Review Article

Recent Advances in Root Canal Disinfection: A Review

Zahed Mohammadi, Hamid Jafarzadeh, Sousan Shalavi, Flavio Palazzi

Iranian Endodontic Journal, Vol. 12 No. 4 (2017), 10 October 2017, Page 402-406

The microbial biofilm is an important factor for human infection. Finding effective antimicrobial strategies should be considered for decreasing antimicrobial resistance and controlling the infectious diseases. Treatment of infected canal systems may not be able to remove all bacteria and so bacterial persistence after treatment may occur. Application of antibacterial nanoparticles may be a potential strategy to improve the elimination of bacteria from the canal. Furthermore, mechanism of action and applications of photodynamic therapy and Photon-induced photoacoustic streaming (PIPS) and GentleWave system was reviewed.

Keywords: GentleWave Irrigation; Nano-Particles; Nano-Technology; Photodynamic Therapy; Photon-Induced Photo Acoustic Streaming; Root Canal Disinfection 

Genotoxicity, Bioactivity and Clinical Properties of Calcium Silicate Based Sealers: A Literature Review

Farnaz Jafari, Sanaz Jafari, Paria Etesamnia

Iranian Endodontic Journal, Vol. 12 No. 4 (2017), 10 October 2017, Page 407-413

An ideal endodontic sealer should have many properties such as excellent seal after setting, dimensional stability, slow setting time to ensure sufficient working time, insolubility to tissue fluids, adequate adhesion with canal walls and biocompatibility. Genotoxicity is one of the important factors that influence biocompatibility of an endodontic sealer. This literature review was conducted to survey the genotoxicity, bioactivity and clinical perspectives of calcium silicate based sealers. We searched PubMed using appropriate MeSH keywords. Also a hand search was conducted in the related journals. Sixty eight articles were assessed finally. Genotoxicity and acute inflammation were high in calcium silicate based sealers. Both resin-based and calcium silicate based sealers caused perceptible tooth discoloration. There were controversies regarding the fracture resistance, apical patency and retreatability of different sealers. Clinical properties of calcium silicate-based sealers are also outlined.

Keywords:Bioactive Materials; Genotoxicity; Mineral Trioxide Aggregate; Root Canal Sealers; Tricalcium Silicate


Original Article

Efficiency of Different Endodontic Irrigation and Activation Systems in Removal of the Smear Layer: A Scanning Electron Microscopy Study

Priyatam Karade, Rutuja Chopade, Suvarna Patil, Upendra Hoshing, Madhukar Rao, Neha Rane, Aditi chopade, Anish Kulkarni

Iranian Endodontic Journal, Vol. 12 No. 4 (2017), 10 October 2017, Page 414-418

Introduction: This in vitro study was designed to evaluate and compare different endodontic irrigation and activation systems for removal of the intracanal smear layer. Methods and Materials: Forty recently extracted, non-carious human intact single rooted premolars were selected and divided into five groups (n=10) according to the root canal irrigation systems; syringe and needle irrigation (CTR), sonic irrigation, passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI) and EndoVac irrigation system. All groups were prepared to #40 apical size with K-files. Each sample was subjected to final irrigation by using four different irrigation/activation systems. After splitting the samples, one half of each root was selected for examination under scanning electron microscope (SEM). The irrigation systems were compared using the Fisher's exact test with the level of significance set at 0.05. Results: The four groups did not differ from each other in the coronal and mid-root parts of the canal. In the apical part of the canal none of the methods could completely remove all the smear layer but EndoVac system showed significantly better removal of smear layer and debris than the other methods. Conclusion: Within the limitations of the present study, the EndoVac system cleaned the apical part of the canal more efficiently than sonic, ultrasonic and syringe and needle irrigation.

Keywords: EndoVac Irrigation System; Passive Ultrasonic Irrigation; Smear Layer; Sonic Irrigation System

In Vitro Comparison of Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity of Three Vital Pulp Capping Materials

Azadeh Zakerzadeh, Ehsan Esnaashari, Sonia Dadfar

Iranian Endodontic Journal, Vol. 12 No. 4 (2017), 10 October 2017, Page 419-425

Introduction: Direct pulp capping (DPC) is a treatment for maintaining pulp vitality and its biological function. Ideally, pulp capping agents are expected to induce pulp cells to form hard tissue. This in vitro study assessed the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of three vital pulp capping (VPC) agents naming Biodentine (Septodont, Saint-Maur-des-Fosses, France), mineral trioxide aggregate (ProRoot MTA; Dentsply, Tulsa Dental, Tulsa, OK, USA) and TheraCal LC (Bisco Inc, Schamburg, IL, USA) on human dental pulp fibroblasts. Methods and Materials: Human fibroblasts were exposed to 100 µL of ProRoot MTA, TheraCal LC and Biodentine in 0-1000 µg/mL concentrations and incubated at 37°C for 24 h. Their cytotoxicity and genotoxicity were assessed using the methyl thiazol tetrazolium (MTT) and the comet assays, respectively. The data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis test at the level of significance set at 0.05. Results: None of the tested materials had cytotoxicity or genotoxicity. Conclusion: TheraCal LC, Biodentine and ProRoot MTA can be alternately used for VPC treatment of teeth.

