Purpose: To compare the risk of complications between laparoscopic peritoneal dialysis (PD) catheter placement and open PD catheter placement.

Methods: We searched numerous databases, including SinoMed, CNKI, cqVIP, WanFang, Pubmed, Web of Science, OVID,  Cochrane and Scopus, for published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and non-randomized controlled trials (non-RCTs) .

Results: Ten studies were included(n=1341). The overall statistical results showed that patients receiving laparoscopic insertion of the PD catheter had a lower risk of catheter migration, inadequate drainage and blockage. The risk of leakage was higher in the laparoscopic group in studies performed prior to 2015; in studies performed after 2015, the risk of leakage was lower than in the conventional open-placement group. For the risk of developing pain, the risk was lower in the subgroup of laparoscopic patients starting PD within 1 day after catheter insertion; however, there was no significant difference between the subgroups starting PD 1 week or 2 weeks after catheter insertion. The risk outcome for abdominal bleeding was similar to that for pain, with a lower risk in the subgroup of laparoscopic patients starting PD within 1 day. The overall research quality was moderate.

Conclusion: Laparoscopic placement of the PD catheter has unique advantages over conventional open surgical placement, especially in special conditions such as emergency initiation. In addition, we found that some factors that were previously considered irrelevant may have an impact on the results for Asians. However, this conclusion still needs to be substantiated by further large samples in multicenter, high quality Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs).




Risk factors for Infectious Complications of Ureteroscopy after Obstructive Acute Pyelonephritis

Katsuhiro Ito, Toshifumi Takahashi, Shinya Somiya, Toru Kanno, Yoshihito Higashi, Hitoshi Yamada

Urology Journal, Vol. 20 No. 02 (2023), , Page 90-95

Objectives: To identify risk factors for infectious complication of ureteroscopy after obstructive acute pyelonephritis (OAPN).

Patients and Methods: This single-center, retrospective cohort study (#20200002, retrospectively registered in February 1st, 2020) included patients who underwent emergency drainage for OAPN and subsequently underwent ureteroscopic stone removal between January 2006 and December 2020. Multivariable analysis was conducted using demographic and stone-related factors to determine those that could predict postoperative febrile urinary tract infection (UTI).

Results: Overall, 432 patients underwent ureteroscopy after OAPN. The stone-free rate was 84.3%, whereas the overall and major complication rates were 17.6% and 3.2%, respectively. A total of 70 (16.2%) patient developed febrile UTI, among whom 34 (7.9%) and 11 (2.5%) developed sepsis and severe sepsis, respectively. Multivariable analysis identified diabetes mellitus [odds ratio (OR) 1.98, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.05–3.74], duration from drainage to surgery >1 month (OR 2.28, 95% CI 1.20–4.74), and simultaneous retrograde intrarenal surgery (OR 2.96, 95% CI 1.35–6.48) as significant risk factors for UTI. After dividing patients into low- (0), intermediate- (1), and high- (2–3) risk groups according to the number of factors they had, the risk of postoperative UTI was 6.3%, 14.5%, and 27.7%, respectively (p for trend <0.001).

Conclusions: Patients who underwent ureteroscopy after OAPN were at risk for postoperative UTI, despite its efficacy. Simultaneous retrograde intrarenal surgery should be carefully planned, especially for patients with diabetes mellitus or extended surgery wait times.

Study of Temperature Changes around Fibres in Super Pulse Thulium Fibre Laser in Vitro Lithotripsy

Ding Tianfu, Xiao Bo, Zeng Xue, Liang Lei, Ji Chaoyue, Li Jianxing

Urology Journal, Vol. 20 No. 02 (2023), , Page 96-101

Purpose: To investigate temperature changes around the fibres of the super pulse thulium fibre laser (SP-TFL) during in vitro lithotripsy.

Materials and Methods: Stones were placed in the in vitro model. The laser was continuously excited for 180 s; the probe was positioned 5 mm around the fibre; the laser power was set at 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 W; and the irrigation rate was set at 0, 15, 25, 35 ml/min, using a domestic SP-TFL. The temperature variations around the fibre under different power settings and different irrigation rates were compared.

