Original Article

Comparative study of the apical microleakage of three root canal sealers

Hengameh Akhavan, Anahid Ahmadi, Peyman Mehrvarzfar, Anahid Ahmadi Birjandi

Iranian Endodontic Journal, Vol. 6 No. 1 (2011), 25 January 2011 , Page 1-5

Introduction: The aim of this study was to examine and compare the apical sealing ability of AH26, AH plus and AH plus Jet using a fluid filtration model. Materials and Methods: 70 single-rooted teeth were dissected from the Cement-enamel junction. Canals were prepared with protaper rotary system and manual K files and irrigated with 5.25% Naocl and 17% EDTA. Ten teeth were assigned as control group and divided into 5 positive and 5 negative controls. Remaining specimens were divided into 3 groups of 20 samples and filled with gutta-percha points by lateral condensation technique. Each sample group was filled with either AH26, AH plus or AH Plus Jet. Micro leakage was assessed in the 2nd and 30th days by the mobility of air bubble in a capillary glass tube connected to the root. Results: No statistically significant difference was found in the apical micro leakage of the 3 studied sealers at any observation period. However, in the 2nd and 30th day, AH plus Jet had the least micro leakage values compared to AH plus and AH 26 (P>0.05). AH plus presented the highest micro leakage rate (P>0.05). Conclusion: Under the conditions of this study, all three studied sealers provided satisfactory seal in the mentioned period. Considering low microleakage rate of AH plus jet and its simplicity of use, the application of this sealer is recommended in endodontic therapy.

The effect of calcium hydroxide on the short and long-term sealing properties of MTA apical barrier

Maryam Bidar, Reza Disfani, Salman Gharagozloo, Majid Akbari, Armita Rouhani

Iranian Endodontic Journal, Vol. 6 No. 1 (2011), 25 January 2011 , Page 6-10

INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of remnant root canal medicament, calcium hydroxide on the short and long term sealing ability of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) apical barrier.

MATERIALS & METHODS: Fifty single-rooted teeth were prepared and apical resorptions were made using sulfuric acid. The teeth were allocated into two experimental groups and two control groups. In group 1, calcium hydroxide was placed into canals for one week. In group 2, no medication was placed. In both groups, a 4-mm MTA plug was placed in the root canals. The remaining portion of the canal was filled with gutta-percha/sealer. The microleakage was evaluated after 7 days and 3 months using fluid filtration technique. Repeated measurement ANOVA was used for statistical analysis.

RESULTS: There was no significant difference in sealing ability between the two groups in either time periods. In both groups, microleakage decreased after three months but this decrease was not statistically significant.

CONCLUSION: Medication with calcium hydroxide had no adverse effect on the short and long-term sealing properties of MTA plug.

Comparison of three pulpotomy agents in primary molars: a randomised clinical trial

Elham Farrokh Gisoure

Iranian Endodontic Journal, Vol. 6 No. 1 (2011), 25 January 2011 , Page 11-14

: Pulpotomy is an accepted treatment for the management of cariously exposed pulps in symptom free primary molars. The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical and radiological outcomes of three different single-visit vital pulp therapies including pulpotomy with electrosurgery (ES), formocresol (FC) and ferric sulfate (FS) in cariously exposed primary molar teeth.

MATERIALS & METHODS: Seventy-six patients, 5-10 years old, were enrolled in this clinical investigation. One primary molar tooth of each patient was selected for this study. Samples were randomly divided into three groups. Teeth were treated with FC in group 1 (i.e. control group) (n=24), FS in group 2 (n=28), and ES in group 3 (n=24) using standardized pulpotomy procedures. All treated teeth were clinically and radiographically evaluated after 6 and 9 months. Statistical analysis was performed using Fishers exact test.

RESULTS: The overall success rate in groups 1, 2 and 3 was 87.5%, 82.1% and 83.3%, respectively. Favorable clinical and radiological success rates of FS and ES pulpotomy was observed which was comparable to FC.

CONCLUSION: FS and ES can be considered alternative materials for the pulpotomy of primary molars.

Diagnostic accuracy of conventional, digital and Cone Beam CT in vertical root fracture detection

Solmaz Valiozadeh, Maryam Khosravi, Zeynab Azizi

Iranian Endodontic Journal, Vol. 6 No. 1 (2011), 25 January 2011 , Page 15-20

INTRODUCTION: Vertical root fracture (VRF) is a common failure in endodontically treated teeth. Due to VRF’s poor prognosis, a reliable and valid detection method is critical for treatment planning. Conventional and digital radiographs are limited in VRF detection. Recently, Cone Beam CT (CBCT) system has been introduced. This study aimed to compare the diagnostic accuracy of these three imaging modalities for VRF detection.

MATERIALS & METHODS: One hundred and twenty extracted single-rooted teeth were selected and sectioned through cementoenamel junction. The roots were divided in two groups; group one consisted of 60 teeth with induced root fracture and group two had 60 teeth with no fracture. In the first group the crack was made by instron system. All samples were imaged by the three imaging modalities. Diagnostic accuracy was then compared with methylene blue dye detection method. Kappa was used for statistical analysis.

RESULTS: CBCT showed the highest sensitivity (94.6%) and specificity (98.2%). Conventional radiography and digital radiography were not as accurate as CBCT.