Keywords: Biodentine; Cytotoxicity; Genotoxicity; ProRoot MTA; TheraCal LC

Evaluation of the Prevalence of Complete Isthmii in Permanent Teeth Using Cone-Beam Computed Tomography

Sina Haghanifar, Ehsan Moudi, Zahrasadat Madani, Foroozan Farahbod, Ali Bijani

Iranian Endodontic Journal, Vol. 12 No. 4 (2017), 10 October 2017, Page 426-431

Introduction: The current study aimed at determining the prevalence of complete isthmii in permanent teeth, using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) in a selected Iranian community. Methods and Materials: In this cross sectional study, 100 CBCT images (from 58 female and 42 male patients) including 1654 teeth (809 maxillary and 845 mandibular teeth) were evaluated. Each tooth root was evaluated in axial plane (interval, 0.1 mm; thickness, 0.1 mm) from the orifice to the apex and from the apex to the orifice to detect the presence of complete isthmus. Scans of teeth with complete isthmii were reevaluated in axial, sagittal, and coronal planes with the thickness, 0.1 mm. Presence and absence of complete isthmii in each tooth was reported. The root canal was divided into 3 equal parts (cervical, middle and apical thirds), and isthmii were classified with respect to the start and end points. Findings were classified into 6 categories with respect to the start and end points of the isthmii: 1) the beginning and end in the cervical third; 2) the beginning in the cervical third and end in the middle third ; 3) the beginning in the cervical third and end in the apical third ; 4) the beginning and end in the middle third ; 5) the beginning in the middle third and end in the apical third and 5) the beginning and end in the apical third. Results: The prevalence of complete isthmus in permanent teeth was 8.6%, and the highest prevalence was reported in mesial roots of the mandibular first molars. In maxilla, the highest prevalence of complete isthmus was found in mesiobuccal roots of the maxillary first molars, whereas in canines and central incisors, no isthmii were detected. In the mandible, the lowest prevalence of isthmus was found in second premolars. In maxillary molars, isthmii starting and ending in the middle third of the root had the highest prevalence. On the other hand, isthmii in mandibular molars, from apical or middle third of the root beginning to the end of the apical third, had the highest prevalence. Conclusion: As the prevalence of complete isthmii was the highest in molars, endodontists should pay particular attention to accomplish a successful surgical or nonsurgical root canal therapy.

Keywords: Cone-Beam Computed Tomography; Root Canal Anatomy; Root Canal Isthmus

Incidence of Dentinal Crack after Root Canal Preparation by ProTaper Universal, Neolix and SafeSider Systems

Azadeh Harandi, Sina Mirzaeerad, Mahgol Mehrabani, Elham Mahmoudi, Ali Bijani

Iranian Endodontic Journal, Vol. 12 No. 4 (2017), 10 October 2017, Page 432-438

Introduction: This study aimed to compare the incidence of dentinal crack formation by instrumentation with ProTaper Universal system (rotary, multi-file system), SafeSider (reciprocation movement, multi-file system) and Neolix (rotary, single-file system). Methods and Materials: In this in vitro study, 60 freshly extracted mandibular first molars were randomly divided into three experimental groups (n=15) and a control group containing unprepared teeth (n=15). Instrumentation in different groups was accomplished using either ProTaper, Neolix or SafeSider systems up to 25/0.08. The teeth were then sectioned at 3, 6 and 9 mm from the apex, and observed under a stereomicroscope for presence of dentinal cracks. Data were analyzed with Chi square test, Fisher’s exact test and Bonferroni correction. Results: Micro cracks were seen in all experimental groups (13.3% in ProTaper, 26.7% in SafeSider and 40% in Neolix). There was a significant difference between Neolix and the control groups in microcrack formation (P=0.042). Micro cracks mainly occurred in the coronal section (9 mm). No microcrack occurred in the control group. Conclusion: Neolix rotary single-file system caused more dentinal cracks compared to the unprepared roots. All the instrumentation systems increased the number of micro cracks compared to unprepared teeth.

Keywords: Dentinal Cracks; Micro Crack; Root Canal Preparation; Root Crack; Root Dentine; Single-file System

The Probable Effect of Irrigation Solution and Time on Bond Strength to Coronal Dentin: An In Vitro Evaluation

Fatemeh Mokhtari, Ehsan Anvar, Mostafa Mirshahpanah, Hamidreza Hemati, Alireza Danesh Kazemi

