PURPOSE: Transcranial magnetic resonance guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) is a new development in the field of functional neurosurgery. A comprehensive review of the current literature was performed to evaluate of transcranial MRgFUS in treatment of essential tremor (ET) and Parkinson’s disease.

METHODS: Articles available in electronic databases of PubMed, and Web of Science, as of July 2016 were reviewed. The strategy included a combination of key words 'MRgFUS', 'tremor', 'Parkinson', 'brain', ' head ', 'tumor', 'transcranial' and 'focused ultrasound' in the title and abstract of the manuscripts. In addition transcranial MRgFUS systems and cost-effectiveness of treatment were assessed. Finally, the major findings are summarized.

RESULTS: Fifty-eight articles met the inclusion criteria for review. Among these, 15 studies eligible for inclusion in this review. The synthesis of the data demonstrated that, transcranial MRgFUS have been successfully used for treatment of essential tremor and Parkinson’s disease. Lesions were created under real-time MRI guidance, with peak temperatures of between 52° C and 63° C. Adverse events during transcranial MRgFUS reported such as headache, dizziness, vertigo, lip paresthesia, and hypogeusia. However, there were no significant treatment-related complications or side effects. At present, one of the limitations of transcranial MRgFUS is high price of treatment. However, continued advances in technology can be expected to further refine the high price market of transcranial MRgFUS.

CONCLUSION: The findings showed that essential tremor and Parkinson’s disease can be effectively treated with transcranial MRgFUS method. Long-term clinical data are forthcoming.

Cannabinoids as a Promising Therapeutic Approach for the Treatment of Glioblastoma Multiforme: A Literature Review

Firouzeh Hashemi, Mansoureh Hashemi, Ali Reza Zali

International Clinical Neuroscience Journal, Vol. 3 No. 3 (2016), 7 December 2016 , Page 138-143

Gliobalstoma multiforme (GBM) or grade 4 astrocytoma is the most malignant form of primary brain tumor. Treatment of glioblastoma is difficult despite of surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Patients with glioblastoma survive for less than 12 months. Considering to biology function of glioblastoma, researchers have recently offered new therapeutic approaches such as cannabinoid therapy for glioblastoma. Cannabinoids are active compounds of Cannabis sativa that operate in the body similar to endogenous canabinoids –the endocannabinoids- through cell surface receptors. It is interesting that cannabinoids could exert a wide spectrum from antiproliferative effects in condition of the cell culture, animal models of glioblastoma and clinical trials. As a result, Cannabinoids seem to modulate intracellular signaling pathways and the endoplasmic reticulum stress response in glioma cells. Those play antitumoral effects through apoptosis induction and inhibition of glioblastoma angiogenesis. The goal of this study was to discuss cannabinoid therapy and also what cellular mechanisms are involved in the tumoricidal effect of the cannabinoids. In this review article, we will focus on cannabinoids, their receptor dependent functional roles against glioblastoma acccording to growth, angiogenesis, metastasis, and future purposes in exploring new possible therapeutic opportunities.

Electrospun Poly Caprolactone-Carbon Nanotube Scaffold for Nerve Regeneration in Dental Tissue Engineering

Mohammad Ali Ketabi, Maryam Shanavazi, Reza Fekrazad, Farbod Tondnevis, Hamid Keshvari, Majid Raz, Ali Sadeghi, Kourosh Bajelani, Mohsen shahrousvand, Ali Reza Zalli, Gholamreza Mohseni, Mohammad Mahdi Abolhasani

International Clinical Neuroscience Journal, Vol. 3 No. 3 (2016), 7 December 2016 , Page 144-149

Regeneration and engineering of functional new tissues containing the neural network have great importance. Progression of neural network into the dental tissue has a crucial role in dental tissue regeneration. In the present study polymer-ceramic blended scaffolds containing different weight percentages of carbon nanotube in poly caprolactone nanofiber matrix were fabricated. Morphological, mechanical and electrical properties of the prepared scaffolds have been characterized. Results showed that the sample containing 5 weight % of carbon nanotube had the smallest mean fiber diameter (50 - 300 nm) and the highest mechanical behavior. Also, its electrical conductivity was suitable to be used in nerve tissue scaffolds. The static culture of the Schwann cells on the prepared scaffolds indicated that increasing weight percentage of carbon nanotube into the polycaprolactone matrix up to the 5 wt. % enhanced cell viability.

The Nucleus Pulpous of Intervertebral Disc Effect on Finite Element Modeling of Spine

Midiya Khademi, Yousef Mohammadi, Seifollah Gholampour, Nasser Fatouraee

International Clinical Neuroscience Journal, Vol. 3 No. 3 (2016), 7 December 2016 , Page 150-157

BACKGROUND: Spine of an adult is made up of five areas that include 7 cervical vertebrae, 12 thoracic vertebrae, 5 lumbar vertebrae, sacrum and finally coccyx. Selecting appropriate assumptions for modeling and biological analysis of the spine components has a significant impact on the accuracy of results in biomechanical simulation for different modes.

