visit.

Two Rooted Maxillary Lateral Incisor: A Case Report

mandeep singh matta

Iranian Endodontic Journal, Vol. 7 No. 4 (2012), 13 October 2012, Page 215-218

An accurate diagnosis of the morphology of the root canal system is a pre-requisite for successful root canal treatment. Frequently, root canals are left untreated because the clinicians fail to identify their presence, particularly in teeth that have anatomical variations or additional root canals. In this report a maxillary lateral incisor with two roots has been described.