Original/Research Article

Survey of calcium oxide as a heterogenous catalyst for biodiesel production from restaurant waste frying oil

Nadali Alavi, Akbar Eslami, Monire Majlessi Nasr, Najme Masihi

Journal of Health in the Field, , 14 April 2020,

Background and Aims: Today, biodiesel is being produced and consumed worldwide as one of the main sources for replacing fossil fuels. The purpose of this study was to investigate the production of biodiesel from restaurants waste frying-oil using commercial calcium oxide as a heterogeneous catalyst.

 Material and Methods: In this experimental study, commercial calcium oxide was activated by calcination at 750 °C for 5 hours in an electric furnace with a temperature rate of 10 °C /min. Operational parameters for the production of biodiesel in the presence of calcium oxide included weight percent of catalyst, molar ratio of methanol to oil, and reaction time, all were investigated at three levels. Also, the study was carried out ethically and there was no bias and confinement on the part of the researcher during the research process.

 Results: Optimum conditions for the production of biodiesel in the presence of calcium oxide were obtained as the molar ratio of methanol to oil 12:1, the reaction time of 3 hours and the weight percent of catalyst 2 at 62 °C. Under obtained optimum conditions, the maximum production efficiency of biodiesel from waste frying oil of the restaurant was 95.5±1.22%.

 Conclusion: The use of commercial calcium oxide showed a great efficiency in the production of biodiesel from waste frying oil of restaurants. Calcium oxide thus is considered to be a very effective catalyst in biodiesel production.

 Keywords: Biofuel, Calcium Oxide, Waste frying oil, Reusability

Factors associated with breakfast consumption based on Social Cognitive Theory in primary school students in Marivan City, 2017

Rahman Panahi, Fatemeh SadrHashemi, Erfan Javanmardi, Fayegh Yousefi, Khaled Rahmani, Naseh Ghaderi, Omid Zarei Vero

Journal of Health in the Field, , 14 April 2020,

Background and Aims: Social cognitive theory is one of the most effective theories used to predict the behavior of breakfast consumption and the teaching of nutritional behaviors. Considering the importance of breakfast consumption in the physical, psychological and social health of students, this study was conducted to determine the factors associated with breakfast consumption based on social cognitive theory in students. 

Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional descriptive analytical study, 299 male and female elementary students in Marivan city were selected by multi-stage cluster sampling. Data gathering tools included demographic and background questionnaire, as well as a valid and reliable questionnaire based on social cognitive theory about breakfast consumption. Data were analysed by SPSS software version 16 exploiting Chi-square and t-test.  All stages of the study were conducted according to moral standards.

Results: Overall, 81.6% (n=244) of students showed a good pattern of breakfast consumption. The results of t-test revealed that there was a statistically significant difference between expected outcome, outcome evaluation, self-efficacy and self-regulation constructs among students with appropriate and inappropriate breakfast consumption pattern (P<0.001).

Conclusion: Considering the existence of a significant relationship between the constructs of social cognitive theory and breakfast consumption in studied students, the constructs of this theory can be used to predict the factors influencing breakfast consumption in students and will be effective in promoting supportive breakfast consumption programs.

Keywords: Breakfast consumption, Social Cognitive Theory, Students, Marivan

Some predictive factors of women's sexual function in Tehran city

Mina Chizari, Mehdi Ranjbaran, Nafiseh Seyyedzadeh-Aghdam, Behnam Ohadi, Mohsen Shamsi

Journal of Health in the Field, , 14 April 2020,

Background and Aims: Sexual dysfunction in women is very common and is one of the important indicators in the marital satisfaction and family strengthening. This study aimed to determine some predictive factors of women's sexual function.

 Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 200 married women referred to health centers in Tehran city were selected through convenience sampling. The research tools included a valid and reliable questionnaire including demographic information and women's sexual function index. Data were analyzed using SPSS 20 software and independent t-test, one-way ANOVA, Spearman and Pearson correlations and linear regression. Ethical standards such as confidentiality of information were observed in all stages of research.

 Results: The mean score of sexual function was 21.14±4.35 (from 36). In this study 22% (n=44) of respondents reported sexual desire disorder, 32.5% (n=65) arousal disorder, 27.5% (n=57) sexual dysfunction, 22% (n=44) orgasmic disorder, 29% (n=58) sexual dissatisfaction and 20.5% (n=41) sexual pain disorder. There was a significant and inverse correlation between spouse's age, duration of marriage, date of last delivery and sexual function. In the multiple regression model, marital status (B=0.148, P=0.033), spouse interest (B=0.0286, P=0.001) and spouse age (B=0.207, P= 0.001) were significant predictors of sexual function.

 Conclusion: According to the results, women who describe a happier life and are interested in their spouse as well as are younger than their spouse reported a more desirable sexual performance. The results can be used to implement psychological and cultural programs in the community to reduce couples' problems.

