Original Articles

Protein-Protein Interaction Network Study Reveals New Possible Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDC) ‘ Impact on Retinoblastoma

Amirhossein Yari, Sina Samadi, Ali Khalili, Masoud Maleki, Habib MotieGhader, Ali Rezapour

Journal of Ophthalmic and Optometric Sciences, Vol. 4 No. 1 (2020), , Page 1-12


Background: Retinoblastoma (RB) is a retinal-derived embryonic tumor. The illness severity at the time of presentation affects survival and preserves eyesight.

Methods: We explored differential gene expression in retinoblastoma and normal samples to better understand retinoblastoma etiology and find potential Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals(EDCs). The protein-protein interaction network was built using STRING database and displayed through Cytoscape and differentially expressed genes (DEGs) with an adj p-value of less than 0.01. Then, the network produced five PPI modules. After that, the genes in the modules were analyzed for GO and pathway enrichment. For each module's genes, EDC-gene interactions were collected and rebuilt as a single EDC-gene network.

Result: In Retinoblastoma, 347 putative EDCs were discovered to influence gene regulation. The EDC that affects five genes is ethanolamine. For the first time, these EDCs have been suggested as new possible compounds for preventing Retinoblastoma and should be investigated further in clinical trials.

Conclusion: Ethanolamine is a high degree EDC in our network. However, the findings should be experimentally validated to produce better prevention.

Visual Evoked Potential Findings of Sjogren's Syndrome

Ramtin Hajibeygi, Seyed Mohammad Masoud Shushtarian, Shahla Abolghasemi, Minoo shahani

Journal of Ophthalmic and Optometric Sciences, Vol. 4 No. 1 (2020), , Page 13-17

Background: Sjogren’s syndrome is one of the most common autoimmune diseases. These diseases can affect the entire body. Visual system involvement, i.e., dry eye is most common among these Patients. Visual pathway is a part of visual system may be affected in these patients. The aim of present work is to look for probable visual pathway disturbance of Sjogren’s syndrome using visual evoked potential.
Material and Methods: Forty eyes (20 Sjogren’s female patients) with age in between 45-55 years were chosen for this study. Implicit time and amplitude of VEP, P100 peak was measured in patient group. Same procedure was repeated for 20 healthy subjects with matched age and sex condition.
Results: The mean age of the patient group was 49.6 ± 3.06 and in case of healthy population it was 50.15 ± 3.28. The difference between two groups was not significant. In case of visual acuity, the difference between two groups was not statistically significant i.e., both groups had 10⁄10 BCVA. The mean values for implicit time were 100.05 ± 3.8 and 99.55 ± 3.54 in patient and healthy groups respectively.
In case of amplitude the values were 5.4 ± 1.44 and 5.2 ± 1.41 in patient and healthy groups respectively. The calculation does not show statistically significant changes between two parameters VEP, P100 peak.
Conclusion: Sjogren’s syndrome does not have any adverse effect on visual pathway as far as latency and amplitude of visual evoked potential P100 is concerned.
Keywords: Sjogren’s Syndrome; Visual Pathway; Visual Evoked Potential.

The Long Term Outcome of Second Trabeculectomy with Mitomycin C after Previous Failed Operation

Maryam Yadgari, Kiana Hassanpour, Mansoor Shahriari

Journal of Ophthalmic and Optometric Sciences, Vol. 4 No. 1 (2020), , Page 18-23

Background: To evaluate the efficacy of second trabeculectomy with mitomycin C among patients with previous failed trabeculectomy. Material and Methods: This retrospective study included 23 eyes of 23 patients with failed trabeculectomy who underwent second trabeculectomy with mitomycin C at Imam Hussein Medical Center, Tehran, Iran, between January 2010 and December 2017. Pre and post operative intraocular pressure (IOP), number of medications, surgical success rate and post operative complications were recorded. The primary outcome was surgical success defined as IOP ≤ 18 mmHg according to criteria A and IOP ≤ 15 mmHg according to criteria B.
Results: The mean age of patients entering the study was 54.95 ± 14.32 years. There was a significant decrease of the mean IOP post operatively at all postoperative follow ups (P < 0.001 for all follow ups) up to 2 years. Also there was a significant decrease in the mean number of IOP reducing drugs needed post operatively at all postoperative follow ups (P < 0.001 for all follow ups). The success rate per criteria A was from 96 % three months after surgery to 87 % two years after surgery. The success rate per criteria B was from 87 % three months after surgery to 74 % two years after surgery.
Conclusion: Based on our results second trabeculectomy seems to be an effective method for controlling the IOP among patients with failed first trabeculectomy.
Keywords: Glaucoma; Outcome; Trabeculectomy.