Results: Without irrigation, the temperature around the fibre rapidly reached the safety threshold of 43℃ at 24 s. At irrigation rate 15 ml/min and laser power <15 W, the temperature around the fibre was <43℃. Once the laser power increased to ≥20 W, the temperature around the fibre increased to >43℃ at its lowest plateau. At irrigation rate 25 ml/min and laser power ≤25 W, the temperature around the fibre was <43℃. At irrigation rate 35 ml/min and laser power <30 W, the fibre temperature was <43℃. When laser power was ≥30 W, the fibre temperature was >43℃. Conclusion: In extracorporeal ureteroscope SP-TFL lithotripsy, when the laser power is ≤15 W, ≤25 W, and ≤30 W, the irrigation rate should be maintained at ≥15 ml/min, ≥25 ml/min, and ≥35 ml/min, respectively.

National Lifetime Prevalence and Demographic Factors of Urolithiasis in Iran

Abbas Basiri, Amir Hossein Kashi, Hossein Salehi Omran, Nasrin Borumandnia, Shabnam Golshan, Behzad Narouie, Sakineh Hajebrahimi, Hayat Mombeini

Urology Journal, Vol. 20 No. 02 (2023), , Page 102-108

Purpose: To estimate the current lifetime prevalence of urolithiasis at the national level in Iran and investigate the potential influential demographic factors in different geographical areas.


Materials and methods: An epidemiological study was conducted between October 2020 and November 2022 in 31 provinces of Iran at the national level. Data was obtained through telephone interviews with households. Items in the interview included questions about the current and past episodes of urolithiasis, family history of urolithiasis, and demographic and environmental variables of potential interest in urolithiasis.


Results: A total of 44186 participants were investigated from 31 provinces of Iran. The overall percentage of those with lifetime prevalence of urolithiasis was 6.6%, including 7.9% for males and 5.3% for females (P<.001). In addition, with regard to the residential location, men were 53% (7.9% vs. 5.2%) more susceptible than women to urinary stones in urban areas and 36% (7.8% vs. 5.7%) more susceptible in rural areas. Out of 31 provinces, the Sistan-baluchistan province had the highest lifetime prevalence (15.6%) and the Golestan province had the lowest (2.1%). The lifetime prevalence of urolithiasis in the rural areas was 6.8% versus 6.5% in the urban areas (P=.29). Regarding age differentiation, the lifetime urolithiasis prevalence has increased up to the age of 70 years. In addition, the most prominent increase in the lifetime prevalence was observed in the age range of 20 to 60 years (from 0.9% to 11.8%). The ethnicity with the highest lifetime prevalence rate of urolithiasis was the Baluch ethnicity (18%).


Conclusion: generally, 6.6% of Iranian population suffers from urinary stones during their lifetime. Urolithiasis prevalence has increased 0.06% annually compared to the latest national study that took place 15 years ago. This increasing trend seems to be less prominent than other countries. According to our findings, urinary stones are more prevalent in men than in women and in the third to sixth decade of life regardless of gender. Baluch ethnicity is associated with the highest lifetime prevalence rate of urolithiasis and there is no significant difference between rural and urban areas. However, the ratio of male to female risk of urolithiasis is higher in urban areas compared to rural areas.


A Multicenter, Prospective, Non-randomized Study Evaluating Surgical hand Preparation between Double-Gloving and Single-Gloving for Preventing Postoperative Infection in Robotic and Laparoscopic Minimally Invasive Surgeries

Takashi Nagai, Kazumi Taguchi, Teruki Isobe, Nayuka Matsuyama, Tatsuya Hattori, Rei Unno, Taiki Kato, Toshiki Etani, Takashi Hamakawa, Yasuhiro Fujii, Yosuke Ikegami, Hiroyuki Kamiya, Shuzo Hamamoto, Akihiro Nakane, Ryosuke Ando, Tetsuji Maruyama, Atsushi Okada, Noriyasu Kawai, Takahiro Yasui

Urology Journal, Vol. 20 No. 02 (2023), , Page 109-115

Purpose: This study aimed to analyze a feasible and suitable surgical precautionary preparatory technique. The techniques of double-gloving with hygienic hand wash (DH) and single-gloving with surgical hand wash (SS) were compared for their ability to prevent postoperative infection in robotic and laparoscopic minimally invasive surgeries.

