Candida colonization of the esophagus and gastric mucosa; a comparison of patients taking proton pump inhibitors and those taking histamine receptor antagonist drugs
Gastroenterology and Hepatology from Bed to Bench,
Aim: Investigation of Candida colonization of the esophagus and gastric mucosa in patients taking proton pump inhibitors in comparison to those taking histamine-2 receptor antagonists.
Background: Candida species are normal flora of alimentary tract can cause infection of the esophagus and gastro-intestinal tract in immunocompromised patients. Consumption of proton pump inhibitors, and histamine-2 receptor antagonists have shown to alter the gastric pH which may predispose to floral transmission and colonization of the esophagus and stomach.
Patients and methods: Two hundred and forty-five clinical specimens were obtained from 91 patients underwent endoscopy from September 2019 to February 2020. Direct microscopy with KOH 10% and subculture on sabouraud dextrose agar containing chloramphenicol used as primary screening. PCR with ITS primers was performed to amplify ITS1-5.8SrDNA-ITS2 region and MspI restriction enzyme used for RFLP to identify clinical isolates.
Results: Seventy cultures out of 245 specimens were positive for Candida colonization (28.5%). Colonization of Candida species in gastric acid and gastric tissue biopsies of patients who took PPIs and H2 blockers was significantly higher than those were in control group (p = 0.001). The use of ranitidine, pantoprazole and omeprazole increased the risk of gastric candidiasis by 10.60, 9.20, and 12.99 times, respectively (p < 0.05).
Conclusion: The use of PPIs and H2 blockers, ageing, and consumption of vegetables were main risk factors for gastric infection in the present survey, and some other variables such as Candida species, cigarette smoking, drinking alcohol, etc. were not implicated in the development of gastroesophageal lesions. We need further investigations to know how these predisposing factors change the host defenses mechanisms and increase colonization of fungi at mucosal surfaces.
- Candida colonization, Gastroesophageal, Proton pump inhibitors, Histamine receptor antagonist
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