Clinical Trial

Comparative Efficacy of Analgesics for Pain Relief in Patients with Symptomatic Irreversible Pulpitis Prior to Emergency Endodontic Treatment: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Ali Eslambol Nassaj, Amir Hossein Nekouei, Rahim Fereidooni, Homa Kamyabi, Abbas Pardakhty, arash shahravan

Iranian Endodontic Journal, Vol. 18 No. 4 (2023), 25 Mehr 2023, Page 194-201

Introduction This study aimed to compare the efficacy of ibuprofen, Novafen, mefenamic acid (MA), and celecoxib for pain relief in patients with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis prior to emergency endodontic treatment. Materials and Methods: This clinical trial was conducted on 120 patients with moderate to severe pain due to symptomatic irreversible pulpitis seeking emergency endodontic treatment. The patients were randomly divided into 4 groups to receive Novafen, MA, Celecoxib, and ibuprofen. The pain score of patients was measured before and 1 hour after analgesic intake using a visual analog scale (VAS). The success of analgesic treatment was analyzed by the binary logistic regression model. Results: A total of 117 patients including 76 females and 41 males with a mean age of 30.29 years completed the study and were statistically analyzed. Ibuprofen had the highest analgesic efficacy followed by Novafen, and caused a significantly greater reduction in pain score compared with MA and celecoxib [OR (Ibuprofen vs MA)=1.28, OR (Ibuprofen vs Celecoxib)=3.74, OR (Novafen vs MA)=2.94, OR (Novafen vs Celecoxib)=2.94, P<0.05]. Ibuprofen and Novafen had no significant difference in analgesic efficacy (P>0.05). Baseline pain score was a predictive factor for the success of analgesics (P<0.05). The success of analgesic treatment decreased by 0.68 times with each unit increase in pain score (P<0.05). Gender and age of patients had no significant effect on success of analgesics (P>0.05). Conclusion: Both ibuprofen and Novafen can serve as the analgesics of choice for pain relief in patients with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis with moderate to severe pain when emergency endodontic treatment cannot be immediately performed.

Review Article

Over recent decades, the definition of irreversible pulpitis (IP), as an irrevocable condition of a compromised dental pulp tissue, has forced clinicians towards invasive root canal treatments. However, the current best evidence challenges the alignment between clinical symptoms and the perceived irreversibility of a negotiated dental pulp tissue. In the above-mentioned context, vital pulp therapy (VPT) has emerged as a revolutionary and transformative approach; introducing minimally invasive techniques to sustain pulp vitality in cases of IP. The present paper aimed to rigorously examine the corresponding published systematic reviews to explore the diverse spectrum of VPT modalities and their outcomes in managing IP cases. Besides, the current review seems to have asserted the need to discard the conventional terminology of irreversible pulpitis, based on the effectiveness of VPTs in the achievement of pulp tissue healing within cases clinically diagnosed as IP.

Original Article

Sealing Ability of Nano-fast Cement vs. Mineral Trioxide Aggregate as Retrograde Apical Plugs: An In-vitro Microleakage Study

Fariborz Moazami, Negar Ghorbani Jahandizi, Mohammad Mehdi Shekouhi, Yasmin Ghahramani

Iranian Endodontic Journal, Vol. 18 No. 4 (2023), 25 Mehr 2023, Page 206-219

Introduction: Apical surgery aims to eradicate the apical part of the root and the lesion to enhance the healing. The sealing ability of retrograde filling material is an essential factor affecting the success rate of the surgery. Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) is the gold standard of retrograde filling materials, with approved sealing capability and biocompatibility. Newly introduced root repair material with an approved antibacterial effect similar to MTA is Nano-fast cement (NFC) which should be investigated for its sealing ability. This study aimed to evaluate the sealing ability of NFC vs. MTA. Materials and Methods: Root apices of 48 single-rooted teeth were resected at 90 degrees and were prepared at 3 mm depth. The teeth were randomly divided into 2 experimental groups (n=21), negative control group (n=3), and positive control group (n= 3). MTA and NFC plugs were condensed as retrograde filling material.  The samples were evaluated by a modified fluid filtration device for 1 hour. The measurement was conducted at 24 h, 1, and 3 months. Data were analyzed by Friedman Test and Kruskal-Wallis test. Results: According to the results, NFC at 3-months interval showed the least microleakage, and MTA had the highest at the baseline. However, the results between the two groups were not statistically significant in all intervals. NFC reached the ideal sealing ability within 1 month, which was reached for MTA after 3 months. Conclusions: The results of this in vitro study showed that the microleakage value of NFC is comparable to MTA. In light of current findings, NFC shows characteristics of a suitable calcium silicate-based cement. Further clinical researches are needed to introduce the NFC as retrograde apical plug or for other endodontic applications.

