Original Articles


EDC-Protein Network Formation in Uvea Melanoma; An Analysis of Melanoma Metastasis-Associated Genes

Nazila Eslami, AmirHossein Yari, Parinaz Tabrizi-Nezhadi, Habib MotieGhader, Anahita Samadzadeh, Zahra Ebadi, Ali Rezapour, Masoud Maleki

Journal of Ophthalmic and Optometric Sciences, Vol. 4 No. 3 (2020), , Page 1-16
https://doi.org/10.22037/joos.v4i3.36783

Abstract:


Background: Melanoma is a kind of pigment cell cancer that affects the iris, ciliary body, or choroid of the eye (collectively referred to as the uvea). Tumors arise from pigment cells located inside the uvea that stain the eye. Metastasis of melanoma in the eye can damage a number of melanoma, such as the liver. Early diagnosis and treatment of melanoma can prevent possible problems, including decreased vision or complete loss of the eye. The most common manifestations of the disease are blurred vision, diplopia,  photopsia and proptosis.


Material and Methods: First, the accession number GSE22138 was used to access the Gene Expression Omnibus at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (GEO). Then, 2000 metastatic and non-metastatic melanoma genes were extracted from the NCBI database together with their P-value. Then, by constructing the PPI network, we established ten modules for the genes with the highest expression levels. The comptox database was used to identify possible Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) for 17 high-expression genes. Cytoscape software was used to visualize the EDC-Protein network for these genes. Finally, we analyzed GO (Gene-Ontology) and molecular pathways using the DAVID database.


 Result: In melanoma, 120 potential EDCs were identified to have regulatory effects on gene expression. We present oryzalin as a very effective EDC based on a comprehensive evaluation of various EDCs for metastatic Melanoma.


Conclusion: Oryzalin is the EDC with the highest degree in our network. However, these results need to be experimentally confirmed to suggest improved prevention.

Suggested Drugs for Human Strabismic Extraocular Muscle

Nasim Afhami, Mazaher Maghsoudloo, Ahmad Shojaei, Farhad Adhami Moghadam

Journal of Ophthalmic and Optometric Sciences, Vol. 4 No. 3 (2020), , Page 17-31
https://doi.org/10.22037/joos.v4i3.37815

Background: Misalignment of the eyes is called strabismus that is one of the most common disorders in ophthalmology. This disorder must be rapidly diagnosed because late diagnosis increases the probability for surgery. Genetic and environmental risk factors are involved in the prevalence of strabismus. This study aimed to investigate differentially expressed genes in patients with the extraocular muscles (EOMs) and heathy individuals, and also elucidating suggestive drugs for the treatment of the disease.


Methods: The data were collected from Gene Expression Omnibus, comprising series of GSE38780. To detect hub genes with dysregulated expression, microarray data were used. Statistical methods extract differentially expressed genes and network analyses were used to detect potential biomarkers of EOMs. Then drugs were suggested based on potential biomarkers.


Results: 2009 DEGs were identified by help of adjusted  P value and log fold change. DEGs were mapped on PPI data obtained from STRING database and PPI network was extracted after considering interactions. Centrality of nodes in network was calculated and 10 nodes with highest centrality as marker genes were identified. Ten potential biomarker including CYCS, NDUFV1, COX5A, NDUFB9, SDHA, NDUFS2, UQCR10, UQCR11, MDH2 and UQCRC1 were identified and Six candidate drugs based on them were suggested including NV-128, ME-344, Metformin Hydrochloride, Famoxadone, Albumin Human and Cisplatin.


Conclusion: This work was conducted to identify potential biomarker for strabismus and seeking the candidate drugs for it. The marker genes are the most important genes based on statistical and network analysis. By use of potential biomarkers, six drugs were suggested.

EyeMirDB: a Web-Based Platform of Experimentally Supported Eye Disease-miRNA Information

Behnaz Haji Molla Hoseyni , Alireza Meshkin, Ehsan Pournoor

Journal of Ophthalmic and Optometric Sciences, Vol. 4 No. 3 (2020), , Page 32-41
https://doi.org/10.22037/joos.v4i3.37853

Background:  Studies of microRNA biology have increased in numerous scientific research domains, including eye science. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that operate as post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression by destroying or blocking the translation of target messenger RNA.   Despite significant efforts to investigate the miRNA of eye disease, a complete platform of frequent ocular disease with genes, pathways, and miRNA is still unavailable.


