Review Article

Rotational acceleration in traumatic brain injuries (TBI) related to combat sports: a review study

Neda Boroushak, Mohammad Reza Rahimi

Journal of Clinical Physiotherapy Research, Vol. 7 No. 4 (2022), 1 Mehr 2022, Page e70


Background and Aim: Considering the importance of rotational acceleration in causing traumatic brain injuries and also the possibility of its greater risk in combat sports, this study aims to investigate the rotational acceleration produced in the head in combat sports in different blows and compare it in a systematic review. to deal with the threshold of traumatic brain injuries.

Materials and Methods: In this study, articles were searched in specialized databases and 23 related articles were selected based on inclusion and exclusion criteria.

Results: Investigations showed that the highest rotational acceleration produced in the head is due to the hook impact (11279.5 rad/s2) in the condition without a helmet and in the field of boxing. After that, the leg kick in taekwondo (rad/s2 10927) showed the highest acceleration in the head in the condition of wearing a helmet. Hook kick in taekwondo (rad/s2 9756), direct punch in taekwondo (rad/s2 9556) and roundhouse kick in taekwondo (rad/s2 8703) were in the next ranks, respectively. Comparing these accelerations with the threshold of traumatic brain injuries, hook kick in boxing and spinning kick in Taekwondo can lead to concussion and severe brain axonal damage, but in hook kick, direct punch and roundhouse kick in Taekwondo. The athlete is only exposed to concussion.

Conclusion: According to the results of this review, protective helmets in combat sports cannot significantly reduce the rotation speed and this issue can even increase the rotation acceleration in some sports such as boxing. Therefore, it is suggested that those in charge of this matter and headgear manufacturing companies should pay special attention to this issue and take an important step in reducing TBI injuries by re-examining the design of headgears.

Original Articles

Background and Aims: A review of previous studies showed conflicting findings regarding the relationship between athlete-related factors and knee function following ACL reconstruction. Therefore, this study investigated the relationship between athlete-related factors and knee functional outcomes after ACL reconstruction. Materials and Methods:this study is a correlational study conducted in the second half of 1400 in Sanandaj. The statistical sample of the study consisted of 43 athletes aged 19–43 years who underwent ACL reconstruction. Knee function was assessed using the Osteoarthritis and Knee Injury Outcome Questionnaire (KOOS). Athletes’ characteristics such as weight, height, body mass index, and activity levels (recreational, competitive, and elite) were recorded using a researcher-made questionnaire. The smoking habit, type of graft used, and affected foot were also identified. Results:Age, body mass index, weight, and gender can predict various ACL reconstruction outcomes (P <0.05). Age can predict 29% of changes in symptoms and knee stiffness and 18% of changes in quality of life. Body mass index can predict 29% of changes in knee pain, 19% of changes in symptoms and knee stiffness, 17% of changes in activities of daily life, 19% of changes in sports activity, and 13% of changes in athletes’ quality of life (P<0.05). Weight can only predict 12% of changes in athletes’ sports activities (P <0.05). Gender was able to predict 15% of changes in daily life performance, 13% of sports activity, and 12% of changes in athletes’ quality of life (P<0.05). Conclusion:According to the findings of the present study, there may be a relationship between age, weight, body mass index, and sex and knee outcomes following ACL reconstruction. Due to the limitations of this study, it is better to examine this issue longitudinally in future studies

Effect of Hallux Valgus Deformity on Gait Phases and Lower Limb Joints Angular Displacement in Old Female During Gait

Samane Sardary, Farhad Tabatabai, Hamid reza Noruzy, Ali Fatahi

Journal of Clinical Physiotherapy Research, Vol. 7 No. 4 (2022), 1 Mehr 2022, Page e72


Back ground and objective: Hallux valgus is a common lower extremity deformity especially in older women that affects balance and increases falling risk among them. How this deformity kinematically effects balance has not thoroughly investigated. So, we want to know if there are differences in gait phases and angular displacement between healthy and hallux valgus elderly women during gait as an independence and health vital factor in elderly adults.

Materials & Methods: Participants in this study were 12 (54.25±2.76 years old) healthy and 12 (54.5±3.25 years old) hallux valgus women. To evaluate the gait phases (percent) and angular displacement (degree) we use a localized Motion Capture System by IMU-based to measure kinematics of motion. All modules were defined and fastened about right hip, shank and foot.

Results: The results showed that ankle joint angular displacement was significantly different in all planes (frontal: 45%, horizontal:95%, sagittal: 40% of gait cycle)), whereas angular displacement was significantly different just in sagittal plane of knee joint (44% of gait cycle) and sagittal and frontal planes of hip (10 & 8% of gait cycle). Conclusion: Ankle more adduction, toe out and greater knee flexion and increasing hip abduction and extension at the late swing phase in hallux valgus elderly group probably indicate that they avoid from completely transfer body weight in to forefoot during toe off and tent to transfer the body weight in to lateral component of the foot during stance phase of gait.