Iranian Endodontic Journal, Vol. 12 No. 4 (2017), 10 October 2017, Page 439-442

Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of root canal irrigants on the microtensile bond strength of 2-step self-etch adhesive to dentin. Methods and Materials: In this study 36 sound extracted human third molars were used. After grinding 3 mm of occlusal surface, teeth were randomly divided into 6 groups based on irrigation material naming normal saline, 5.25% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and 2% chlorhexidine (CHX) and also irrigation time (5 or 30 min). Next, teeth were restored with Clearfil SE bond adhesive resin system and Z250 composite. The teeth were then thermo cycled by thermo cycling machine, for 500 cycles between 5º and 55ºC with 60 sec dwell time and 12 sec transfer time. All samples were sectioned into bucco-lingual slabs. The sections were submitted to the micro tensile testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min until fracture. Data was analyzed using the one-way ANOVA test with the level of significance set at 0.05. Results: Irrigation with normal saline, 5.25% NaOCl and 2% CHX for 5 or 30 min did not significantly change the microtensile bond strength of adhesive to dentin (P=0.729 for time and P=0.153 for material). However the maximum and minimum microtensile bond strength was attributed to normal saline (44.13 N) and NaOCl (31.29 N) groups, respectively. Conclusion: Iirrigation solution and time have no influence on microtensile bond strength of two-step self-etch adhesive to coronal dentin.

Keywords: Bond Strength, Dentin, Irrigation Solution 

The Effect of BC Sealer, AH-Plus and Dorifill on Push-out Bond Strength of Fiber Post

Fatemeh Dibaji, Elaheh Mohammadi, Farzaneh Farid, Fatemeh Mohammadian, Pegah Sarraf, Mohammad Javad Kharrazifard

Iranian Endodontic Journal, Vol. 12 No. 4 (2017), 10 October 2017, Page 443-448

Introduction: Dentinal canal walls are in direct contact with endodontic sealers prior to post space preparation and luting cements after post space preparation. This direct contact may affect the bond strength of intraradicular posts to root dentin. This study aimed to assess the effect of three different sealers on the bond strength of fiber posts to root dentin. Methods and Materials: The canals of 56 extracted single-rooted human premolars after selection and decoronation were prepared. For obturation of the canals, specimens were randomly divided into four groups (n=14) according to the type of sealer used in conjunction with gutta-percha: group 1 (control) without any sealer; group 2 with AH-Plus sealer (resin based); group 3 with Dorifill sealer (ZOE-based); and group 4 with BC Sealer (calcium silicate-based). Nine mm-deep post space was prepared in the canal of each specimen. Intraradicular fiber posts were cemented using dual-cure resin cement (Panavia F2.0). Sections of 1 mm thickness were made at the coronal, middle and apical thirds of the post space of each specimen. The push-out bond strength of post to root dentin was measured in a universal testing machine. The data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and post-hoc Tukey’s test. Results: The mean push-out bond strength in the coronal third was significantly lower in Dorifill group compared to AH-Plus (P=0.004). This value was significantly lower in BC Sealer group than AH-Plus (P=0.000) and control group (P=0.03). In middle and apical thirds, the mean push-out bond strength was not significantly different among the four groups (P=0.407, P=0.065, respectively). The mean push-out bond strength was significantly lower in apical than coronal third in AH-Plus group (P=0.001). Conclusion: Application of BC Sealer and Dorifill decreased the mean push-out bond strength of intracanal post to root dentin in the coronal third in comparison to AH-Plus.

Keywords: Bond Strength; Endodontic Sealer; Fiber Post; Resin Cement

Anesthetic Efficacy of Articaine and Ketamine for Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block in Symptomatic Irreversible Pulpitis: A Prospective Randomized Double-Blind Study

Vahid Sakhaeimanesh, Saber Khazaei, Naser Kaviani, Masoud Saatchi, Maryam Shafiei, Abbasali Khademi

Iranian Endodontic Journal, Vol. 12 No. 4 (2017), 10 October 2017, Page 449-453

Introduction: The aim of this prospective, randomized, double-blind study was to investigate the effect of articaine combined with ketamine on the success rate of inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB) in posterior mandible teeth with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis. Methods and Materials: Forty two adult patients with diagnosis of symptomatic irreversible pulpitis of a mandibular posterior tooth were selected. The patients received two cartridges of either containing 3.2 mL 4% articaine with epinephrine 1:200000 and 0.4 mL 50 mg/mL ketamine hydrochloride (A-ketamine group) or 3.2 mL 4% articaine with epinephrine 1:200000 and 0.4 mL normal saline (A-saline group) using conventional IANB injections. Access cavity preparation started 15 min after injection. Lip numbness was required for all the patients. Success was considered as no or mild pain on the basis of Heft-Parker visual analog scale recordings upon access cavity preparation or initial instrumentation. Data were analyzed by independent student t, Mann-Whitney and Chi-square tests. Results: The success rates were 55% and 42.9% for A-ketamine and A-saline group, respectively, with no significant differences between the two groups (P=0.437). Conclusion: Adding 0.4 mL 50 mg/mL ketamine hydrochloride to the articaine local anesthetic did not increase the efficacy of IANB for posterior mandibular teeth with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis.

