Original/Research Article

Sero-epidemiological study of family-members of HBsAg positive chronic carriers in Zahedan city (Southeastern Iran)

Soheila Khosravi, Masoud Salehi, Hossein Hatami, Esmaeil Sanei Moghadam, Seyed Moayed Alavian

Journal of Health in the Field, , 28 January 2017,

Background and Aims: The household transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a major health problem. The prevalence rate of this infection is reported about 11% to 57% among family members of HBsAg carriers. This study conducted to evaluate serological determinants of chronic hepatitis B infection, especially HBsAg positivity among family members of asymptomatic HBsAg positive carriers in Zahedan city (Southeastern Iran).
Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study, data were collected for a total of 454 HBsAg – positive cases and 1817 members of their family by trained interviewers and a validated questionnaire. Additionally blood samples were obtained and tittered to detect serologic markers of hepatitis B.
Results: In this study totaly, 454 chronic HBsAg carriers (66% male and 34% female) with an average age of 36 ± 10 years and 1817 of their family members were included. The prevalence rate of HBsAg and HBc-Ab positivity among household members were 19.3% (n = 351) and 51% (n = 573), respectively. The frequency of HBV markers was different by age groups. The highest prevalence rate of HBsAg (35%) and HBc-Ab (32%) positivity were found in the age group of 21-30 years old. Importantly, the mothers of index cases had the highest prevalence of HBsAg positivity compared with their spouses who had the lowest proportion (53.2% vs. 8.4%, p<0.001).
Conclusion: In family members, HBsAg-positivity was greater than the general indigenous population. Suggesting the importance of close contacts for transmission. It was more prevalent in mothers of index cases than their spouses. Suggesting the more efficient mother to child transmission than sexually transmission of HBV. And in those having a history of hepatitis B in maternal family in comparison with the paternal one, which may be due to more efficient transmission from infected mothers to children.
Key words: Hepatitis B, Transmission, Intra-familial, Prevention, Zahedan,

Background and Aims: Evaluation of the microbial quality of drinking water can help to prevent the diseases in different times and regions that transmitted through water. So the aim of this study is the survey of microbial quality of drinking water and cross-sectional outbreaks of its related diseases in Kangavar city.
Materials and Methods: To accomplish this study, first the results of the microbial quality of drinking water in Kangavar city and cases of diseases from all rural and urban health centers within five years (2005-2009) were received. For determination of the relationship between disease and microbial quality of water, the Pearson correlation coefficient (Correlation instructions) in each studied variable (season and location of samples) was used.
Results: Results showed that prevalence of all considered diseases (except hepatitis A) in terms of area (urban or rural) and seasons had significant relationship with microbial contamination of drinking water (P value < 0.05). This relationship was stronger in rural areas than urban areas (except for simple diarrhea) and warm seasons compared to cold seasons.
Conclusion: According to significant relationship between microbial quality of drinking water and prevalence of dysentery and typhoid diseases in different areas and seasons, it is necessary to keep up the quality of drinking water in the high susceptible regions and times (rural areas and warm seasons).
Key words: Microbial quality, Cross-sectional outbreak, Water borne diseases, Kangavar

Background and Aims: Safe drinking water supply is very important for human societies. The goal of this study is the determination of drinking water distribution network existence in microbial quality desirability and its chlorination status in small communities – Case study: Kermanshah province villages.
Material and Methods: This method of the study is descriptive and analytical. The required data and information were collected from existing data of health center. The collected samples for microbial quality monitoring of rural drinking water were taken by health center during three-year period, that were 9174 samples. Data analysis was taken by SPSS software by using T-Test and ANOVA.
Results: The results showed 79.7% and 84.3% as an average rate of desirability of microbial water quality and residual chlorination status respectively in villages having distribution system and 60.36% and 69.56% in those without distribution system.
Conclusion: Assessing of microbial quality of water in all rural areas showed that villages with distribution network have better quality than other villages. So development planning for implementation of water distribution networks are suggested in other rural communities also for improvment of water quality in all rural communities (with and without distribution networks) the water safety plane should be employed.
Key words: Microbial quality, Residual chlorine, Rural area, Distribution network, Kermanshah

Evaluation of mercury contamination in soils of industrial estates of Arak city

Eisa Solgi, Abbas Esmaili-Sari, Alireza Riyahi Bakhtiari

Journal of Health in the Field, , 28 January 2017,

Background and Aims: Mercury is generally considered one of the most toxic heavy metals that rapid industrial development and industry uses of mercury cause accumulation of mercury in soil. The purpose of this study was to investigate the concentration and degree of mercury pollution in topsoil of three major industrial estates of Arak city.
Materials and Methods: In this study three estates was investigated. Soil samples were collected from thedepth of 0 to 20 cm . 22 samples were taken and analyzed. Mercury concentrations in soil samples were determined by Advanced Mercury Analyzer (Model; Leco, AMA 254).
Results: The mercury concentrations in soil samples range from 68.43 to 137.03 μg/ kg for soils, with a mean value of 102.07 μg/ kg. Means comparison showed significant difference among industrial town 2 with other industrial towns .Also there was no significant correlation between soil pH and Hg concentration.
Conclusion: The result of this research showed that: Compared to earth crust, surface soils in industrial towns had higher mercury concentrations, but compared to other soils around the world, it did not show high levels of mercury and it seems that most of the sources of mercury pollution are natural. Despite the concentration of total Hg in soils are not acute, however the planning for emission control of this metal and other pollutants, with application of green plants purification technology should be considered seriously.
Key words: Mercury, Soil, Industrial estate, Arak city