METHODS: In the present study, biomechanical analysis has been done on the spine by using finite element simulation. Dimensional characteristics of an individual’s spine components are obtained, then the spine model as one-piece and intervertebral discs as two modes of one-piece and two-piece (Annulus and Nucleus section) in the form of two separate models is modeled. Gravity caused by the weight of spine (gravity intensity of 9800 Newton per square millimeters) was applied to the model and output of stress, displacement and changing the angle between the vertebrae of the spine has been obtained.

RESULTS: The maximum displacement, stress and change of angle between the vertebrae in spine model with one-piece disc was 0.254 and 0.197 and -0.083 respectively, and for the model with two-piece disc is 0.399 and 0.205 and 0.021 respectively.

CONCLUSION: According to the results for examining the stress, there was no significant difference in choosing the assumption of two-piece or one-piece of the intervertebral disc, but results of the model analysis with assuming two pieces of the intervertebral disc is more appropriate in examining displacement and changing the angle between the vertebrae.

MRI Findings of Primary CNS Lymphoma in 20 Patients of Stereotaxic Ward

Mohamad Ali Fazeli, Zahra Janamiri, Alireza Zali, Afsoun Seddighi, Amirsaeed Seddighi, Farzad Ashrafi, Navid Asadi

International Clinical Neuroscience Journal, Vol. 3 No. 3 (2016), 7 December 2016 , Page 158-163

PURPOSE: To record the MRI features of primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) and compare these properties in monofocal and multifocal disease.

METHODS: Eleven cases of monofocal disease were compared to 9 cases of multifocal disease. All patients were examined by non-enhanced and contrast-enhanced MRI. Tumor location, signal intensity, enhancement characteristics, age distribution, peritumoral edema, cystic changes, and the presence of calcifications were assessed. The MRI features were compared between the monofocal and multifocal patients.

RESULTS: There were 20 cases including both the monofocal and multifocal cases. Contrast-enhanced images showed variable enhancement patterns: homogeneous enhancement (14 patients), and hetrogenous enhancement (6 patients). One case of hemorrhage and two cases of cystic formation were observed. Intra-tumoral calcification was not detected. The frontal lobe, the corpus callosum and the basal ganglia were commonly involved in both the monofocal and multifocal lesion.

CONCLUSION: Our data showed that PCNSL has a variable enhancement and edema pattern on MRI. Monofocal PCNSL cases typically have larger size tumors with mild or marked enhancement.

Helicobacter pylori vacA c1 Genotype Is a Benefit Biomarker for Prediction of Gastric Cancer Risk in Ardabil

Seyedeh Zahra Bakhti, Shokofeh Gholizadeh, Saeid Latifi-Navid, Saber Zahri, Abbas Yazdanbod

International Clinical Neuroscience Journal, Vol. 3 No. 3 (2016), 7 December 2016 , Page 164-169

BACKGROUND: Gastric cancer (GC) is the fifth common malignant disease and the third leading cause of cancer-related mortality in the world. Ardabil, a Northwestern province of Iran, includes the highest rate of GC within the country. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) vacA gene plays a major role in generating and maintaining the gastric inflammatory response, which alters the enteric nervous system in various combinations and may contribute to the development of GC. The aim of the current study was to investigate the relationship of the vacA c-region genotypes of H. pylori with GC among Ardabil population.

METHODS: A total of 197 from 259 patients with non-atrophic gastritis (NAG) and GC, who were H. pylori positive, were selected and genotyped.

RESULTS: The frequency of vacA c1 was 53.7% and c2 42.3%. There was a significant difference between the frequencies of vacA c1 in isolates from GC than those from NAG (p<0.05). Though the GC was considered as a dependent factor by the multiple logistic regression analysis, the vacA c1 genotype was significantly associated with age- and sex-adjusted risk for GC (p=0.003, odds ratio [OR] = 5.48; 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.80–16.63).

CONCLUSION: It was proposed that the H. pylori vacA c1 genotype could be considered as an important determinant for prediction of risk of GC in Ardabil. It is suggested that interaction between H. pylori vacA c-region genotypes and gastric nervous system may contribute to the development of GC.

Solitary Eosinophilic Granuloma in the Lumbar Spine: Case Report

Mohamad Ali Fazeli, Reza Khoshnood, Mohammadreza Shahmohammadi, Hamed Javadian

International Clinical Neuroscience Journal, Vol. 3 No. 3 (2016), 7 December 2016 , Page 170-173

A case of a 3-year-old patient with osteolytic lesion in the lumbar region is presented. The clinic-radiological suspicion was infection, primary or metastatic tumor of spine. Subsequently, a CT guided biopsy proved an eosinophilic granuloma of bone. Following medical treatment after two month, there was improvement in patient medical status.