Review Article

Introduction: Sensory processing is an important stage in performance during which the organization and interpretation of received messages is done, and finally the final decision is made. Development in an efficient sensory-perceptual-motor processing system plays an essential role in the successful execution of a task and learning, and a defect in skills may be related to one of the sensory systems and lead to functional problems. The aim of this study was to review the studies related to Sensory Processing Disorder in autism disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and learning disabilities. Methods and Materials: Using keywords (sensory processing disorder, Autism Spectrum Disorder, Attention Deficiency Hyperactivity Disorder, Developmental Coordination Disorder, Learning Disability), articles were searched in Elsevier, Science Direct and Google Scholar databases between 2000 and 2020. Results: According to an inclusion and exclusion criterion, 41 articles focusing on sensory processing disorder in autism spectrum disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, developmental coordination disorder and learning disorder were examined. This disorder is caused by damage to areas of the brain, including the white matter, and Sensory Modulation Disorder (SMD (is the most common type. In these people, usually, skills deficits make it difficult for the child to play the role, and the most common interventions among them are based on sensory integration. Conclusion: Among the four groups, sensory processing disorder is very common and can be the cause of many problems in their perceptual, motor, behavioral and academic skills.

Original Articles

Maintenance of Physical Fitness Levels in Junior Volleyball Players during COVID-19 with Protective Measures against the Pandemic Condition

Ali Fatahi, Razieh Yousefian Molla, Mitra Ameli

Journal of Clinical Physiotherapy Research, Vol. 6 No. 1 (2021), 1 January 2021, Page e27

Introduction: The importance of physical fitness training programs is evident, especially for children and adolescents who participate in a regular team sport such as volleyball. Unfortunately, COVID-19 pandemic presented a huge disturbance in ordinary lifestyle all over the world, thereby resulting on negative effects on wellness and physical fitness. Therefore the aim of this study was to identify maintenance of physical fitness levels in junior volleyball players during COVID-19 with protective measures against the pandemic condition. Methods and Materials: The study was a quasi-experimental design according to pre- post condition. Ten healthy junior volleyball players (10.80±1.03 yrs.) were selected to participate in this study. Selected Physical fitness variables included demographic characteristics, power, endurance, agility, flexibility and balance. After the end of first quarantine which lasted 5 months, pre-tests were recorded. Eight weeks after end of the second quarantine, following by eight weeks of physical fitness and volleyball training, post-tests were recorded to investigate maintenance of physical fitness variables levels in junior volleyball players during unorganized situation of COVID-19. Results: Results showed that, there is no significant differences between the mean of pre-test and post-test in BMI, Sargent Jump test, Sit up test, Sit and Reach test, and Romberg test, but in the other variables such as Bent knee push up, T-test, side jump, triple spike jump, and medicine ball throw, significant differences were observed. Conclusion: According to results, participating in volleyball training program for mini-volleyball players with respect to preventive measures of COVID-19 can be a beneficial method to maintenance health and improve vital physical fitness status aside to enhancement of volleyball skills.

The Effect of Backpack Carriage on Myoelectric Variables of Selected Lower Extremity Muscles in Girls and Boys with 7-10 Years Age during Forward and Backward Walking

Mohammadreza Najafian Najafabadi, Heydar Sadeghi, Pedram Tehrani

Journal of Clinical Physiotherapy Research, Vol. 6 No. 1 (2021), 1 January 2021, Page e28

Introduction: Backpack is the most common tool for carrying school supplies in children and adolescents as their constant companion during the school year and even daily life. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of carrying backpacks with different weights on the electromyographic variables of selected lower-limb muscles of 7-10 years old girls and boys during backward and forward walking. Methods and Materials: A total of 26 healthy students (13 boys and 13 girls) were included in the present study using convenience sampling. Subjects performed forward and backward walking while carrying a backpack under different conditions: 0% (no weight), 10%, 15%, and 20% of their body weight. Electrical activity of the muscles of rectus femoris, biceps femoris, tibialis anterior peroneus longus, and gastrocnemius medialis muscles of the dominant leg was recorded. Repeated measures ANOVA along with Bonferroni correction coefficient test was used to compare the dependent variables under these four conditions (P<0.008). Results: Overall, the results of the present study showed that normalized mean activation of lower-limb muscles was significantly increased while carrying the backpacks with 15% and 20% of body weight during backward and forward walking (P<0.008); however, there was a significant reduction in the median frequency of the muscles under these two conditions during backward and forward walking (P<0.008). In contrast, there was no significant difference between different backpack weights in terms of the co-contraction rate of the dominant knee and ankle joints during backward and forward walking (P<0.008).Conclusion: It seems that increasing the activity level and decreasing the median frequency of selected lower-limb muscles while carrying backpacks with weighting 15% and 20% of body weight  likely cause earlier fatigue and musculoskeletal injuries due to overwork; therefore, it is recommended that the backpack weight should be less than this range and close to 10% BW. Future studies are necessary to investigate other biomechanical aspects.

