ISSN: 1735-1308

Vol. 15 No. 1 (2018)

Best Reviewer


REVIEW


Purpose: This review systematically discusses and summarizes the effect of vitamin B6 on semen quality.
Material and Method: To achieve this contribution, we searched the PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science databases for English language papers from 1984 through 2017 using the key words “sperm” versus “Vitamin B6”, “pyridoxine”, and “pyridoxal”. Also, the references from selected published papers were included, only if relevant.
Result: To date, as revealed by rodent studies, high doses of vitamin B6 impair semen quality and sperm parameters. While in humans, it is suggested, but not yet directly approved, that seminal vitamin B6 levels may alter sperm quality (i.e., sperm quantity and quality), and that vitamin B6 deficiency may trigger the chemical toxicity to sperm (i.e., hyperhomocysteinemia, oxidative injury).
Conclusion: The adverse effect of vitamin B6, when used at high doses, has been revealed in experimental animals, but not yet directly approved in humans. Consequently, in vitro studies on human ejaculate as well as clinical studies that investigate the direct effect of vitamin B6 on semen quality seem very significant.

ORIGINAL PAPER (ENDOUROLOGY AND STONE DISEASE)


Purpose: To assess the feasibility and safety of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) combined with cyst laser intrarenal incision and drainage in the management of renal and upper ureteral stones with ipsilateral renal cyst.
Materials and Methods: Between March 2011 and March 2016, 28 patients with ipsilateral renal cyst in renal and upper ureteral stones underwent PCNL combined with cyst laser intrarenal incision and drainage. The perioperative evaluated variables included operation time, cyst size after surgery, complications and stone-free rate(SFR).
Results: All patients successfully underwent the operation without conversion to open surgery. The mean operative time was 64.4±30.1 minutes; the mean hemoglobin reduction was 7.9±1.6 g/dL; the mean time to removal of nephrostomy tube and double J ureteral stent was 3.0±1.0 days, and 30.3±7.0 days; the mean hospital stay was
8.5±2.0 days. The SFR of all the patients was 89.3%(25/28), and no serious perioperative complications occurred.
Conclusion: PCNL combined with cyst laser intrarenal incision and drainage is a feasible and safe approach for treatment of renal and upper ureteral stones with ipsilateral renal cyst.

The Respiratory Induced Kidney Motion: Does It Really Effect the Shock Wave Lithotripsy?

Mehmet Ozgur Yucel, Serkan Ozcan, Gokhan Tirpan, Murat Bagcioglu, Arif Aydin, Arif Demirbas, Tolga Karakan

Urology Journal, Vol. 15 No. 1 (2018), 23 January 2018 , Page 11-15
https://doi.org/10.22037/uj.v0i0.3774

Purpose: To investigate the effect of respiratory induced kidney mobility on success of shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) with an electrohydraulic lithotripter.
Materials and methods: Between May 2013 and April 2015, 158 patients underwent SWL treatment for kidney stones with an electrohydraulic lithotripter. The exclusion criteria were presence of a known metabolic disease (such as cystinuria), non-opaque stones, need for focusing with ultrasonography, abnormal habitus, urinary tract abnormalities, and inability to tolerate SWL until the end of the procedure. Stones greater than 20 mm, and lower pole stones were also excluded. The movement of the kidneys were measured with fluoroscopy guidance.
Results: The procedure was successful in 66.7% of the males, and 56.9% of the females. The mean stone size was 11 ± 3 mm in the successful group, and it was 14 ± 4 mm in the unsuccessful group. The mean stone mobility rate was 32 ± 10 in the successful group and 40 ± 11 in the unsuccessful group. Multivariate analysis showed that stone size and kidney mobility affected the success rate significantly, however Hounsfield Unit (HU) did not.
Conclusion: The current study shows the significant effect of kidney motion on the success of SWL. Further studies with different lithotripters are needed to determine the significance of kidney mobility.

