Modified Shock Index as a Predictor of Admission and In-hospital Mortality in Emergency Departments; an Analysis of a US National Database
Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine,
Vol. 11 No. 1 (2023),
15 November 2022
Introduction: The modified shock index (MSI) is the ratio of heart rate to mean arterial pressure. It is used as a predictive and prognostic marker in a variety of disease states. This study aimed to derive the optimal MSI cut-off that is associated with increased likelihood (likelihood ratio, LR) of admission and in-hospital mortality in patients presenting to emergency department (ED).
Methods: We retrospectively reviewed data from the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey between 2005 and 2010. Adults>18 years of age were included regardless of chief complaint. Basic patient demographics, initial vital signs, and outcomes were recorded for each patient. Then the optimal MSI cut-off for prediction of admission and in-hospital mortality in ED was calculated. LR ≥ 5 was considered clinically significant.
Results: 567,994,402 distinct weighted adult ED patient visits were included in the analysis. 15.7% and 2.4% resulted in admissions and in-hospital mortality, respectively. MSI > 1.7 was associated with a moderate increase in the likelihood of both admission (Positive LR (+LR) = 6.29) and in-hospital mortality (+LR = 5.12). +LR for hospital admission at MSI >1.7 was higher for men (7.13; 95% CI 7.11-7.15) compared to women (5.49; 95% CI 5.47-5.50) and for non-white (7.92; 95% CI 7.88-7.95) compared to white patients (5.85; 95% CI 5.84-5.86). For MSI <0.7, the +LRs were not clinically significant for admission (+LR = 1.07) or in-hospital mortality (LR = 0.75).
Conclusion: In this largest retrospective study, to date, on MSI in the undifferentiated ED population, we demonstrated that an MSI >1.7 on presentation is predictive of admission and in-hospital mortality. The use of MSI could help guide accurate acuity designation, resource allocation, and disposition.
- Modified shock index
- Hospital Mortality
- Emergency Service, Hospital
How to Cite
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