Keywords: Articaine; Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block; Irreversible Pulpitis; Ketamine

Foramen Changes following Over Instrumentation of Curved Canals with Three Engine-Driven Instruments: An In Vitro Study

Salwa Daoud Yammine, Edgard Jabbour, Paul Nahas, Zeina Majzoub

Iranian Endodontic Journal, Vol. 12 No. 4 (2017), 10 October 2017, Page 454-461

Introduction: The present in vitro study aimed to evaluate and compare the changes in shape and surface area of the major foramen following shaping of curved canals with three new generation NiTi engine-driven instruments naming ProTaper Next, BT RaCe and WaveOne Gold- with 3 different levels of protrusion beyond the major apical foramen. Methods and Materials: A total of 45 extracted human molars with at least one curved canal were distributed in 3 comparable groups of 15 that were instrumented using either ProTaper Next (PTN), BT RaCe (BTR) or WaveOne Gold (WOG). The canals were instrumented to the major foramen and then over instrumented with the final file 0.5 mm, 1 mm and 1.5 mm beyond the foramen. Standardized pre- and post-instrumentation photographs of the foramen were obtained for all groups using a stereomicroscope. Foramen shape and surface area were evaluated using the AmScope software for measurements and compared between groups and levels of instrumentation applying binary conditional logistic regression and repeated measures ANOVA. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Results: Foramen shape tended to gradually change from circular to oval as the level of instrumentation increased in all groups. The original foramen shape in WOG group remained better than other groups. Foramen surface areas increased in all groups with Group BTR demonstrating significantly greater values than the other 2 groups. Conclusion: Over instrumentation resulted in apical enlargement and ovalization in all 3 groups but with different patterns. These differences can be attributed to the final file size, design characteristics and kinematics of the 3 systems.

Keywords: Apical Foramen; Curved Canals; Foramen Area; Foramen Shape; Nickel Titanium Rotary Instruments; Over Instrumentation

Comparison of Apical Transportation with the Use of Rotary System and Reciprocating Handpiece with Precurved Hand Files: An In Vitro Study

Fatemeh Mohammadian, Atefeh Sadeghi, Fatemeh Dibaji, Mona Sadegh, Zahra Ghoncheh, Mohammad Javad Kharrazifard

Iranian Endodontic Journal, Vol. 12 No. 4 (2017), 10 October 2017, Page 462-467

Introduction: Success of root canal treatment depends on several factors; among which, maintaining the original canal path during mechanical preparation is extremely important. This in vitro study aimed to compare apical transportation using RaCe NiTi rotary system and precurved stainless steel (SS) hand files in a reciprocating handpiece. Methods and Materials: Mesiobuccal canals of 40 extracted human mandibular first and second molars with 20 to 45° curvatures and 3 to 7 mm curve radius were chosen for this study. After working length determination, the teeth were divided into two groups (n=20). Root canals were prepared with RaCe in group 1 and NSK handpiece and precurved SS hand files in group 2 up to #30 with 2% taper in both groups. Radiographs were taken of teeth before and after instrumentation from buccolingual and mesiodistal directions. The images were superimposed using Adobe Photoshop CS3 software. Degree of straightening and amount of apical transportation at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 mm levels short of the working length were determined using digital subtraction radiography. The student’s t test was used to compare the degree of straightening and Mann Whitney test was applied to compare apical transportation (millimeters) between the two groups. Results: No significant difference was noted between the two groups on buccolingual or mesiodistal views in degree of straightening and apical transportation on buccolingual view (P>0.05). However, on mesiodistal view, NSK reciprocating handpiece caused greater apical transportation at 0. 0.5 and 1 mm levels (P<0.05). Conclusion: The RaCe system and precurved SS files in reciprocating handpiece were highly similar in terms of degree of straightening and apical transportation. Thus, engine-driven NSK reciprocating handpiece can be used as an efficient adjunct for root canal preparation.

Keywords: Canal Transportation; RaCe Instruments; Reciprocating Handpiece

Cyclic Fatigue Resistance of WaveOne Gold, ProDesign R and ProDesign Logic Files in Curved Canals In Vitro

Sílvio Emanuel Acioly Conrado Menezes, Shirley Machado Batista, Juliana Ouro Preto Lira, Gabriela Queiroz de Melo Monteiro