CONCLUSION: According to our study, CBCT seems to be better than conventional and digital radiography in detecting VRF and provides the most reliable data in comparison with the two other modalities.

A comparative study of MTA solubility in various media

Mohammad Ali Saghiri, Jack Ricci, Morteza Daliri Joupari, Mohammad Aeinehchi, Kamran Ahmadi, Niloofar Bahramian

Iranian Endodontic Journal, Vol. 6 No. 1 (2011), 25 January 2011 , Page 21-24

INTRODUCTION: Solubility of root filling materials is heavily influenced by the environment they are in contact with. This study compared the solubility of ProRoot MTA in deionized water and synthetic tissue fluid.

MATERIALS & METHODS: Forty specimens of prepared MTA were immersed in deionized water and synthetic tissue fluid (20 samples each). The solubility was assessed after 7 and 28 days. Scanning electron microscope observation was also performed. The mean weight loss was evaluated using a digital scale. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA. Tukey test was performed for multiple comparisons.

RESULTS: MTA solubility in synthetic tissue fluid was significantly lower than deionized water after 7 and 28 days (P<0.05). Secondary electron detectors revealed the presence of lumps and platelets on the surfaces of both specimens. Also, more voids were observed in specimen stored in deionized water.

CONCLUSION: MTA dissolved faster in deionized water than synthetic tissue fluid. Despite this, the solubility of this material in both media was acceptable.


Introduction: Complete knowledge of root canal curvature is a critical factor in successful dental treatment .The aim of this study was to investigate the direction, radius and degree of curvature of maxillary anterior teeth and the relation between radius and degree of curvature in Babol city.

Methods &materials: This study was performed on 242 anterior teeth radiographs were taken by periapical parallel technique and processed by automatic processing. The degree of canal curvature was measured only at mesiodistal direction with Schneider method and classified according to Seidberg method .Statistical analysis was performed by Kruskal Wallis.

Results: Out of 242 examined teeth, 153(%62) had curvature that %35.3of them had mesially curve and %64.7 had distally curve. The degree of canal curvature was observed as following: %39.3 with small curvature, %44.6 with intermediate and %16.1 with sever curvature. Also the degree of curvature of central teeth was: 7.2°±9.03°, lateral: 12°±11°and canine: 15°±12°.There was significant correlation between type of tooth and degree of curvature (p=0.000). But there wasn't significant correlation between type of tooth and radius curvature. (p=o.365)

Conclusion: In present study, %62 of maxillary anterior teeth had curve and the most degree of curvature was related to the canines. Also it was seen inverted correlation between radius and degree of root curvature but it was insignificant.

Keywords: Maxillary anterior teeth, Radius of curvature, Root curvature.

An in vitro comparative study on the antimicrobial effects of bioglass 45S5 vs. calcium hydroxide on Enterococcus faecalis

Payman Mehrvarzfar, Hengameh Akhavan, Hossein Rastgarian, Nahid Mohammadzade Akhlagi, Reza Soleymanpour, Anahid Ahmadi

Iranian Endodontic Journal, Vol. 6 No. 1 (2011), 25 January 2011 , Page 29-33

INTRODUCTION: An ideal intracanal medicament should be able to eliminate any remaining intracanal microorganism. The aim of this study was to compare the antimicrobial effects of Bioglass 45S5 with calcium hydroxide on Enterococcus (E) faecalis in-vitro.

MATERIALS & METHODS: Direct exposure test (DET) was used to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of Bioglass 45S5, calcium hydroxide and normal saline (control group) on 80 paper cones contaminated with E. faecalis suspension. All samples were aseptically transferred into BHI culture medium to quantify microbial concentration in periods of 1, 24, 48 and 72 hours. Turbidity of the culture medium was measured via optical density (OPD) method with a spectrophotometer (wavelength=540nm). Results were then analysed statistically using student t-test.

RESULTS: Mean difference of optical density between Bioglass 45S5 and calcium hydroxide appeared insignificant within 1 hour of the test period (P>0.05); however calcium hydroxide showed significantly greater antimicrobial properties after 24 hours (P<0.05). Antimicrobial effect of both materials displayed significant increases with time.

CONCLUSION: Although both Bioglass 45S5 and calcium hydroxide exhibited antimicrobial effects against E. faecalis, neither attained complete eradication of bacteria. However, calcium hydroxide seemed to have superior disinfecting effect.


Case Report

Management of a hopeless mandibular molar: A case report

saeed asgary

Iranian Endodontic Journal, Vol. 6 No. 1 (2011), 25 January 2011 , Page 34-37

Intentional tooth reimplantation can be an alternative treatment option for teeth with poor or hopeless prognosis where coronal and surgical endodontic treatment(s) are not possible. This technique may help to restore a natural tooth to function in preference to prosthesis/implant replacements. A 38-years old male was referred to private practice with persistent chronic apical periodontitis of a previously root canal treated mandibular left first molar. A furcal perforation and distolingual cusp fracture was previously repaired and treated with amalgam (~5 years ago). In view of the patient/tooth’s limitations, intentional reimplantation was planned using CEM cement retrograde filling. Clinical and radiographic follow-up during 2 years postoperatively revealed no sign/symptoms of infection or inflammation. Moreover, periradicular healing was evident on radiographs.