The effect of the health belief model-based education & improvement of consumption of fruits and vegetables: An interventional study

Elahe Tavassoli, Mehnoush Reisi, Hemammodin Javadzade, Maryam Mazaheri, Zabihollah Gharli pour, Sima Ghasemi, Soraya Shakoori

Journal of Health in the Field, , 28 January 2017,

Background and Aims: Cardiovascular diseases are noncontiguous diseases which are caused by various factors. Considering the importance of nutrition education especially consumption of fruits and vegetables; This study was performed to determine the effect of health education based on health belief model on the improvement of consumption of fruits and vegetables aiming at preventing cardiovascular disease among high school girls in Shahr-e-kord city.
Materials and Methods: This is a quasi-experimental intervention study. The research population was 120 students that were randomly divided into different groups, experimental (60 person) and controls (60 person). The tools for data collecting were questionnaire health belief model based and FFQ questionnaire. The HBM questionnaire was completed 3 times, (before, Immediately and 2 months after education) and FFQ questionnaire was completed 2 times, (before and 2 months after education) by students. After pre-test, 6 educational session classes in experimental group were performed. Finally data collected and analyzed by SPSS16 computer software (T- test, repeated measure ANOVA).
Results: The two groups had no significant difference in terms of demographic variables. There was no significant differences observed in two groups before the intervention between the scores of different structures of this model (P>0/05). There was significant differences observed after the intervention between experimental and control groups in the levels of knowledge, perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, perceived efficacy and performance (p<0.001).
Conclusion: According to the results, intervention has positive impact on the improvement of consumption of fruits and vegetables among students.
Key words: Education, Health belief model, Heart Diseases, Consumption of fruits, Vegetables

Survey of pollutant emissions from stack of Saman cement factory of Kermanshah city from year 2011 to 2012

Ali Almasi, Fateme Asadi, Mitra Mohamadi, Frogh Farhadi, Zahra Atafar, Razieh Khamutian, Ahmad Mohamadi

Journal of Health in the Field, , 28 January 2017,

Background and Aims: Toxic gases and hazardous particulates that release into environment from cement factories have considered as the environmental problems. This study aimed to determine the level of air pollutants from the stacks and the ambient air of the Kermanshah Saman cement factory and its comparison with existing standards.
Materials and Methods: This is a Descriptive - analytical study. The assessed parameters include the suspended particles CO, NO2, NO and SO2 from pre-heater, crusher, and electro filter have performed according to the method of Perkinz air pollution control.
Results: Results showed that amount of suspended particulates was lower than the industry emissions standard, which has been approved as a national standard for crusher (200 mg per cubic meter) electro-filter (150 mg per cubic meter). However, the amount of gases emission was more than standard.
Conclusions: This study revealed that the controlling devices have good ability in particles control. Although the exhaust gases seemingly different from the standard, but the difference is not significant.
However further controls are recommended for control of gases pollutants.
Key words: Cement factory, Particulate, Polluting gases, Kermanshah.

Feasibility study of recycling and converting acidic sludge to bitumen in used motor oil refining industries

Malek Hassanpour, Ahmad jonidi jafari, Mitra Gholami, Mehdi Farzadkia

Journal of Health in the Field, , 28 January 2017,

Background and Aims: Thousand tons of acidic sludge is produced daily as by-product in the used motor oil refining industries. The acidic sludge contains unsaturated compounds which are non-polar and asphaltene. The objective of this study was performance improvement of acidic sludge by using the additives (bentonite, polymer SBS, sodium hydroxide and the lime) so that recovery to bitumen.
Materials and Methods: The polymer styrene - butadiene - styrene (SBS) is bitumen modifier as one of the elastomer - thermoplastic with weight percentages (2 to 4 percent), bentonite due to the chemical structure as fillers, stabilizers and agent concentration with weight percentages (1,2,4,6,8,10) and lime and sodium hydroxide were used to decreasing acidity rate of acidic sludge and promoting the role of bentonite stability in bitumen with ratios equal (1 to 5 g) were mixed with acidic sludge of industry (samples 50 g) and their effect on the acidic sludge was investigated.
Results: Evaluation of studies indicated that because of increasing acidic sludge softening point, temperature from 25 to 48 oC , decrease weight loss from 3% to 1.25, promoting the penetration degree to 230 mm, Frass breaking point to -7 and penetration index (PI) to the degree standard set (+1), the acidic sludge properties and performance were modified. The measurement of last three parameters was unavailable in primary sludge.
Conclusion: Environmental and health hazards of acidic sludge will be decreases by treatment and neutralization. Also obtained products can be used in the building and road construction according to its specific bitumen criteria and characteristics.
Key words: Recovery - Acidic sludge - Used motor oil