Review Article

Non-Motor Symptoms of Parkinson’s Disease And Health-Related Quality Of Life: A Mini-Review

Ali Zafari, Parisa Amiri, Reza Taherian

International Clinical Neuroscience Journal, Vol. 4 No. 3 (2017), 10 September 2017, Page 79-83

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most prevalent neurodegenerative disorder, affecting seven million people globally. While the association of motor symptoms of PD with health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is extensively investigated, the effects of non-motor symptoms of PD, such as cognitive and behavioural symptoms, are recently highlighted. HRQoL reflects the physical, mental, and social aspects of health and is an essential subjective and reliable outcome measure of the disease. The current narrative review analyses recent literature on this topic focusing on studies in which behavioural symptoms of PD were considered as the main determinants of HRQoL.

Original / Research Article

Effect of Local Steroid Injection on Prevertebral Soft Tissue Swelling Following Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion

Afsoun Seddighi, Amir Nikouei, Amir Saied Seddighi, Yasaman Arjmand

International Clinical Neuroscience Journal, Vol. 4 No. 3 (2017), 10 September 2017, Page 84-90

Background: Prevertebral soft tissue swelling (PSTS) following anterior cervical surgery, may proceed to airway compromise which is potentially lethal. We plan to evaluate the effect of local steroid injection to reduce PSTS after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF).

Methods: In a randomized clinical trial 66 patients who underwent ACDF involving one to three segments due to radiculopathy or myelopathy were enrolled and randomly divided to two groups of 38 with local injection of 80 mg methylprednisolone in operation site, and control. Prevertebral soft tissue thickness to mid anteroposterior vertebral body diameter (S/V) ratio was defined to assess PSTS. In addition, dysphagia and pain at surgery site was evaluated using Bazaz dysphagia scale and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) respectively, at 1st, 5th and 10th post-operative days.

Results: We have observed significantly lower S/V ratio in all studied vertebrae, except C6 on second postoperative day in case group. At the end of the 6th month, there was no significant difference for S/V ratio in any level in two groups. Severity of dysphagia was significantly lower in 1st, 5th and 10th post-operative day in patients in case group. (P value<0.05) Also, patients in case group experienced significantly less severe odynophagia at 1st, 5th and 10th post-operative day, which was assessed by VAS. (P value<0.05)

Conclusions: The use of local methyl prednisolone in prevertebral space is a simple and effective method to reduce PSTS and severity of dysphagia and odynophagia. Furthermore, this method was not associated with any adverse effects. 

SSVEP Extraction Applying Wavelet Transform and Decision Tree With Bays Classification

Hoda Heidari, Zahra Einalou

International Clinical Neuroscience Journal, Vol. 4 No. 3 (2017), 10 September 2017, Page 91-97

Background: SSVEP signals are usable in BCI systems (Brain-Computer interface) in order to make the paralysis movement more comfortable via his Wheelchair.

Methods: In this study, we extracted The SSVEP from EEG signals, next we attained the features from it then we ranked them to obtain the best features among all feature and at the end we applied the selected features to classify them. We want to show the degree of accuracy we applied in this work.

Results: In this study Bayes (applied for classifying of selected features) got the highest level of accuracy (83.32%) with t-test method, until the SVM took the next place of having the highest accuracy to itself with t-test method (79.62%). In the next place according to the feature selection method, decision tree took the next place with Bayes classification (79.13%) and then with SVM classification (78.70%).

Conclusion: Bays obtained the better results to itself rather than SVM with t-test.

The Etiologic Profile of the Pediatric Seizure: An Epidemiological Study from Iran

Reza Taherian, Mohammad Feshangchi-Bonab, Alireza Rezayi, Mahdieh Jahandideh

International Clinical Neuroscience Journal, Vol. 4 No. 3 (2017), 10 September 2017, Page 98-102

Background: Seizures are one of the most common neurologic disorders in children. The aim of this study is to determine the main etiologies of seizure in children.

 Methods: Children with a complaint of seizure in Loghman Hakim hospital, from June 2014 to January 2016 were evaluated. The final diagnosis of seizure was made by a pediatric neurologist. The age, sex, type of seizure, associated fever, history of head trauma and other variables related to seizure in pediatric group were reviewed from the medical records.

Results: A total of 200 children with a diagnosis of seizures were included in this study. A total of 59% were male patients. The age of the patients ranged from 3 months to 102 months with a mean of 23 months.About one-quarter of the patients had focal seizures while others had generalized seizures. Sixteen patients (8%) had a positive family history of epilepsy. Of total 126 patients (63%) experienced their first lifetime seizure. The body temperature of the patients ranged from 36.1 °C to 39.8 °C with a mean of 38.2 °C. The etiologies of seizures were febrile seizure (82%), vaccine-associated seizures (3%), hypoglycemia (6%), hypocalcemia (2%), hyponatremia (2%), encephalopathy (2%), hyperglycemia (1%), epilepsy (1%) and intracerebral hemorrhage (1%).