Iranian Endodontic Journal, Vol. 12 No. 4 (2017), 10 October 2017, Page 468-473

Introduction: Endodontic instruments are developed to provide a better cleaning of the root canal system and reduce its risk of fracture. The aim of this study was to evaluate the instrumentation time and cyclic fatigue resistance of WaveOne Gold, ProDesign R and ProDesign Logic files. Methods and Materials: Thirty Nickel-titanium (NiTi) rotary instruments were divided into 3 groups (n=10). ProDesign Logic file 25/0.06 was used in continuous rotation after glide path preparation. WaveOne Gold 25/0.07 and ProDesign R 25/0.06 files were used in reciprocating motion. Every file instrumented 3 standardized artificial canals. The average time, the number of cycles (NCI) and cyclic fatigue resistance of each file were determined through the number of cycles to failure (NCF) in a stainless-steel device. The total amount of cycles to fracture was also calculated (NCI+NCF). Data was analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. Results: The instrumentation time of the ProDesign Logic file was significantly lower when compared to the other files (P=0.019). The longest times to failure were presented by ProDesign Logic (182.07 sec) and ProDesign R (152.38 sec) files. The same differences were observed for the NCF (910.37 and 761.93). The WaveOne Gold group presented a lower NCF as well as a smaller sum of NCI+NCF (748.33) that was statistically significant when compared to the other groups (P<0.05) respectively. Conclusion: The use of continuous rotational motion in canals with a glide path in the ProDesign Logic group led to shorter instrumentation time. The cyclic fatigue resistance of ProDesign R and Logic instruments was superior to WaveOne Gold. The thermal treatment of the instrument’s alloy, its cross section and the glide path seems to influence the cyclic fatigue resistance.

Keywords: Cyclic Fatigue; ProDesign Logic; ProDesign R; WaveOne Gold

Physical and Chemical Properties of CEM Cement Mixed with Propylene Glycol

Fereshte Sobhnamayan, Alireza Adl, Nooshin Sadat Shojaee, Zahra Zarei, Atiyeh Emkani

Iranian Endodontic Journal, Vol. 12 No. 4 (2017), 10 October 2017, Page 474-480

Introduction: the aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of propylene glycol (PG) on the flowability, microhardness, pH and calcium ion release of calcium-enriched mixture (CEM). Methods and Materials: CEM cement was mixed with different proportions of PG, as follows: group 1,100% CEM liquid (CL); group 2, 100% PG; group 3, 50% PG and group 4, 20% PG. For assessment of flowability, methodology of ADA Specification No. 57 was applied. For measuring microhardness, 80 cylindrical molds (6×4 mm) were filled with CEM cement and divided into 2 subgroups (4, 21 days) and tested using Vickers Test. Data were analyzed using the one-way ANOVA test and Tukey’s post hoc and student’s t test. In order to check pH and calcium release, the mixed cements were placed in cylindrical molds (5×2 mm). After 3, 24, 72 and 168 h, pH determined by a pH meter and the calcium release was measured by an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Data were analyzed using the repeated measure ANOVA, one way ANOVA test and Tuckey’s post hoc test. Results: The present study showed that the presence of PG did not affect the flowability. With the elapse of time, microhardness was significantly increased in all groups except CL group. Regardless of time, samples with 50% PG showed the lowest pH value which was significantly different from other groups (P<0.05) and samples with 100% and 20% PG showed significantly higher calcium ion release compared to other group. Conclusion: addition of PG did not have any positive or negative effect on the flowability and pH of CEM cement but increased its microhardness in long term. Calcium ion release also increased in the concentration of 20% and 100%.

Keywords: Calcium-Enriched Mixture Cement; Calcium Release; Flowability; Microhardness; pH; Propylene Glycol

The Effects of Different Ionic Liquid Coatings and the Length of Alkyl Chain on Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Properties of Silver Nanoparticles

Abbas Abbaszadegan, Ahmad Gholami, Sara Abbaszadegan, Zeynab Sadat Aleyasin, Yasamin Ghahramani, Samira Dorostkar

Iranian Endodontic Journal, Vol. 12 No. 4 (2017), 10 October 2017, Page 481-487

Introduction: The antibacterial efficacy and toxicity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) depends on their physicochemical properties including size, shape, surface charge and surface coatings. The Objectives of this study were: i) To synthesize and characterize positively charged AgNPs coated by different ionic-liquids with different alkyl chain lengths, ii) To evaluate the antimicrobial activity of these nanoparticles against Enterococcus faecalis compared to sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and chlorhexidine (CHX), iii) To compare the cytocompatibility of these solutions against L929 mouse fibroblasts. Methods and Materials: AgNPs with positive surface charges capped by two different ionic liquids [imidazolium (Im) and pyridinium (Py)] with two alkyl chain lengths (C12 and C18) were synthesized. Im and Py were also tested as control groups. The characterization revealed synthesis of spherical NPs in the size range of 6.7-18.5 nm with a surface charge ranging from +25 to +58 mV. To standardize the comparisons, the surface charge to radius ratio of each nanoparticle was calculated. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the AgNP solutions, NaOCl and CHX were determined against E. faecalis by a microdilution test. An MTT-based cytotoxicity assay evaluated the cytotoxicity of the solutions in different concentrations on L929 fibroblasts. One-way and two-way ANOVA were used for statistical analysis. Results: All tested AgNPs reached MIC90 in significantly lower concentrations compared to CHX and NaOCl. C12 Py-coated AgNPs had the lowest MIC90 value. CHX and NaOCl were more toxic on fibroblasts than all tested AgNPs. Im-coated AgNPs had better compatibility with fibroblasts than Py-coated particles; and C12 Im AgNPs had the best biocompatibility. Variations in alkyl chain length had no effects on the biocompatibility of AgNPs. Conclusion: Py improved the antibacterial efficacy of AgNPs compared to Im; however, it had a negative effect on cytocompatibility. Alkyl chain length had no effects on AgNPs’ bioactivity.