Purpose: To assess the tolerability of Potassium Citrate (KCit) tablets in patients with kidney stones that were not able to use the powder form of this drug due to unfavorable salty taste and /or gastrointestinal complications.
Materials and Methods: Twenty-three stone formers, with intolerance to potassium citrate powder form, which had referred to Labbafinejad stone preventive clinic in 2015, were included in this study. All of the patients took two potassium citrate tablets (10 meq), three times a day for two weeks. Spot urine samples and the 24-hour urine collections were performed before and after KCit therapy. In addition, a visual analog taste scale was completed to gauge the taste and palatability of the KCit tablets in comparison with the powder form.
Results: All of the patients claimed that they consumed the tablets as prescribed. The urine pH (5.7 ± 0.6 to 6.1 ± 0.8, p = 0.006), 24-hour citrate (235.8 ± 190.2 to 482.5 ± 323.2, p = 0.0002) and potassium (45.25 ± 22.5 to 75.27 ± 37, p = 0.002) were significantly higher after the treatment. In addition, the mean visual analog scale score was significantly improved in KCit therapy with tablet form versus to powder form of the drug (good vs. terrible score).
Conclusion: Oral tolerance of KCit therapy is improved with the use of Potassium Citrate tablet, with beneficial effects on 24-hour urine citrate, potassium, and pH.

ORIGINAL PAPER (LAPAROSCOPIC AND ROBOTIC UROLOGY)


Purpose: To compare the effectiveness of TachoSil and Floseal during laparoscopic nephron-sparing surgery (LNSS), and to evaluate postoperative complications, especially hemorrhage and urinary leakage.
Materials and Methods: The medical records of all patients that underwent LNSS for a small renal mass (SRM) performed by the same experienced surgeon were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were divided into the following 3 groups, based on hemostatic agent: group 1: no adjuvant hemostatic agent (no AHA); group 2: TachoSil; group 3: Floseal.
Results: The study included 79 patients; no AHA group: n = 18; TachoSil group: n = 25; Floseal group: n = 36. The 3 groups were similar in terms of diameter [29.6 ± 11.5 mm, 26.4 ± 13.4 mm and 30.4 ± 9.6 mm, respectively (P = .218)] and PADUA scores [6.9 ± 0.9, 6.7 ± 1 and 6.9 ± 0.9, respectively (P =.540)]. Mean duration of surgery was significantly shorter in the Floseal group (120.9 ± 23.1 minutes) than in the no AHA group (156.6 ± 34.4 minutes). Mean ischemia time was longest in the no AHA group (24.3 ± 4 minutes) and shortest in the Floseal group
(21.3 ± 4.3 minutes). Intra-abdominal (IA) catheter drainage on postoperative day 1 was significantly higher in the no AHA group than
in the TachoSil and Floseal groups [156.9 ±78.3 mL vs. 72.6 ± 64.5 and 60.8 ± 30.2 mL, respectively (P < .05)]. Mean duration of hospitalization was 3.2 ± 0.5 days in the no AHA group that was significantly longer than in the Floseal group (2.8 ± 0.7 days) (P = .043). There were not any differences in intraoperative complications, the transfusion rate, surgical margin positivity, or postoperative complications between the 3 groups (P = .596, P =.403, P = 1.0, P = .876, respectively). However, pseudoaneurism as a late term complication occurred in 27.7% patients in the no AHA group.
Conclusion: TachoSil and Floseal are safe and effective adjuvant treatments for patients undergoing LNSS. They might be useful especially in preventing pseudo aneurisms, shortening intraoperative ischemia time and hospital stay and decreasing postoperative drainage. Shortened operation and warm ischemia time may also be attributed to long learning curve of LNSS.

ORIGINAL PAPER(UROLOGICAL ONCOLOGY)


High Resolution Melting Analysis for Rapid Detection of PIK3CA Gene Mutations in Bladder Cancer: A Mutated Target for Cancer Therapy

Zahra Ousati Ashtiani, Abdol Rasoul Mehrsai, Mohammad Reza Pourmand, Gholam Reza Pourmand

Urology Journal, Vol. 15 No. 1 (2018), 23 January 2018 , Page 26-31
https://doi.org/10.22037/uj.v0i0.3987