Development of Static Postural Control: Regulating the Center of Pressure Trajectory

Parvin Kamali Bakhtiar, Elaheh Azadian, Mahdi Majlesi, Alfonso Delgado-Bonal, MohammadReza Rezaie

Journal of Clinical Physiotherapy Research, Vol. 7 No. 4 (2022), 1 Mehr 2022, Page e73

Introduction: Studying the developmental process, it may be possible to examine the role of sensory and cognitive systems involved in postural control. The aim of this study was to evaluate static postural control in both linear and nonlinear methods in children aged 7 to 12 years and compare them with young-adult.

Materials and Methods: The center of pressure (COP) in eight postural task was assessed in 420 girls and boys 7 to 12 years old and 20 young adults. The linear method included sway, deviation, the amplitude of CoP and velocity. To characterize the nonlinear evaluation, sample entropy (SampEn) was measured.

Results: The results showed that 7 and 8-year-old have the most sway, amplitude, speed of CoP and deviations than others (p< 0.05) and adults had the lowest amount. But the SampEn, decreases significantly with age (p< 0.01). The base of support was greater effect on linear and nonlinear than that other conditions, especially in children (p< 0.001). The closed-eyes condition, were not aligned in linear and non-linear evaluation (p< 0.001).

Conclusion: The differences between age groups were significant in the challenging situation than that stable condition, due to changes in postural control strategies. Task demands did not have a significant effect on balance variability in adults, but it did affect children and linear variables.  

Balance and Isokinetic Strength of Lower Limb Muscles in Professional Female Volleyball Players with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome

Sara Khodarahmi, Ali Fatahi, Yahya Sokhanguei

Journal of Clinical Physiotherapy Research, Vol. 7 No. 4 (2022), 1 Mehr 2022, Page e74

Introduction: Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) is one of the prevalent musculoskeletal disorders of the knee, which subsequently causes joint changes in the knee. Investigating balance and muscle strength should be considered in the evaluation of these people. The present study aimed to compare balance and lower limb muscle strength in female volleyball players with PFPS and their healthy peers. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 30 people (14 people with PFPS and 16 healthy peers) with mean±sd age of 24.33±3.12 years, height 178.72±0.06 cm, and Body Mass 67.76± 6.95 kg participated in this research. Biodex balance system was used to assess the balance as center of pressure (COP) displacement for anterior-posterior and medial-lateral directions in two open and closed-eye conditions. The evaluation of isokinetic strength of ankle, knee extensor, and hip abductor-external rotator muscles as peak torques and (PT) time-to-peak torque (TTPT) was measured by Cybex isokinetic dynamometer at a speed of 60 deg./s. The data were analyzed using MANOVA to compare two healthy and PFPS groups in SPSS software ver. 26 (P<0.05). Results: findings showed that the static balance in all tests conditions of female with PFPS was significantly decreased in compared to healthy ones (P<0.05). The strength of all evaluated muscles, except for the plantar flexor muscle group, was significantly lower in females with PFPS compared with healthy ones (P<0.05). Conclusion: The results demonstrated that static balance and muscle strength of lower limb in individuals with PFPS are weaker than in healthy ones, which can cause more injuries. Therefore, it is suggested that in the treatment and rehabilitation of this injury, strengthening the muscle and balance should also be considered for these people. 

The Effect of Corrective Exercise on Spatiotemporal Components and Gait Patterns of Adolescents with Upper Cross Syndrome

Zohreh Darabi, Yahya Sokhangouei , Farhad Tabatabai Ghomsheh, Ali Fatahi

Journal of Clinical Physiotherapy Research, Vol. 7 No. 4 (2022), 1 Mehr 2022, Page e75

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of corrective excercise on the gait components of adolescents with upper crossed syndrome (UCS). A total of 30 teenage boys were selected as the targeted sample and divided into two groups randomly: control and experimental. The inclusion criteria were, having forward head, forward shoulder and kyphosis angles greater more than 50, 50 and 40 degrees respectively. Clinical evaluations and biomechanical investigations, including posture and gait analysis with a 3D-scanner and mocap system, were conducted before and after the eight-week training period. The results showed significant differences in step length (P=0.017), cadence (P=0.040) and symmetry (P=0.000) due to the implementation of corrective exercise. Furthermore, significant changes were observed in pelvic rotation (0.006), hip flexion at heel-contact (0.003), hip flexion and abduction (0.030), and peak knee flexion in stance phase (0.001), and knee flexion (0.000) and rotation (0.000) in swing pahse. These findings highlight the effectiveness of corrective exercises in improving posture and gait patterns in adolescents with UCS. Further research is needed to explore long-term effects and potential benefits for other populations.