Materials and Methods: A prospective, non-randomized, multicenter study was conducted between January 2016 and June 2020. We divided the robotic and laparoscopic cases into two groups: DH and SS. Data on infectious outcomes were collected. Propensity score matching was performed to control for operative characteristics between the two groups. The primary endpoint was the presence of fever and surgical site infections (SSIs) indicating postoperative infection.

Results: Among four medical centers, seven surgeons were allocated to either the DH or the SS group. A total of 221 and 251 patients underwent DH and SS, respectively. Propensity score matching, which included 171 cases from each group, showed that the incidence of fever during hospitalization was significantly lower in the DH group than that in the SS group (11.7% vs. 23.4%, p=0.007). Multivariable analysis revealed that DH was associated with a reduced odds ratio for developing postoperative fever during hospitalization (risk ratio: 0.49, p=0.043). No differences were found in SSI before and after hospitalization between the two groups.

Conclusion: DH resulted in less postoperative fever and had a comparable effect in preventing SSIs. This procedure could be an alternative to the SS protocol in some minimally invasive surgeries.


Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate the predictive factors for perioperative and long-term renal functions after nephron-sparing surgery (NSS).

Materials and Methods: The clinical records of 379 patients who underwent NSS for a single renal tumor with a normal contralateral kidney between 2009 and 2016 were retrospectively analyzed. After surgery, the occurrence of acute kidney injury (AKI) within 7 days and the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) 5 years later were assessed using serum creatinine (S-Cr) levels. Perioperative AKI was defined as an increase in the S-Cr level by ≥ 0.3 mg/dL or 1.5–1.9 times the baseline value. CKD was defined as the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) decreasing from > 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 to < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2.

Results: Changes in the eGFR were assessed during 5 years after surgery. Among 379 patients, 81 (21.4%) patients presented diabetes mellitus (DM), and 30 (7.92%) experienced uncontrolled DM. The AKI occurrence and CKD progression were observed in 50 (13.2%) patients and 79 (20.8%) patients, respectively. Multivariable analyses revealed that female gender (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.16–0.91, odds ratio [OR] = 0.39, P = 0.029), uncontrolled DM (95% CI: 1.05–6.60, OR = 2.63, P = 0.039), and intermediate NePhRO score (95% CI: 1.07–3.80, OR = 2.02, P = 0.03) were associated with perioperative AKI. In addition, old age (95% CI: 1.10–1.18, OR = 1.14, P < 0.001) and uncontrolled DM (95% CI: 1.84–11.4, OR = 4.57, P = 0.001) were associated with long-term CKD progression.

Conclusion: Uncontrolled DM is the only predictive factor for perioperative and long-term renal functions after nephron-sparing surgery.

Intravesical Gemcitabine versus Intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guerin for the Treatment of Intermediate-Risk Non-Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Anahita Ansari Djafari, Babak Javanmard, Mohammadreza Razzaghi, Seyyed Ali Hojjati, Zahra Razzaghi, Saba Faraji, Amirhossein Rahavian, Maryam Garoosi

Urology Journal, Vol. 20 No. 02 (2023), , Page 123-128

Purpose: The most common adjuvant therapy known for non-invasive muscle bladder cancer (NMIBC) is intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG). Intravesical chemotherapy drugs like gemcitabine can also be used post-TURBT, which is considered as a good alternative for BCG, or can be used as a second-line treatment. Due to the common side effects of BCG, the use of chemotherapy drugs as intravesical treatments is currently increasing.

Materials and Methods: 117 intermediate-risk NMIBC cases were included in this study. All the patients underwent TURBT surgery and received 1 gr intravesical gemcitabine immediately after performing the surgery. The patients were then divided into two groups, either receiving intravesical gemcitabine or intravesical BCG weekly for 6 weeks. The patients were followed up with cystoscopy.

Results: Most patients were men who had smoking risk factors. The youngest patient was 36 years old and the oldest one was 88 years old. The rate of side effects in the group receiving gemcitabine (13.6%) was much lower than the group receiving BCG (44.8%). (P-value = 0.016). The recurrence rate during a one year period was lower in the group consisting of patients receiving gemcitabine compared to the group receiving BCG (19 patients vs. 23 patients) (p-value = 0.401)

Conclusion: The efficacy of intravesical gemcitabine and intravesical BCG was almost equal in the treatment of intermediate-risk NMIBCs. The adverse effects of gemcitabine were found to be significantly lower than BCG. Due to causing fewer complications, gemcitabine can be known as a good alternative, especially among elderly patients with comorbidities.


