Effectiveness of Emotion Regulation Training and Assertiveness Training on Resilience and Clinical Symptoms of Students with Generalized Anxiety Disorder
International Clinical Neuroscience Journal,
Vol. 8 No. 4 (2021),
30 Aban 2021
Background: Generalized anxiety disorder is among the most common psychiatric disorders. We aimed to compare the effectiveness of emotion regulation training and assertiveness training on resilience and clinical symptoms of students with generalized anxiety disorder.
Methods: This study was a quasi-experimental pretest-posttest study with a control group. The statistical population included all 16-18 years old male high school students in Karaj who were studying in the academic year 2019-2020, of whom 75 were selected by multi-stage random sampling and assigned to two groups of 25. Participants in experimental group 1 received eight sessions of assertiveness training for 60 minutes per week. Participants in experimental group 2 received five sessions of emotion regulation training for 60 minutes per week, and participants in the control group did not receive any intervention. The Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Resilience questionnaires were used to collect data.
Results: Multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) showed that both assertiveness and emotion regulation training programs increased resilience and reduced clinical signs of generalized anxiety disorder in the experimental groups (P < 0.001). Moreover, there was no significant difference between the effectiveness of the two training programs.
Conclusion: It is suggested that assertiveness and emotion regulation training be provided for students and included in their curriculum, to enhance assertiveness and emotion regulation skills.
- Assertiveness Training, Emotion Regulation Training, Resilience, Clinical Symptoms, Generalized Anxiety Disorder
How to Cite
Godini AA, Rasouli M, Mohsenzadeh F. The effectiveness of group counseling based on metacognitive therapy and dialectic behavior therapy on reducing anxiety in boy adolescent of divorce. Int Clin Neurosci J. 2019;6(3):98- 103. doi: 10.15171/icnj.2019.19.
Huang Y, Zhao N. Generalized anxiety disorder, depressive symptoms and sleep quality during COVID-19 outbreak in China: a web-based cross-sectional survey. Psychiatry Res. 2020;288:112954. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2020.112954.
Walker B. Resilience: what it is and is not. Ecol Soc. 2020;25(2):11. doi: 10.5751/es-11647-250211.
Feldman R. What is resilience: an affiliative neuroscience approach. World Psychiatry. 2020;19(2):132-50. doi: https://doi.org/10.1002/wps.20729.
Janjani B, Jadidi S, Vahidifard M, Tajipour A, Amokhalili M. The effect of assertiveness training on loneliness and social anxiety in female students with nomophobia disorder. J Psychol Stud. 2020;16(1):91-106. doi: 10.22051/ psy.2020.27706.1992. [Persian].
Noh GO, Kim M. Effectiveness of assertiveness training, SBAR, and combined SBAR and assertiveness training for nursing students undergoing clinical training: a quasi-experimental study. Nurse Educ Today. 2021;103:104958. doi: 10.1016/j.nedt.2021.104958.
Ayhan F, Teze S, Türkmen AS. The relationship between the presence of depression and attachment styles of mothers with autistic children. Am J Fam Ther. 2021:1-13. doi: 10.1080/01926187.2021.1872044.
Rohsig V, de Souza AB. Assertiveness training during early undergraduate years has the potential to increase students’ confidence and ability to act as patient advocates. Evid Based Nurs. 2021;24(2):40. doi: 10.1136/ebnurs-2019-103235.
Ramadhan I, Keliat BA, Wardani IY. Assertiveness training and family psychoeducational therapies on adolescents mental resilience in the prevention of drug use in boarding schools. Enferm Clin. 2019;29 Suppl 2:326-30. doi: 10.1016/j.enfcli.2019.04.040.
Aliyar Najafabadi R, Meshkati Z, Badami R. The effectiveness of assertiveness training on bullying, competitive state anxiety and performance under pressure in futsal players. Journal of Research and Health. 2020;10(5):339-48. doi: 10.32598/jrh.10.5.21.7.98. [Persian].