 Keywords: Sexual function, Female, Sexual satisfaction

Background and Aims: Alcohol distillery wastewater is a highly polluted wastewater which its treatment poses a special problem. In this work, the efficiency of ozonation process exploited in a spiral high pressure super mixing reactor was studied for COD removal and decolorization of alcohol distilleries wastewater. The results was also compared with a conventional reactor.

 Materials and Methods: The present laboratory-scale research was done on real effluent from anaerobic wastewater treatment unit of alcohol wastewater. Experiments were conducted in a pressurized spiral super mixing reactor equipped with static mixers and also in a control conventional reactor with the same volume. The process performance criteria, such as COD, BOD and color, were determined according to standards methods for water and wastewater examination.

 Results: The pressurized spiral super mixing reactor showed high efficiency in removing pollutants and reducing ozone consumption as compared to conventional reactor. Typically, during 30 min, and pH =5.3, the COD removal efficiency in the pressurized spiral super mixing reactor was 4.8 times higher than that of conventional reactor. According to the results, the efficacy of ozonation process increased by changing the pH from acidic to alkaline. Generally, the respective highest removal efficiency of COD and color was obtained at pH=11 and pH=5.3  in both reactors at their maximum retention time.  Also the biodegradability of wastewater (BOD/COD) was enhanced in both reactors following ozonation process.

 Conclusion: The pressurized spiral super mixing reactor performance in reducing ozone consumption highlights the potential applicability of this reactor for wastewater treatment of alcohol industry. The reactor can be used as pre-treatment or post treatment processes for the appropriate treatment of industrial wastewater.

 Keywords: Ozone, Alcohol industry, Pressurized spiral super mixing reactor, Colour, COD

The study of Self-care agency and some associated factors in patients with type 2 diabetes referred to the diabetes clinic of Tohid Hospital in Sanandaj in 2016

Zahed Rezaei, Naseh Ghaderi, Elham Nouri, Mohammad Aram Ahmadi, Ebrahim Ghaderi, Nadia Shakiba, Mohammad Anbari, Rahman Panahi

Journal of Health in the Field, , 14 April 2020,

Background and Aims: Diabetes is considered as a major public health problem all over the world. Self-care behaviors is the most important strategy for controlling chronic diseases, such as diabetes. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the self-care agency and some associated factors in patients with type 2 diabetes.

 Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on a descriptive-analytic approach on 374 patients referring to the Diabetes Clinic of Tohid Hospital in Sanandaj, selected using systematic sampling. Data were collected using a questionnaire including demographic and background information questionnaire and a valid and reliable questionnaire for assessing the self-care agency of diabetic patients. Data were analyzed by using SPSS software version 16 and appropriate tests. All stages of the study were conducted according to moral standards.

 Results: The mean and standard deviation of self-care agency score was 58.40 ± 12.49 from 105, that is considered moderate. There was a significant difference in self-care agency of patients according to variables such as gender, ability to measure blood glucose, occupational status, history of education about diabetes, regular dental examinations and annual infusion of influenza vaccine (P<0.05). There was a significant and inverse correlation between the number of years elapsed since diabetes diagnosis and self-care agency (P<0.05 and r=0.24).

 Conclusion: Regarding the average self-care level in the majority of patients and the important role of self-care in controlling diabetes, the need to implement self-care education is increasingly felt in diabetic patients.

 Keywords: Self-care, Type 2 diabetes, Sanandaj

A survey of clinical governance success in Khozestan province

Ali Mohammad Mosadeghrad, Farahnaz Sadoughi, Moloud Ghorbani

Journal of Health in the Field, , 14 April 2020,

Background and Aims: Clinical Governance (CG) is a strategy for providing responsive, accountable, patient-centered, high quality, safe and effective healthcare services through creating an appropriate organizational structure and culture. Development, implementation and monitoring clinical standards are also included in CG. This study aimed to assess the success of clinical governance implementation in hospitals in Khuzestan province, Iran.

Materials and Methods: This descriptive questionnaire survey was conducted in 2014 in 40 hospitals using a valid and reliable questionnaire covering seven dimensions of CG (i.e., management and leadership, employees’ education and management, clinical effectiveness, clinical audit, risk management, patient involvement, and information management). All clinical governance officers of hospitals were asked to complete the questionnaires. Overall, 40 questionnaires were returned. Data analysis was done using SPSS software.  Ethical issues such as informed consent, voluntary participation, participants’ anonymity, information confidentiality and researchers’ objectivity in data collection, analysis and reporting were all considered.

Results: The mean score of CG implementation success was 65.6 percent in Khuzestan province hospitals. About half of the hospitals were moderately successful in CG implementation. Hospitals achieved more success in employees’ education and management and less success in clinical effectiveness dimensions of clinical governance. Top managers’ and employees’ commitment and involvement in CG activities was critical for CG successful implementation.

Conclusion: Clinical governance was slightly successful in Khuzestan hospitals. However, strong management and leadership, managers’, employees’ and physicians’ participation, education and training, patient centeredness, evidence based practice, and clinical audits are necessary for successful implementation of CG in hospitals.

Keywords: Clinical governance, Hospital, Successful change, Quality management