Effect of Rectal Midazolam on Pain, Stress, and Cooperation of Patient during Urodynamic Test in Women: A Randomized Clinical Trial

Narjes Saberi, Aygineh Hayrabedian, Hamid Mazdak, Razieh Hassannejad, Mahtab Zargham, Mehrdad Mohammadi Sichani, Mahboubeh Mirzaei

Urology Journal, Vol. 20 No. 02 (2023), , Page 129-134

Purpose: The urodynamic study is an invasive test, and causes pain and stress in the patient. We have investigated the effect of rectal midazolam sedation on the pain, stress, and cooperation of women performing urodynamic study. 

Materials and Methods: At the present randomized clinical trial (RCT) from January to July of 2021 a total of 84 women were prospectively randomized to undergo urodynamic study with or without sedation. The primary outcome of interest was experienced pain during urodynamic study. In the intervention group, after monitoring baseline vital signs (heart rate, blood pressure, O2 saturation), sedation was done with rectal midazolam at a dose of 0.3 mg/kg (maximum 15 mg). Completing the procedure, after recovery from sedation patients were asked to fill a self-assessed visual analog pain scale (VAS, 0-10), 5-point visual stress scale (1-5) and, patient collaboration level during urodynamic study was evaluated by nurse with a researcher-made tool (0-3). In the control group test was performed in routine practice with no sedation. Baseline vital signs measured pre and intra-procedural time, as well as their experienced pain, stress, and cooperation levels were recorded. 

Results: 84 female cases were evaluated. In terms of comparison of changes in pre and intra-test physiologic parameters, results showed that there were no significant differences between the two groups for all physiologic parameters: SBP, DBP, PR, SpO2. Analysis of the pain score showed that it was lower in the intervention group, and there was a significant difference in pain score between the two groups (P =.024). While the stress and corporation scores were not reported statistically significant (P=.388 and P=.955, respectively).

Conclusion:  Sedation with rectal midazolam in adult women before UDS is safe and effective in reducing pain but is not effective in reducing stress and increasing cooperation. The amount of pain based on the visual analog pain scale is mild and although this method is safe, its use routinely is not recommended.


Effects of an Initial Single Dose of Intravenous Antibiotics on Emergency Department Revisits Among Elderly Patients with Urinary Tract Infections

Ho Sub Chung, Sung Jin Bae, Myeong Namgung, Yoon Hee Choi, Jae Young Choi, Dong Hoon Lee

Urology Journal, Vol. 20 No. 02 (2023), , Page 135-140

Purpose: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the second most common infectious disease among older adults. It is important that the treatment strategy used for older patients with UTIs in the emergency department (ED) be adequate. The effectiveness of an initial single dose of intravenous antibiotics in the ED for treating UTIs has not been extensively studied. Therefore, we investigated the clinical outcomes of single-dose intravenous antibiotic administration before discharge from the ED in elderly patients with UTIs.

Materials and Methods: This retrospective study was conducted among patients who visited two academic tertiary hospitals in Seoul, South Korea. We included all patients older than 65 years of age with UTI who visited the ED and were directly discharged between 1 January and 31 December 2019 (n = 429). The patients were divided into two groups according to whether they received a single dose of intravenous antibiotics before ED discharge.

Results: Patients who received intravenous antibiotics had a higher 72-hour revisit rate (43 [15.4%] vs 10 [6.7%], p = .009) and a longer mean duration of therapy (total days of antibiotics use) (11 [4.00 – 15.00] vs 5 [3.00 – 11.00], p < .001) than patients who received only oral antibiotics. However, the rate of admission after revisits did not differ significantly between the groups (27 [62.8%] vs 5 [50.0%], p = .492).

Conclusion: Older patients with severe UTIs were prescribed intravenous antibiotics in the ED. Decisions on admission or discharge should be made carefully for older patients with UTIs who are prescribed intravenous antibiotics in the ED.