Conclusion: While fever is the most common etiology of seizure in children, hypoglycemia should be taken into consideration as the second most common etiology of seizure. Although other etiologies such as hyponatremia and intracerebral hemorrhage are less common, they should be kept in mind due to their life-threatening complications. Hence, the results of this study underscores the importance of history and laboratory findings of the children with seizure.


Knowledge and Attitude in Hamadan University of Medical Sciences Students toward AIDS: A Cross- Sectional Study from West of Iran

Saeid Yazdi-ravandi, Zahra Taslimi, Ali Ghaleiha, Mohammad Azhdarloo, Farshid Shamsaei

International Clinical Neuroscience Journal, Vol. 4 No. 3 (2017), 10 September 2017, Page 103-106

Introduction: Young people are the major group at risk of acquiring AIDS worldwide. It is one of the health problems in the world, in particular in developing countries. In this study, knowledge and attitude of Iranian students in Hamadan University of Medical Sciences toward HIV and AIDS was assessed.

Methods: This investigation was a descriptive cross-sectional study. 509 students were selected from Hamadan University of Medical Sciences schools by sampling methods in 2014-2015. To collect data, the demographic and the international AIDS questionnaire was used. Data analysis was performed by the Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis test with SPSS-16 software.

Results: It was found that the means and standard deviation of knowledge score and attitude towards AIDS in general were 53.86±6 and 20.21±3.29, respectively. The results showed that no significant difference was seen between gender and level of knowledge (P=0.391) and attitude about AIDS (P=0.104).

The results of the Kruskal-Wallis test showed a significant difference between faculty and students knowledge (P=0.012). Also, the findings illustrated that there was no significant relationship between faculty (P=0.147) and level of education (P=0.289) and their attitude to AIDS sufferers.

Conclusion: The overall rate of knowledge and attitude about HIV/AIDS among students in Hamadan University of Medical sciences was acceptable and good. It is proposed that information about AIDS/HIV issues as part of the course content plan for all students. Young people are most at risk of HIV, proper training is essential to raise young people knowledge.  

Effectiveness of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing on Quality Of Life in Parents of Children with Cancer

Seyed Alireza Haji Seyed Javadi, Tahereh Haji Seyed Javadi

International Clinical Neuroscience Journal, Vol. 4 No. 3 (2017), 10 September 2017, Page 107-112

Background: Parents of children with cancer face numerous physical, social and economic problems during the care process. Their family, marital, occupational and social life is negatively affected by the process of caring children with cancer which in turn leads to reduced quality of life. The present study examines the effectiveness of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) on quality of life in parents of children with cancer.

Methods: This is a quasi-experimental study based on pretest-posttest and follow-up design with a control group. Accordingly, 30 mothers of children with cancer were selected based on targeted sampling method and divided into control and experiment groups. Both groups were pre-tested using the quality of life questionnaire (QoL) (SF=36). Then the experiment group was treated for EMDR for 8 sessions while the control group received no treatment. Following, both groups were post tested and collected data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA on SPSS21.

Results: Findings of the study showed that the scores of mothers in experiment group on quality of life increased compared to the control group and maintained at follow-up. The highest increase was on general health, vitality, emotional health, social function while more reduction was on emotional problems of the experiment group (P< 0.01).

Conclusion: Regarding the fact that illness of children affects all aspects of parents’ life, and also results of the present study indicating the effectiveness of EMDR on increasing the quality of life in parents of children with cancer, it is suggested to consider psychological training and treatment as the top priority for children with cancer to improve the family function. 

Case Series

Background: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is contained in an anatomic space, including cerebral ventricles and subarachnoid spaces and cisterns of brain and spine. Distraction of normal anatomy of any containing parts of this system will result in CSF leakage which could be associated with morbidity and mortality with variable degrees. In this study, we aimed to present 3 patients with history of blunt head trauma, who presented with delayed CSF leak and underwent endonasal endoscopic approach under image guided surgery using neuronavigation system with fluorescein illumination.

Case Presentation: Three patients were referred to neurosurgery department of Shohada Tajrish Hospital with previous history of blunt head trauma, complained from CSF rhinorrhea. They underwent thin slice Computed Tomography scan and received intrathecal fluorescein for better visualization of leakage source under live endonasal endoscopic approach, using image guided neuronavigation technology. Autologous fat tissue and fascia was used to seal the leakage site. Clinical and imaging follow up at post-operative state as well as 1st, 2nd, 4th and 8th week revealed no post-operative complications and repeated CSF leakage.

Conclusion: CSF rhinorrhea indicates abnormality in bony structure of skull base and is a major threat for ascending microbial infections and subsequent meningitis. Thus, identification of leakage site(s) and accurate surgical repair is necessary. We experienced a multidisciplinary approach which showed excellent results and no post-operative complications. Multidisciplinary approach with combination of endonasal endoscopic view under neuronavigation system improves accuracy and will minimize post-operative complications.