Influence of Apical Patency on the Adaptation of the Master Filling Cone: A Cone-beam Computed Tomography Assessment

Stephanie Isabel Diaz Zamalloa, Caroline Carvalho dos Santos, Israel Chilvarquer, Eduardo Felippe Duailibi Neto, Celso Luiz Caldeira

Iranian Endodontic Journal, Vol. 18 No. 4 (2023), 25 Mehr 2023, Page 211-217

Introduction: This study aimed to evaluate if the apical patency can influence the adaptation of the master cone of gutta-percha, quantifying the volume of voids and areas at the last 2 mm of the working length (WL). Materials and Methods: Sixty distobuccal canals of extracted upper molars were divided into 3 groups (n=20) based on the patency length (A: passed 1 mm beyond the apical foramen (AF), B: at the AF and C: 1 mm short of the AF) with the Easy ProDesign Logic 25/0.01 file. Each group was subdivided into 2 subgroups (n=10) based on the WL established to prepare the root canal (1: 1 mm short of the AF or 2: at the AF) with the Easy ProDesign Logic 25/0.05 file. After the scan, void volumes were calculated from the last 2 mm of the WL and void areas at 0 mm, 1 mm and 2 mm of the last of WL, as well as the relation between the tip and taper of the master cone with the amount of void volume and areas. To investigate statistically significant differences, we used the Kruskal-Wallis statistical test. Results: There were more voids in volume when patency was achieved 1 mm beyond the AF and the root canal preparation was conducted at 1mm short of the AF (A1 group). Furthermore, the same group showed more voids areas, mainly on the last millimeter of WL. Conclusion: Achieving apical patency at 1 mm beyond the AF followed by instrumentation 1 mm short of the AF created more voids between the master gutta-percha cone and the root canal wall, especially on the last millimeter of WL.

The Effect of Low-Frequency Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields on the Differentiation of Permanent Dental Pulp Stem Cells into Odontoblasts

Saeed Rahimi , Mahnaz Ahrabi, Mohammad Samiei, Leila Roshangar, Behnaz Ahrabi, Behnam Hashemi, Shahriar Shahi, Naghmeh Rahimi Darehchi

Iranian Endodontic Journal, Vol. 18 No. 4 (2023), 25 Mehr 2023, Page 218-223

Introduction: Exposure to pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) has been revealed to affect the differentiation and proliferation of human mesenchymal stem cells derived from dental pulp multipotent stromal stem cells (DP-MSCs). This study aimed to investigate the differentiation effect of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) on the DP-MSC. Materials and Methods: PEMF was produced by a system comprising a multi-meter autotransformer, solenoid coils, and teslameter. This study included 10 groups of DP-MSCs which underwent different electromagnetic radiation time and beam intensity. Three samples tested for each group. The effect of PEMF with the intensity of 0.5 and 1 mT (mili Tesla) and 50 Hz on the proliferation rate of DP-MSC was evaluated at 20 and 40 minutes per day for seven days. MTT assay was applied to determine the growth and proliferation of DP-MSC. Gene expression of DMP1 for differentiation of DPSCs to odontoblasts was confirmed by Real Time PCR., ANOVA statistical analysis and Kruskal-Wallis test were used to analyze the data. Results: The survival in all exposure groups was significantly higher than that in control except in the group of 40 minutes, 1 mT (P<0.05). In 20 minutes, 0.5 mT exposure, the survival intensity is significantly more than others (P<0.05). In general, the intensity of survival was recorded, 20, 0.5 mT≥20, 1 mT≥40, 0.5 mT≥40, 1 mT respectively. Therefore, according to the obtained results, ELF-EMF increases the survival of cells except for one case (40 minutes, 1 mT), even though the effective underlying mechanisms in this process are still unclear. Conclusions: The results obtained promise that in the future, by placing an important part of the pulp next to the electromagnetic field, the lost part of the pulp can be reconstructed and the dentin barrier can be created.