Dixon ML, Moodie CA, Goldin PR, Farb N, Heimberg RG, Gross JJ. Emotion regulation in social anxiety disorder: reappraisal and acceptance of negative self-beliefs. Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging. 2020;5(1):119- 29. doi: 10.1016/j.bpsc.2019.07.009.
Kale A, Gedik Z. Quality of life in riot police: links to anger, emotion regulation, depression, and anxiety. Appl Res Qual Life. 2020;15(1):107-25. doi: 10.1007/s11482-018-9667-3.
Bomyea J, Ball TM, Simmons AN, Campbell-Sills L, Paulus MP, Stein MB. Change in neural response during emotion regulation is associated with symptom reduction in cognitive behavioral therapy for anxiety disorders. J Affect Disord. 2020;271:207-14. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2020.04.001.
Wang SM, Lee HK, Kweon YS, Lee CT, Chae JH, Kim JJ, et al. Effect of emotion regulation training in patients with panic disorder: evidenced by heart rate variability measures. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2016;40:68-73. doi: 10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2016.01.003.
Rubin-Falcone H, Weber J, Kishon R, Ochsner K, Delaparte L, Doré B, et al. Neural predictors and effects of cognitive behavioral therapy for depression: the role of emotional reactivity and regulation. Psychol Med. 2020;50(1):146-60. doi: 10.1017/s0033291718004154.
Sapra A, Bhandari P, Sharma S, Chanpura T, Lopp L. Using Generalized anxiety disorder-2 (GAD-2) and GAD-7 in a primary care setting. Cureus. 2020;12(5):e8224. doi: 10.7759/cureus.8224.
Spitzer RL, Kroenke K, Williams JB, Löwe B. A brief measure for assessing generalized anxiety disorder: the GAD-7. Arch Intern Med. 2006;166(10):1092-7. doi: 10.1001/archinte.166.10.1092.
Dadsetan P, Anari A, Saleh Sedghpour B. Social anxiety disorders and drama-therapy. Dev Psychol. 2008;4(14):115- 23. [Persian].
Connor KM, Davidson JR. Development of a new resilience scale: the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC). Depress Anxiety. 2003;18(2):76-82. doi: 10.1002/da.10113.
Mohammadi M, Jazayeri AR, Rafie AH, Joukar B, Pourshahbaz A. Resilience factors in individuals at risk for substance abuse. J Psychol (Tabriz University). 2006;1(2- 3):203-24. [Persian].
Denny BT. Getting better over time: a framework for examining the impact of emotion regulation training. Emotion. 2020;20(1):110-4. doi: 10.1037/emo0000641.
Cai WP, Pan Y, Zhang SM, Wei C, Dong W, Deng GH. Relationship between cognitive emotion regulation, social support, resilience and acute stress responses in Chinese soldiers: exploring multiple mediation model. Psychiatry Res. 2017;256:71-8. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2017.06.018.
Thomas C, Zolkoski S. Preventing stress among undergraduate learners: the importance of emotional intelligence, resilience, and emotion regulation. Front Educ. 2020;5:94. doi: 10.3389/feduc.2020.00094.
Gürcan-Yıldırım D, Gençöz T. The association of self-discrepancy with depression and anxiety: moderator roles of emotion regulation and resilience. Curr Psychol. 2020;15:1-14. doi: 10.1007/s12144-020-00701-8.
Agbakwuru C, Stella U. Effect of assertiveness training on resilience among early-adolescents. Eur Sci J. 2012;8(10):69-84.
Yazdi-Ravandi S, Taslimi Z, Saberi H, Shams J, Osanlo S, Nori G, et al. The role of resilience and age on quality of life in patients with pain disorders. Basic Clin Neurosci. 2013;4(1):24-30.
- Abstract Viewed: 294 times
- PDF Downloaded: 658 times