Differential Expression of Genes in the Cornea compared to the Optic Nerve

Behnaz Haji Molla Hoseyni , Ehsan Pournoor

Journal of Ophthalmic and Optometric Sciences, Vol. 4 No. 1 (2020), , Page 24-35

Background: Identification of tissue-specific biomarkers can help us in finding the causes of disease. In this context, finding genes that are expressed in different tissues gives us guidance in cell differentiation.
Material and Methods: we examined genes with different expressions in both optic nerve and corneal tissues. First, we found differentially expressed genes on a dataset including 4 corneal and 4 optic nerve samples, then evaluated them on another independent dataset to validate the findings. Finally, we performed Enrichment Analysis and Network Evaluation of the obtained DEGs.
Results: we gained 6 genes that are highly expressed in the optic nerve than the cornea and 99 genes with higher expression in the cornea than in the optic nerve.
Conclusion: We saw traces of DEGs in the mechanism of action of the corresponding cells. In this study, we did not use the FDR method and thus we do not have false positive in final DEGs.
Keywords: Biomarker Discovery; Cornea; Optic Nerve; Differential Gene Expression Analysis.

Case Reports

Eosinophilic Granuloma Syndrome with Conjunctival Involvement: A Case Report

Seyyed Hashem Daryabari, Mohammad Ali Javadi , Majid Shams

Journal of Ophthalmic and Optometric Sciences, Vol. 4 No. 1 (2020), , Page 36-39

To report a rare case of eosinophilic granuloma with bilateral conjunctival involvement. A 27-yearold female patient was referred to our center due to granulomatous lesions in the upper conjunctiva of both eyes, which began about two years ago. Patient also had a history of lung disease (Asthma) from about 7 years ago. The patient was eventually diagnosed as a case of bilateral eosinophilic granuloma of eyes with pulmonary involvement. Treatment with systemic corticosteroid resulted in disappearance of the eye lesions after one month.Although eosinophilic granuloma of eye is a very rare condition it should be considered as a differential diagnosis for eye masses especially in patients with concurrent lung problems.

Diplopia and Blurry Vision Following Refractive Eye Surgery: a Comorbidity Case Report

Seyed Mohammad Masoud Shushtarian, Seyed Jalil Naghib, Farhad Adhami-Moghadam, Ahmad Shojaei

Journal of Ophthalmic and Optometric Sciences, Vol. 4 No. 1 (2020), , Page 40-42

Refractive eye surgery is a safe technique as far as visual pathway is concerned. A 39-year patient
Complains from diplopia & blurring vision on his second refractive surgery attempt, was referred to
visual electrophysiology diagnostic Laboratory of Basir clinic for possible visual pathway disorder.
this report explains the visual evoked findings and magnetics resonance imaging of the Patient
which indicated a comorbidity of refractive and visual pathway disorders. However, at first glance it
considered as side effect of surgery

Review Articles

Primary Congenital Glaucoma: Detecting Novel Disease-Causing Variants Using Whole-Exome Sequencing and Pathway Analysis

Parisima Ghaffarian Zavarzadeh, Bita Shalbafan, Fatemeh Abdi

Journal of Ophthalmic and Optometric Sciences, Vol. 4 No. 1 (2020), , Page 43-59

Primary Congenital Glaucoma (PCG) is an irreversible loss of vision that occurs mainly in infants or in the first years of life. In addition to numerous sporadic cases, PCG exhibits both an autosomal recessive and an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance. The genetic etiology of the disease is not fully understood; however, the role of genes such as CYP1B1, MYOC, LTBP2, and TEK is recognized. Various molecular biology approaches have been developed to study various diseases’ genetic and signaling patterns, especially PCG. Due to the genetic etiology is essential to consider genetic counseling for patients and their families who tend to be at higher risk and eventually reduce the prevalence of ocular diseases. In this review, in addition to examining various aspects of the disease, we specifically focused on the Molecular and Genetic Basis of PCG, including a small aspect of whole-Exome Sequencing to detect novel disease-causing variants.
Keywords: Cytochrome P-450 CYP1B1; Glaucoma; Genetic Counseling; Whole-Exome Sequencing.