The Impact of Different Irrigation Regimens on the Chemical Structure and Cleanliness of Root Canal Dentin

Amira Elgawish, Hossam Tawfik, Abeer El Gendy, Roy George , Mahmoud Bakr

Iranian Endodontic Journal, Vol. 18 No. 4 (2023), 25 Mehr 2023, Page 224-232

Introduction: This in vitro study aimed to evaluate the effect of different irrigation regimens on the chemical composition and cleanliness of root canal dentin. Materials and Methods: Forty-eight extracted single-rooted permanent human teeth were collected. Root canals were instrumented using step-back technique up to master apical file size 60. Samples were divided into 3 groups (n=16) based on the type of the irrigant used. The irrigation solutions were 5.25% sodium hypochlorite, 2% chlorhexidine gluconate, and saline solution as a control. Root canal cleanliness was assessed using stereomicroscope and scanning electron microscope. Scanning electron microscope energy dispersive X-ray was used for the inorganic analysis. Fourier transform infrared spectrometer was used for the organic analysis.  One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and multiple comparison post hoc test were used for comparison between the three groups. Results: The highest mean percentage of remaining debris was in saline group followed by chlorhexidine gluconate group. Sodium hypochlorite group showed the lowest mean value of remaining debris. Furthermore, our results showed that canal irrigation with sodium hypochlorite affected the chemical structure of root canal dentin more than chlorhexidine gluconate. Conclusions: Based on the results, 5.25% sodium hypochlorite emerges as the preferred irrigant for root canal treatment. This research sheds light on the significance of irrigation regimens in endodontics and emphasizes the need for careful consideration of irrigant selection in clinical practice.

Post-treatment Apical Periodontitis in Primary Non-surgical Root Canal Treatment: A Multiple Correspondence Analysis


Iranian Endodontic Journal, Vol. 18 No. 4 (2023), 25 Mehr 2023, Page 233-240

Introduction: The presented study aimed to characterise periapical disease in teeth with primary non-surgical root canal treatment in persistent or emergent categories and their risk association. Methods: A retrospective observational study that evaluated permanent teeth with primary non-surgical root canal treatment, was conducted clinically and radiographically for over one year. The following variables were analysed: gender, age, type and location of tooth, previous diagnosis, treatment conditions, and type of coronal restoration. The supplementary variables included the perspectives of the treatment outcome, such as Remains normal, Improvement, and Failure. Statistical analysis was performed using a univariate analysis that estimated the average and proportion for each factor according to the result of the primary non-surgical root canal treatment. The multiple correspondence analysis identified the hierarchy between active variables and their association with the results. Results: A total of 232 teeth in 155 participants were analysed. A χ2 value, (P=0.023) showed that the emergent disease is associated with patients around the age of 50. The multiple correspondence analysis identified a tendency of grouping between the emergent disease and the short filling category, followed by symptomatic pulpitis as a previous diagnosis. The persistent disease was associated with errors and overfillings. An inadequate root filling and taper density adversely impacted the treatment outcome. Conclusions: The length of obturation influenced the presence of failure. Short fillings were associated with emerging periapical disease. Errors and overfillings contributed to the persistent disease in the populations studied.

Comparative Evaluation of Canal Transportation and Centering Ratio in Curved Canals: A Study of Cone-beam Computed Tomography and Micro-computed Tomography

Yazdan Shantiaee , Babak Zandi , Ali Rahbar Taramsari , Alireza Akbarzadeh Baghban , Nazanin Zargar, Shiva Shojaeian , Niloofar Mortezapour , Kourosh Shantiaee , Fatemeh Soltaninejad

Iranian Endodontic Journal, Vol. 18 No. 4 (2023), 25 Mehr 2023, Page 241-247

Introduction: This study aimed to compare the accuracy and agreement between cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) in the assessment of canal transportation and centering ratio following root canal instrumentation with rotary files. Material and Methods: Twenty mesiobuccal canals of mandibular molars were prepared using the 2Shape sequential rotary system. CBCT and micro-CT scans were performed before and after instrumentation, and the magnitude of transportation and centering ratio were measured. The acceptable transportation was set at ≤0.15 mm. The accuracy and agreement between CBCT and micro-CT were calculated, and the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) and kappa coefficient were determined to assess the agreement between the two modalities. Statistical analyses were performed using repeated measures ANOVA. Results: Transportation was detected by both modalities at all distances from the apex after instrumentation. The agreement between CBCT and micro-CT in assessing canal transportation was observed in 80%, 85%, 75%, and 75% of specimens at 1-, 3-, 5-, and 7-mm from the apex, respectively. The ICC for transportation and centering ratio was much lower than 0.75, indicating poor agreement between the modalities. The kappa coefficient did not show acceptable agreement between the methods. Conclusions: CBCT and micro-CT demonstrated poor agreement in assessing canal transportation and centering ratio. Micro-CT remains the preferred modality for in vitro investigations, while CBCT should be limited to clinical settings.