Keywords: Antibacterial Agents; Chlorhexidine; Cytotoxicity; Metal Nanoparticles; Sodium Hypochlorite

In Vitro Cytotoxicity and Setting Time Assessment of Calcium-Enriched Mixture Cement, Retro Mineral Trioxide Aggregate and Mineral Trioxide Aggregate

Tahereh Pornamaze, Zahra Yadegari, Amir Ghasemi, Seyedeh Mahsa Sheykh-al-Eslamian, Shiva Shojaeian

Iranian Endodontic Journal, Vol. 12 No. 4 (2017), 10 October 2017, Page 488-492

Introduction: The present study sought to evaluate and compare biocompatibility and setting time of Retro mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) and Angelus MTA. Methods and Materials: CEM cement, Angelus MTA and Retro MTA were assessed in set and fresh states. Extracts transformed to each cavity of three 24-well plates in which 1×104 cell were seeded into each well 24 h earlier. All specimens were incubated in a humidified incubator with 5% CO2 at 37°C. Mosmann’s tetrazolium toxicity (MTT) assay was used to determine in vitro cytotoxicity on L929 mouse fibroblast cell line. Cell viability was determined at 1, 24, and 72 h after exposure. The initial setting time was measured by 113.4 g Gilmore needle testing. Then, final setting times were assessed by the 456.5 g Gilmore needle. Data comparisons were performed using the analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's post hoc test (α=0.05). Results: All groups in both forms indicated higher cell vitality compared to positive control group (P<0.001). After 24 h, the set Retro MTA showed better biocompatibility compared to set CEM and set Angelus MTA (P<0.001). Retro MTA showed significantly lower initial and final setting time compared to CEM and Angelus MTA (P<0.001). Conclusion: Our results indicated the good cell viability values of Retro MTA and relatively short period of setting time. It seems a promising alternative material in clinical situations where accelerated setting is required. However, more clinical and in vivo investigations are needed for a clear decision making.

Keywords: Biocompatibility; Calcium-Enriched Mixture; Mineral Trioxide Aggregate; Retro MTA; Setting Time

Compressive Strength of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate and Calcium-enriched Mixture Cement Mixed with Propylene Glycol

Fereshte Sobh namayan, Alireza Adl, Nooshin Sadat Shojaee, Mahdi Sedigh-Shams, Elnaz Zarghami

Iranian Endodontic Journal, Vol. 12 No. 4 (2017), 10 October 2017, Page 493-496

Introduction: The aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare the compressive strength (CS) of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) cement when mixed with propylene glycol (PG). Methods and Materials: Twenty four custom-made split molds with 5 holes in each were prepared. Molds were allocated into eight groups (n=15 holes) as follows: Groups 1,5: CEM and MTA mixed with PG (100%), Groups 2,6: CEM and MTA mixed with PG (20% )+CEM or MTA liquid (80%) respectively, Groups 3,7: CEM and MTA mixed with PG (50% )+CEM or MTA liquid (50% ) respectively, Groups 4,8: CEM and MTA mixed with CEM or MTA liquid respectively as control groups. All specimens were kept in 37°C in an incubator and the compressive strength was evaluated after 7 days. Data were analyzed using the Kruskal Wallis and Dunne tests. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Results: In all concentration of PG, MTA samples showed better results than CEM cement. In CEM samples, adding 20% PG could significantly increase the compressive strength in comparison with control group and 100% PG (P=0.047 and P=0.011, respectively). In MTA samples, adding 100% and 50% PG significantly increased the compressive strength of the cement in comparison with control group (P=0.037 and, P=0.005, respectively). Conclusion: Considering the limitations of the present study, appropriate concentration of PG could improve the CS of MTA and CEM cement.

Keywords: Calcium-Enriched Mixture Cement; Compressive Strength; Mineral Trioxide Aggregate; Propylene Glycol

Evaluating the Accuracy of Two Microleakage Assessment Methods for Mineral Trioxide Aggregate and Calcium-enriched Mixture Cement

Fatemeh Ayatollahi, Milad Hazeri Baqdad Abad, Seyed Hossein Razavi, Mahdi Tabrizizadeh, Reza Ayatollahi, Fatemeh Zarebidoki

Iranian Endodontic Journal, Vol. 12 No. 4 (2017), 10 October 2017, Page 497-501

Introduction: Multiple methods for evaluating microleakage have been introduced over the years, but there has been no agreement as to which technique will give more accurate results. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy and results of fluid filtration and marginal adaptation methods for mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) cement apical plugs. Methods and Materials: A total of 250 single-rooted human teeth were collected. The teeth were decoronated, the root canals were prepared and open apex condition was stimulated by passing #1 to 4 Peeso Reamer drills from apical foramen. Five teeth were selected as the positive and negative controls and the rest of the samples were randomly allocated to two groups of MTA and CEM cement plugs. In each group, apical plug was placed into the canal. After the apical plugs were completely set, microleakage and marginal adaptation of the samples were evaluated using fluid filtration method and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. The obtained results were analyzed by independent-samples t test. Results: Gap between plug and dentin walls and air bubbles displacement was higher in MTA group compared to the CEM cement group, though this difference between MTA group and CEM cement group was not statistically significant. Conclusion: According to the obtained results, it seems that there is a direct relationship between the two methods of microleakage assessment.