Epidemiology of Sports-related Musculoskeletal Injuries Common in Men’s Domestic Cricket: An Analytical Cross-sectional Study Based on Sports Fields

Mohammad Forhadul Hoque, Atiqur Rahman Khan, Md Jobair Khan

Journal of Clinical Physiotherapy Research, Vol. 6 No. 1 (2021), 1 January 2021, Page e29

Introduction: Despite gaining the popularity of cricket in Bangladesh, raising the competition frequency causes more injury to the athletes. Even after that, they have yet to develop an injury incidence surveillance system. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of musculoskeletal injuries and related risk factors that elite domestic cricketer sustains during the game. Methods and Materials: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Dhaka, Bangladesh. A total of 198 cricketers with age 15-35 years were purposively adopted for an interview played at least three sessions for the divisional clubs. Participants completed a self-reported questionnaire probing the incidence of injury and risk factors. Binary regression analysis was performed to investigate the correlation of strain injury with other characteristics. Results: Participants had the highest sustained 42.4% strain injury. A rate of 42.9% (P=0.00) was reported for risk factors of strain injury in running but excluding body mass index and ground condition initially. There were no significant differences in strain incidence based on the match, protective equipment, and playing position. Age (odd ration (OR): 0.877, 95% confidence interval(CI): 0.441-1.743), body mass index (OR: 0.268, 95% CI: 0.037-1.960), batsman (OR: 0.376, 95% CI: 0.183-0.770), upper extremity (OR: 6.428, 95% CI: 1.483-27.861) and hard ground (OR: 0.005, 95% CI: 0.001-0.022) were identified as the major risk factors, and the PRICE protocol was proved to be the best physical therapy method to remain in the game. Conclusion: In matches, the batsman is most likely to sustain a strain injury mostly to the upper limb. There is no enough evidence to conclude that the injury monitoring system plays a big role, and therefore more study is much needed in cricket.

Impact of Gym Ball Exercise on Standing Balance in Children with Cerebral Palsy

Nisha Lohana, Bakhtawar Samejo, Nazia Hozaifa, Fahad farooq lasi, Muhammad Hassan Waseem, Tehreem Anis

Journal of Clinical Physiotherapy Research, Vol. 6 No. 1 (2021), 1 January 2021, Page e30

Introduction: Cerebral Palsy (CP) is not a disease, but a non-progressive disorder that occurs in developing brain. CP has become the most common pediatrics problem which needs early medical diagnosis and intervention. CP children have balance difficulties because they are unable to perform their activities of daily living and have high risk of fall. Balance training using vestibular system, gym ball, and assistive devices is one of the main elements in the improvement of balance of CP children. The aim of this study was to identify the impact of gym ball exercise on standing balance in children with CP. Methods and Materials: A quasi-experimental study was conducted on 54 children diagnosed with either spastic, non-spastic, hemiplegic or diplegic CP. Gym ball exercises were regularly given to each participant for 3 weeks. Patient’s standing balance was assessed by using Pediatric Balance Scale (PBS) before and after Gym ball exercises. Data was collected from the department of physiotherapy at (ACELP) Karachi. Paired-t test was used to compare the static balance before and after gym ball exercises. Results: There was no significant difference in standing unsupported between pre-exercise and post exercise (P=0.159). However, for other parameters including standing unsupported with eyes closed (P=0.00), standing unsupported with feet together (P=0.01), standing unsupported one foot in front (P=0.00), and standing on one leg (P=0.01), significant reduction were found after the intervention compared with before the intervention. Conclusion: It was found that the gym ball exercises could significantly improve the standing balance of children with CP.

Case Report

Adult Traumatic Inferior Hip Dislocation after Falling from a Height: A Report of Case

Mehrdad Sadighi, Meisam Jafari Kafiabadi, Amir Sabaghzadeh, Saber Brazandeh Rad, Farsad Biglari, Adel Ebrahimpour

Journal of Clinical Physiotherapy Research, Vol. 6 No. 1 (2021), 1 January 2021, Page e31

Inferior dislocation of hip joint is a rare clinical entity. Closed reduction maneuver could be challenging, especially if the attending surgeon is not familiar with specific anatomy associated with this injury. Herein, we reported a 22-years-old man brought to the Emergency department with history of accidentally falling from a height of 13 meters. He was managed with multidisciplinary approaches as a multiple trauma. He was complaining of severe hip pain. His right hip joint was flexed, externally rotated, and abducted. His pelvis was stable and the lower extremities had normal symmetric pulses. On radiologic examination, there was no associated hip fracture. He was brought to operating room for closed reduction under general anesthesia. Although traumatic hip dislocations usually have high morbidity and mortality rates due to multiple organ damages, patient was discharged 6 days after admission and advised to keep toe touch weight bearing for the next six weeks during walking. Therefore, a detailed evaluation on emergency presentation, a multi-disciplinary approach, and early diagnosis of inferior hip dislocation could be life-saving for such patients.