Variables That Affect the Ability to Find the Second Mesiobuccal Root Canals in Maxillary Molars

Hamed Manochehrifar, Masoud Parirokh, Sina Kakoei, Nouzar Nakhaei, Paul Abbott

Iranian Endodontic Journal, Vol. 18 No. 4 (2023), 25 Mehr 2023, Page 248-253

Introduction: The study aimed to investigate the influence of various factors on the localization of the second mesiobuccal (MB2) canal in maxillary molars, a commonly missed canal during endodontic treatment. Materials and Methods: A comprehensive assessment of maxillary molars treated over three years with a dental operative microscope was conducted. Factors such as patient gender, age, tooth type, pulp status, pre-operative cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), and treatment modality were examined. Statistical analyses included chi-square and multiple logistic regression. Results: Among 333 treated maxillary molars, the MB2 canal was identified in 60.1%. The prevalence of MB2 canals was significantly higher in the first molars (72.3%) compared to the second molars (40.2%; P=0.001). Multiple logistic regression models showed that gender, tooth type, and treatment modality emerged as significant determinants of MB2 canal localization: males [odds ratio 3.01(CI 95%:1.71-5.32), P<0.001], first molar tooth [odds ratio 4.26 (CI 95%:2.53-7.18), P<0.001] and secondary endodontic treatment [odds ratio 0.06 (CI 95%: 0.004-0.890), P<0.04]. Conclusions: Patient gender, tooth type, and treatment modality play pivotal roles in the identification of the MB2 canal. Additionally, the availability of pre-operative CBCT imaging was associated with a heightened ability to locate the MB2 canal.

Case Report

Detection and Endodontic Treatment of Unusual Anatomic Variations in Second Premolars: A Case Report

Mina Davaji, Mahsa Valizadeh, Sahar Karimpour

Iranian Endodontic Journal, Vol. 18 No. 4 (2023), 25 Mehr 2023, Page 254-258

Endodontic treatment of second premolars is challenging due to their complex anatomy and the likelihood of anatomical variations. The current report presents successful treatments of mandibular and maxillary second premolars with different anatomies in a single patient. The first case involved a patient referred from a general practitioner who was unable to complete the root canal treatment of her mandibular second premolar with four root canals. The initial radiograph showed an apical radiolucency, periodontal ligament (PDL) widening, and a fast break suggesting the possibility of root canal branching. With the diagnosis of previous treatment and chronic apical periodontitis, the tooth was successfully retreated with the aid of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), a dental operating microscope, and ultrasonic tips. The second case was a maxillary second premolar with Vertucci’s type VI root canal morphology, which was not responsive to pulpo-periapical tests. Along with a deep carious lesion and a PDL widening on the initial radiograph, a diagnosis of necrosis with chronic apical periodontitis was made. The root canals were located and treated using a combination of radiography with different angulation and CBCT. Both teeth were clinically and radiographically asymptomatic at the 4-month follow-up session. This case report highlights the importance of thorough preoperative evaluation and the use of advanced technology and techniques in achieving successful endodontic treatment outcomes.

Pulp canal obliteration (PCO) in calcified teeth presents a challenge for endodontic treatment, especially when accompanied by discoloration. Guided endodontic access (GEA) has emerged as an advanced method for root canal therapy (RCT) in such cases. This case report describes the successful treatment of a calcified maxillary central incisor with discoloration using GEA. A 32-year-old female with a history of dental trauma presented with discoloration in the left maxillary central incisor that did not respond to external bleaching. Clinical examination revealed a pulpless infected canal with asymptomatic apical periodontitis. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and intraoral scanning were utilized to create a three dimensional (3D) template, enabling minimally invasive access preparation through the palatal aspect. The RCT was performed in a single visit, followed by tooth whitening using hydrogen peroxide. At 18 months follow-up, the tooth was asymptomatic, and the apical lesion was healed. GEA offers a predictable and conservative approach, preserving tooth structure and providing enhanced long-term prognosis for teeth with calcified canals and discoloration.