Keywords: Calcium-enriched Mixture Cement; Marginal Adaptation; Microleakage; Mineral Trioxide Aggregate

Incidence of Dentinal Defects and Vertical Root Fractures after Endodontic Retreatment and Mechanical Cycling

Mariana De Carlo Bello, Rafael Pillar, Pauline Mastella Lang, Carina Michelon, Ricardo Abreu Da Rosa, Carlos Alexandre Souza Bier

Iranian Endodontic Journal, Vol. 12 No. 4 (2017), 10 October 2017, Page 502-507

Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of dentinal defects and vertical root fractures (VRFs) after endodontic retreatment and mechanical cycling (MC). Methods and Materials: Two hundred mandibular premolars were selected. Forty teeth were left unprepared (control group). The remaining 160 root canals were prepared with ProTaper instruments and filled by using two different techniques [eighty with lateral compaction (LC) and eighty with single-cone (SC)]. Forty canals from each group (LC and SC) received no further treatment. The remaining eighty teeth were divided into two groups (LCR and SCR) (n=40) in order to undergo the removal of the root filling, re-preparation and refilling with lateral compaction and single-cone, respectively. All of the teeth were subjected to MC (1,000,000 cycles, 130 N, 2.2 Hz and 37°C). The roots were sectioned at 3, 6 and 9 mm from the apex and observed under 20× magnification. The defects were classified as: no defect, VRF and other defects. Statistical analysis was performed using the Fisher’s Exact test and the Chi-Squared tests (α=0.05). Results: MC alone did not promote any other defects or VRFs. Experimental groups presented higher dentinal defects than the control group (P=0.021). Retreatment groups did not present a higher amount of dentinal defects than the groups that were subjected to the first treatment (P>0.05). Conclusion: Endodontic treatment and retreatment, regardless of the filling technique and MC, did not influence the occurrence of dentinal defects or VRFs in the human premolars.

Keywords: Defects; Endodontics; Retreatment; Root Canal

Case Report

Maintenance of Pulp after Horizontal Root Fractures in Three Maxillary Incisors: A Thirteen-Year Evaluation

Vânia Portela Ditzel Westphalen, Everdan Carneiro, Luiz Fernando Fariniuk, Ulisses Xavier da Silva Neto, Fernando Henrique Westphalen, Alexandre Kowalczuck

Iranian Endodontic Journal, Vol. 12 No. 4 (2017), 10 October 2017, Page 508-511

This case report documents the clinical approach adopted for three upper incisors with horizontal root fracture in the middle or cervical third. The proposed procedures involved maintaining pulp vitality and periodontal stability of the fractured teeth with 13 years of follow-up.

Keywords: Connective Tissue Cells; Dental Pulp; Tooth Fractures

Multidisciplinary Treatment of a Double First Mandibular Premolar

Renato Piai Pereira, Rodrigo Ravazzi, Rogério Vieira Silva, Eduardo Nunes, João Milton Rocha Gusmão, Paulo Sérgio Flores Campos

Iranian Endodontic Journal, Vol. 12 No. 4 (2017), 10 October 2017, Page 512-515

Gemination aka twinning and fusion, are rare occurrences in posterior mandibular teeth, often requiring endodontic and surgical treatment for functional, orthodontic or cosmetic reasons. The diagnosis and design of a precise treatment plan in cases involving double teeth are in most cases challenging. The purpose of this case report is to describe a successful multidisciplinary treatment protocol for a double tooth. Upon completion of the endodontic, restorative and orthodontic treatments, the clinical and radiographic three-year follow-up revealed that the rest of the transected premolar showed evidence of healing of the supporting tissues and satisfactory cosmetic result.

Keywords: Double Tooth; Hemisection; Orthodontics; Root Canal Treatment

Repair of Iatrogenic Furcal Perforation with Mineral Trioxide Aggregate: A Seven-Year Follow-up

Jardel Camilo do Carmo Monteiro, Mateus Rodrigues Tonetto, Matheus Coelho Bandeca, Alvaro Henrique Borges, José Cláudio Martins Segalla, Keren Cristina Fagundes Jordão-Basso

Iranian Endodontic Journal, Vol. 12 No. 4 (2017), 10 October 2017, Page 516-520

Teeth with furcal perforation present difficult resolution and dubious prognosis. Several materials have been proposed and calcium silicate-based cements such as mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) are the most recommended. However, its long-term clinical behavior still remains poorly understood. The present study reports a clinical case of furcal perforation repair using Angelus MTA, with a 7-year follow-up. Patient sought treatment 2 months after iatrogenic accident. First lower right molar presented clinical signs such as fistula and bone loss between mesial and distal roots. Firstly, all root canals were treated and then furcal perforation was sealed with MTA Angelus and the dental crown was restored with composite resin. Radiographic evaluation was immediately performed to analyze the furcal perforation filling. After 7 years, a new clinical and imaging evaluation using periapical radiography and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) showed absence of clinical signs and symptoms, and alveolar bone reconstitution with periodontal space reduction. Angelus MTA presented good clinical behavior in the iatrogenic furcal perforation resolution based on long-term clinical evidence.