Purpose: PIK3CA gene mutations have clinical importance and their presence is associated with therapy response. They are also considered as a molecule for targeted therapy. As regards to their importance, genetic variation within a population as well as among different populations, this study was conducted to detect common mutations of exons 9 and 20 and other probable mutations in PIK3CA gene as well as their frequencies in Iranian bladder cancer patients.
Materials and methods: Paired tumor and adjacent normal tissues samples were obtained from 50 bladder cancer patients. Mutations of PIK3CA gene were detected using High Resolution Melting (HRM) analysis which is a
highly sensitive, repeatable, rapid, and cost-effective technique. To determine the precision of the HRM analysis, Sanger sequencing analysis was used.
Results: The result showed that mutations were present in 10% (5/50) of the subjects. The majority of these cases (4/5) had the mutation(s) in exon 9, spanning over five different mutations, among which three of them were actually novel mutations. Further analysis showed that 2 cases had simultaneous mutations for exon 9. In addition to novel mutations, the PIK3CA mutation rate observed in Iranian bladder patients was not as frequent as previous reports and COSMIC.
Conclusion: HRM can be used as a rapid and sensitive method for mutation screening. Dysregulation of PIK3CA gene in bladder cancer reveals its potentials as a mechanistic link for cancer development, which in turn suggests its special use in interventional studies for targeted therapy.

ORIGINAL PAPER (PEDIATRIC UROLOGY)


The Effect of Tunica Albuginea Incision on Testicular Tissue After Detorsion in the Experimental Model of Testicular Torsion

Aynur Gultekin, Halil Ibrahim Tanriverdi, Sevinc Inan, Omer Yilmaz, Cuneyt Gunsar, Aydin Sencan

Urology Journal, Vol. 15 No. 1 (2018), 23 January 2018 , Page 32-39
https://doi.org/10.22037/uj.v0i0.3804

Purpose: Testis torsion is a surgical emergency, and sometimes we cannot sufficiently prevent injury even surgical detorsion of the testis is performed in the appropriate time period due to some reasons such as tissue edema. In this experimental study, we investigated the effect of tunica albuginea incision (TAI) on testicular torsion-detorsion model (TDM).
Materials and Methods: Twenty four male rats were used. The rats were randomly divided into three groups. In Group I, testicular torsion (TT) of 720° was created. After 4 hours of torsion period, the testis was detorsioned. Then three longitudinal incisions were made on tunica albuginea of the testis. In Group II, torsion and detorsion was created by the same way as in Group I, but TAI was not added to the procedure. Group III was Sham group. At the end of the first week, rats in the experimental groups were sacrificed and the testes were harvested for histological, immunohistological examinations and for the assessment of apoptotic activity.
Results: In Group I, the procedures led to partial improvement in color of the testes. Modified Johnsen Scores in Groups I, II and III were detected as 7.8, 4.3 and 9.6 respectively (P = .001). In Group I, immunoreactivity of anti-APAF-1 was moderate in 7 rats, and strong in 1 rat. Immunoreactivity of anti-cytochrome C and anti-caspase
3 were moderate in 6 rats, and strong in 2 rats. Immunoreactivity of anti-caspase 8 and 9 were moderate in 5 rats, and strong in 3 rats. The differences of immunoreactivity between the groups were statistically significant. TUNEL percentages were detected as 40, 62% in Group I, 60% in Group II and 11,75% in Group III respectively (P = .001).
Conclusion: As a result, multiple incisions made on tunica albuginea after detorsion in the TDM in rats, decrease the amount of ischemia- reperfusion injury. This effect might be related with the decrease in testicular edema and free oxygen radicals together with increase in tissue perfusion. Moreover, the decreased apoptotic activity seems to play a role in the decrease in inflammatory response and preservation of tissue parenchyma consequently.

ORIGINAL PAPER (ANDROLOGY)


Transplantation of Spermatogonial Stem Cells Suspension into Rete Testis of Azoospermia Mouse Model

Arefeh Jafarian, Niknam Lakpour, Mohammad Reza Sadeghi, Sheida Salehkhou, Mohammad Mehdi Akhondi

Urology Journal, Vol. 15 No. 1 (2018), 23 January 2018 , Page 40-47
https://doi.org/10.22037/uj.v0i0.3777