Bioceramic Cements: Supporting in Remineralization of Osteolytic Lesions in Endodontic-periodontal Diseases: A Report of Two Cases

Key Fabiano Souza Pereira, Samara Ortiz da Silva , Hugo Jose Santos Bastos , Luiz Fernando Tomazinho, Vanessa Rodrigues do Nascimento, Lia Beatriz Junqueira -Verardo, Alex Yoshiharu Otani

Iranian Endodontic Journal, Vol. 18 No. 4 (2023), 25 Mehr 2023, Page 264-270

Bioceramic cements used for filling root canals in cases of endo-perio lesion of endodontic origin seem to be promising due to having the potential of promoting faster and more predictable healing of the periapical lesion as they stimulate osteogenesis. An effective treatment plan depends on the precise diagnosis of endo-perio lesions. The origin of an infection, being exclusive to the root canal, from the periodontium, or both, is extremely important for devising the treatment plan. In both cases, no clinical evidence of periodontal disease (bleeding, calculus, etc.) was found; however, primary endodontic lesions with the possibility of drainage through the gingival crevice were present. In addition to the disinfection strategies used during the root canal treatments, the bioceramics Bio C Sealer, Bio C Repair and Bio Root RCS were used to fill in the root canals. Both cases presented an impressive bone gain within 8 months for case 1 and 5 months for case 2. Regarding case 1, in the palatal root canal an apical plug with a bioceramic repair cement was used. Based on the literature studied, it can be concluded that after adequate disinfection of the root canals, using bioceramic cements in filling the root canals shows the potential of supporting capabilities in remineralization of osteolytic lesions in endo-perio diseases. 

Successful endodontic treatments are contingent upon establishing a hermetic seal within the root canal system. This seal is pivotal in preventing/resolving apical periodontitis. This case report introduces a simplified orthograde apical plug and intra-orifice barrier technique as an effective alternative to previously unsuccessful invasive nonsurgical and surgical treatments. A 28-year-old patient presented with persistent discomfort and localized swelling in the furcation area of the mandibular left first molar. The tooth had previously undergone both root canal therapy and surgical retreatment. A distinctive feature of this case was the unconventional amputation of the mesial root, unlike conventional periradicular surgery or root amputation. This unusual scenario was accompanied by the presence of a large endodontic lesion. An apical plug, utilizing calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) cement, was placed, complemented by the use of CEM intra-orifice barriers to ensure the hermetic sealing of the entire root canal system. Long-term follow-up assessment demonstrated the complete healing of the preexisting large endodontic lesion. This case underscores the significance of proper diagnosis, right treatment planning, and considering conservative treatment options for complex cases, highlighting the pivotal role played by a reliable seal in achieving successful results in endodontic procedures.


Tampon Vital Pulp Therapy in the Management of Excessive Haemorrhage in Inflamed Pulps: A Hypothesis

Ardavan Parhizkar, Leyla Roghanizadeh , Saeed Asgary

Iranian Endodontic Journal, Vol. 18 No. 4 (2023), 25 Mehr 2023, Page 274-276

Current principles in vital pulp therapy (VPT) modalities emphasise the importance of haemostasis and normal clotting in the achievement of successful treatment outcomes. However, the aforementioned notion could be challenged by the new and recent emerging evidence; suggesting that prolonged or excessive bleeding/haemorrhage (PB) in cases of intensly inflamed pulps, conventionally infamous as irreversible pulpitis (IP), may not impede the healing potential of the remaining dental pulp tissue following VPTs using endodontic biomaterials. “Tampon VPT (tVPT)” may be considered a treatment approach for the management of stated IP cases; characterised by severe pulpal inflammation and delayed clotting process. The presented hypothesis evaluates clinical studies, experimental research and molecular impacts on clotting within the inflamed dental pulp, so as to explore the efficacy as well as the safety of tVPT as a viable treatment option. Latest clinical investigations have reported positive outcomes with tVPT; even in the presence of IP with PB. It has been shown that inflamed dental pulp tissues exhibit molecular impacts on the clotting cascade, which may contribute to the delayed clotting process. Nonetheless, the healing capacity of the dental pulp is not negatively affected by hyperaemia. Additionally, enhanced blood flow in the inflamed pulpal tissues may be associated with improved healing and boosted hard tissue formation. Moreover, tVPT could possibly promote pulpal healing and/or regeneration through continuing the presentation of essential nutrients, e.g. oxygen, and growth factors to the injured tissue. Furthermore, increased blood flow may facilitate the recruitment of immune and reparative cells; promoting tissue repair and encouraging the formation of dentinal bridge(s) after VPTs. Consequently, the state-of-the-art research and their findings could support the hypothesis that tVPT may effectively manage IP cases with PB and contribute to favourable outcomes.