Keywords: Endodontics; Furcation Perforation; Mineral Trioxide Aggregate; Root Canal Treatment; Root Perforation; Tooth Perforations

Dens invaginatus is a developmental anomaly, caused by deepening of the enamel organ into the dental papilla before calcification of the dental tissues. Teeth with dens invagination are susceptible to early caries and pulp necrosis within a few years of eruption or even before root end closure. This article reports two immature maxillary central incisors with type I and III dens invaginatus which had necrotic pulp and a large periradicular lesion, that were treated successfully by nonsurgical root canal treatment. After apical plug placement, the remaining space was backfilled using warm vertical gutta-percha technique and the crowns were restored by composite restoration. At 6 months of follow up the patient was asymptomatic and probing depths were less than 3 mm. In addition, the reduction in the size of apical radiolucencies was observed by radiographic examinations. This case report revealed that even type III des invaginatus with an open apex and large periapical lesion, can be treated non-surgically using MTA as an apical plug. Although this case report presents a favorable result, further studies with long term follow-up periods are encouraged to support the use of nonsurgical endodontic treatment for type III dens invaginatus.

Keywords: Dens Invaginatus; Maxillary Central Incisors; MTA Plug; Non-Surgical Endodontic Treatment

Clinical Approach to Pulp Canal Obliteration: A Case Series

Kenia Maria Soares de Toubes, Patrícia Alves Drummond de Oliveira, Stephanie Nicácio Machado, Vânia Pelosi, Eduardo Nunes, Frank Ferreira Silveira

Iranian Endodontic Journal, Vol. 12 No. 4 (2017), 10 October 2017, Page 527-533

This article describes four cases with safe and feasible clinical treatment strategies for anterior teeth with pulp canal obliteration (PCO) using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), digital radiography (DR), dental operating microscopy (DOM) and ultrasonic tips (US). Four anterior teeth with PCO were chosen. DR was taken with different angulations and analyzed with different filters. Subsequently, the access cavity was performed with the aid of DOM. If the canal was not identified, CBCT was requested. Sagittal and axial slices guided the direction of the ultrasonic tips. After identification of the canal, it was then negotiated and instrumented with the rotary instruments. All four canals were successfully identified, with no complications. In case 1, the canal was identified using DR, DOM and US tips. In cases 2, 3 and 4, the canals were identified with DR,DOM,UStips and CBCT. Complete root canal obliteration identified in radiography did not necessarily mean that pulp tissue was not visible clinically, either. The clinical evaluation of the access cavity with the aid of MO was crucial. If the canal was not identified, CBCT was mandatory in order to show more detailed view of the precise position of the canals, their directions, degrees of obstruction and dimensions. It served as a guide for the direction of the ultrasonic tips to keep them within the pulp chamber safely, with a low risk of iatrogenic injury.

Keywords: Cone-beam Computed Tomography; Dental Operating Microscope; Digital Radiography; Guided Endodontics; Pulp Canal Obliteration; Ultrasound

Non-Surgical Endodontic Management of Type II Dens Invaginatus with Closed and Open Apex

Hugo Plascencia, Mariana Díaz, Bertram Ivan Moldauer, Mario Uribe, Eddy Skidmore

Iranian Endodontic Journal, Vol. 12 No. 4 (2017), 10 October 2017, Page 534-539

Dens invaginatus (DI) is a developmental anomaly that poses a significant challenge to the clinician if endodontic treatment is required. The type II (as per Oehlers) form exhibits complex internal anatomy and is frequently associated with incomplete root and apex formation. The purpose of this study is to present two cases of type II DI in the maxillary lateral incisors. In the first case, non-surgical endodontic therapy was performed utilizing calcium hydroxide as an intracanal dressing, showing significant periapical healing of the apical radiolucent area at the six month follow-up. In the second case, the development of the root and apex were affected by pulp necrosis, and the revascularization procedure was performed. Complete resolution of the pre-existing apical radiolucency, apical closure, thickening of the root canal walls, and increase in root length, after 32 months was observed. Early detection of teeth with DI type II and proper exploration of their internal anatomy are key factors for their successful management. As demonstrated in this report, conservative non-surgical endodontic treatment should be the first line of treatment for these cases. The use of revascularization protocols in teeth that develop pulp necrosis and exhibit early stage of root development could be a better alternative than traditional apexification techniques.

Keywords: Calcium Hydroxide; Close Apex; Dens Invaginatus; Open Apex; Revascularization

Letter to the Editor