Purpose: The loss of spermatogonia following chemo-or radiotherapy leading to temporary or permanent infertility of the patient is a well known and unwanted side effect of many oncological therapies.
Materials and Methods: In this study, germ cells were isolated from 4 days old mouse testis cells. Busulfan treatment was used to the eliminate proliferating cells in the testis of recipient mice. The donor cells suspended in DMEM, were introduced into the rete testis of recipient mice via microinjection method. To distinguish the progeny of the transplanted donor stem cells from endogenous germ cells, BrdU-labeled cells were used. In addition, real time PCR was performed to determine expression levels of ngn3 and LIN28 (spermatogonia stem cells markers)
before and after transplantation. Western blot analysis was further performed to detect an increase in - ngn3 expression after transplantation.
Results: Transplantations of stem cells into rete testis of the recipients was done. Our results clearly showed a significant increase in spermatozoa number in epididymal luman Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) did not show alkaline phosphatase activities while ngn3 and LIN28 were clearly expressed. Ngn3 and LIN28 expression were reduced after busulfan treatment compared to untreatmented mice. However, the expression of ngn3 and LIN28 increased after transplantation . BrdU-labeled testis cells were successfully transplanted into rete testis of recipient mice. These cells remained in rete testis of all recipient mice up to two months after transplantation.
Conclusion: The present study clearly confirme that a regeneration after cytotoxic treatment was based on morphological criteria. We demonstrated the increase in stem cell numbers during regeneration and after transplantation. Transplantation of spermatogonial stem cells suspension by the injection of cells via the rete testis of recipient azoospermia model considerably enhances the efficiency of this procedure.

CASE REPORT


Brain Metastasis Of Penile Angiosarcoma

Ozgur Kardes, Fatih Aydemir, Halil Ibrahim Suner, Emre Durdag, Soner Civi, Kadir Tufan, Fazilet Kayaselcuk

Urology Journal, Vol. 15 No. 1 (2018), 23 January 2018 , Page 53-55
https://doi.org/10.22037/uj.v0i0.3607

Angiosarcoma is a rare malignancy originating from vascular endothelial cells. Brain metastasis of aniosarcomas are uncommon up to the literature. Penile angiosarcomas are also seldom among all anjiosarcomas. A case with penile angiosarcoma with confirmed brain metastasis is aimed to be reported and contribute to the literature for similar cases.

UNCLASSIFIED


Does Preoperative Use of Dutasteride Decrease Bleeding During Open Prostatectomy?

Arif Demirbas, Berkan Resorlu, Murat Tolga Gulpinar, Sina Kardas, Omer Gokhan Doluoglu, Abdulkadir Tepeler, Muhammet Fatih Kilinc, Tolga Karakan, Serkan Ozcan

Urology Journal, Vol. 15 No. 1 (2018), 23 January 2018 , Page 48-52
https://doi.org/10.22037/uj.v0i0.3693

Purpose: To investigate whether use of dutasteride, a 5-alpha reductase inhibitor, for at least four weeks preoperatively affected the blood loss during open prostatectomy (OP).
Materials and methods: Retrospective analysis was made of the data of 110 patients who had undergone OP. Group I comprised 50 patients that used dutasteride for 4 weeks preoperatively, and Group II comprised 60 patients that did not use the drug. The groups were compared in respect of age, total prostate specific antigen (TPSA) levels, prostate volumes, preoperative hemoglobin (Hgb) and hematocrit (Hct) levels, postoperative reduction of Hgb and Hct, percentage reduction in Hgb and Hct, and the administration of postoperative blood products.
Results: No differences were determined between the two groups in respect of prostate volumes, TPSA, preoperative Hgb and Hct levels (P = .813, P = .978, P = .422, P =.183, respectively). Postoperative Hgb reduction was 2.19 ± 1.36 g/dL in Group I, and 2.5 ± 1.47 g/dL in Group II (P = .260). Hgb reduction was calculated as 16.4 ± 9.7% in Group I and 17.6 ± 9.7% in Group II (P = .505). Reductions in Hct were 5.8 ± 3.7% in Group I, and 7.3 ± 4.4% in Group II, and percent reductions were 14.8 ± 9.4% in Group I and 17.3 ± 10.2% in Group II (P = .068, P = .182, respectively).
Conclusion: The use of dutasteride before OP did not affect blood loss during surgery, therefore surgery should not be delayed for the administration of dutasteride to patients.