Material and Methods: Three well-known databases were used as the main data source: DisGeNET, OMIM, and KEGG. The curated genes involved in each disease were manually collected. Then, the annotation information like gene’s sequence, description, chromosome’s number, start and end loci were extracted from the Ensembl data source. Gene’s pathway information was earned from KEGG and Reactome. Finally, experimentally validated gene’s related miRNA has been collected from miRecords, miRTarBase, and TarBase. In order to consider miRNAs expression in ocular tissues.


Results: we present EyeMirDB (http://eyemirdb.databanks.behrc.ir/), a web-based platform of consisting of all predicted and validated miRNAs. Information on the annotation of miRNA-related genes was also collected in order to better understand the effects of miRNA. Pathways by which these genes are active were also identified. Right now, EyeMirDB contains 429 curated genes, 1258 pathways, and 2596 validated miRNAs of 25 prevalent ocular diseases.


Conclusion: We introduce EyeMirDB, a web-based platform of Eye diseases-related interactions including disease-gene, gene-miRNA, gene-pathway curated information, and annotations, with the optionality of studying all these entities from different viewpoints. This data portal is a good entry point for ocular disease researchers.

Flash and Pattern Reversal Checkerboard Visual Evoked Potential Recording in Albinism Patients

Seyed Mohammad Masoud Shushtarian

Journal of Ophthalmic and Optometric Sciences, Vol. 4 No. 3 (2020), , Page 42-46
https://doi.org/10.22037/joos.v4i3.38506

Purpose: Albinism includes a group of genetic disorders with decreased pigmentation. Patients with albinism experience photophobia due to the lack of pigments in the iris. Visual evoked potential (VEP) is one of the diagnostic techniques used in these patients. Flash and pattern-reversal checkerboard VEPs are two stimulation techniques to record VEP. The present work aimed to compare these two techniques in albinism patients and look for the optimum one.


Materials and Method: Flash and pattern-reversal checkerboard VEPs were recorded in 20 albinism patients. The latency (msec) and amplitude (µv) of VEP, P100 peak were measured for each patient, and the results were evaluated and compared.


Results: The patients aged between 10-20 years. The population included an approximately equal number of both sexes, and the best corrected visual acuity ranged from 1/10 to 3/10. The difference was statistically significant between the two types of stimulation regarding the latency of VEP, P100 peak. However, the peak difference was not significant between the two types of stimulation as far as amplitude was concerned. 


Conclusion: The pattern-reversal checkerboard is a suitable technique to record VEP in albinism patients, although using flash VEP is inevitable in some cases.

Case Reports


Diplopia and Flashes of Light Sensation in a Patient with Fragrance Allergy

Seyed Mohammad Masoud Shushtarian, Khadijeh Haji Naghitehrani, Fatemeh Aflaki

Journal of Ophthalmic and Optometric Sciences, Vol. 4 No. 3 (2020), , Page 47-49
https://doi.org/10.22037/joos.v4i3.37645

Perfume allergy or perfume intolerance is a rare condition wherein people exhibit sensitivity or allergic reaction to ingredients in some perfumes and other fragrances. A 36-year-old female with fragrance allergy complaining of diplopia and flashes of light sensation was referred to Basir Eye Center for possible visual pathway disturbances. Hence we report the patient's visual evoked potential and magnetic resonance imaging.

Surgically Induces Scleral Melting Improved by Topical Erythropoietin: A Case Report

Maryam Yadgari, Fatema Jafari, Hashem Ahmad Hassan

Journal of Ophthalmic and Optometric Sciences, Vol. 4 No. 3 (2020), , Page 50-53
https://doi.org/10.22037/joos.v4i3.38513

Surgically induced scleral necrosis is a rare complication after many types of ocular surgery, including cataract surgery, pterygium surgery, glaucoma surgery, and vitrectomies. This report discusses a 35-year-old woman with Type I diabetes mellitus with multiple episodes of ocular surgeries, including glaucoma device implantation. The subject presented to our clinic with ocular pain and vision loss in the right eye following reoperation for glaucoma device implantation. The subject was managed successfully with topical erythropoietin in her episode of scleral melting. In this case, successful epithelialization and vascularization of the conjunctival defect were observed with the use of topical erythropoietin, resulting in putting off another reoperation. This indicates the usefulness of topical erythropoietin in successfully managing surgically-induced scleral melting cases.