The Effects of a Bioenergy Economy Based Program on Attention Bias Modification in People With High Anxiety Sensitivity
International Clinical Neuroscience Journal,
Vol. 6 No. 4 (2019),
23 September 2019
Background: According to scientific evidence, high levels of sensitivity anxiety are one of the predictors of panic attacks, anxiety, and depression. The multidimensional anxiety sensitivity (cognitive, social, and physiological) is base on cognitive biases such as attention biases which are due to selecting threatening stimuli instead of neutral or positive stimuli. Despite the initial promise, attention bias modification (ABM) has a limited effect on reducing anxiety. This study aims to modify attention bias by reducing the focus on the threatening stimuli based on Bioenergy Economy (BEE) protocol; as an integrated model of care.
Methods: The present study is base on a quasi-experimental design with pre-test and post-test and follow-up in both groups. Thirty women between the ages of 23 to 50 selected from the patients referred to Bozorgmehr Neurology clinic in Mashhad. People who scored more than 70 in anxiety test, were randomly put into the experimental and control groups. The data collection tool was dot-probe test. The experimental group participated in the entire BEE protocol.
Results: The mean score sensitivity anxiety of the experimental group in the pre-test, post-test, and follow-up was significantly lower than those in the control group by using multivariate analysis of covariance. Also, the mean score of the experimental group in dot-probe test, neutral reaction time, emotional response time, and interference score in the post-test phase, as well as the components of dull reaction time and sensitive response time in the follow-up and post-test were significantly lower than the control group.
Conclusion: The BEE protocol is effective in ABM and reducing high sensitivity anxiety.
- Attention bias
- Bioenergy Economy.
How to Cite
Bandelow B, Michaelis S. Epidemiology of anxiety disorders in the 21st century. Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 2015;17(3):327- 35.
Reiss S, Peterson RA, Gursky DM, McNally RJ. Anxiety sensitivity, anxiety frequency and the prediction of fearfulness. Behav Res Ther. 1986;24(1):1-8.
Allan NP, Capron DW, Raines AM, Schmidt NB. Unique relations among anxiety sensitivity factors and anxiety, depression, and suicidal ideation. J Anxiety Disord. 2014;28(2):266-75. doi: 10.1016/j.janxdis.2013.12.004.
Stewart S, Taylor S, Watt M. Overcoming the fear of fear: How to reduce anxiety sensitivity. Oakland, CA: New Harbinger Publications; 2007.
Lang AJ, Sarmiento J. Relationship of attentional bias to anxiety sensitivity and panic. Depress Anxiety. 2004;20(4):190-4. doi: 10.1002/da.20030.
Herron-Marx S, Price-Knol F, Burden B, Hicks C. A systematic review of the use of Reiki in health care. Altern Complement Ther. 2008;14(1):37-42. doi: 10.1089/act.2008.14108.
Heeren A, Mogoase C, Philippot P, McNally RJ. Attention bias modification for social anxiety: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Psychol Rev. 2015;40:76-90. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2015.06.001.
Klauke B, Deckert J, Zwanzger P, Baumann C, Arolt V, Pauli P, et al. Neuropeptide S receptor gene (NPSR) and life events: G x E effects on anxiety sensitivity and its subdimensions. World J Biol Psychiatry. 2014;15(1):17-25. doi: 10.3109/15622975.2011.646302.
Mogg K, Bradley BP. Anxiety and attention to threat: Cognitive mechanisms and treatment with attention bias modification. Behav Res Ther. 2016;87:76-108. doi: 10.1016/j. brat.2016.08.001.
Siefke JJ. Attachment as a moderator of attention bias modification effectiveness. Biola University; 2015.
MacLeod C, Grafton B. Anxiety-linked attentional bias and its modification: Illustrating the importance of distinguishing processes and procedures in experimental psychopathology research. Behav Res Ther. 2016;86:68-86. doi: 10.1016/j. brat.2016.07.005.
Zvielli A, Bernstein A, Koster EH. Temporal dynamics of attentional bias. Clin Psychol Sci. 2015;3(5):772-88.
Goli F. Bioenergy Economy: A Biosemiotic Model of Care. International Journal of Body, Mind and Culture. 2016;3(1):1- 7.
Collinge W, Wentworth R, Sabo S. Integrating complementary therapies into community mental health practice: an exploration. J Altern Complement Med. 2005;11(3):569-74. doi: 10.1089/acm.2005.11.569.
Taylor S, Zvolensky MJ, Cox BJ, Deacon B, Heimberg RG, Ledley DR, et al. Robust dimensions of anxiety
sensitivity: development and initial validation of the Anxiety Sensitivity Index-3. Psychol Assess. 2007;19(2):176-88. doi: 10.1037/1040-35220.127.116.11.
Putwain DW, Langdale HC, Woods KA, Nicholson LJ. Developing and piloting a dot-probe measure of attentional bias for test anxiety. Learn Individ Differ. 2011;21(4):478-82. doi: 10.1016/j.lindif.2011.02.002.
Goli F, Boroumand AR. Back to Future Health Blueprint: The Effects of a Brief Bioenergy Economy Program on a Patient with Tethered Cord Syndrome. International Journal of Body, Mind and Culture. 2016;3(1):64-9.
Derakhshan A, Manshaei G, Afshar H, Goli F. Effect of a bioenergy economy program on pain control, depression, and anxiety in patients with migraine headache. International Journal of Body, Mind and Culture. 2016;3(1):30-45.
Ahangar Ahmadi S, Henning JE, Goli F. Awakening Teachers to their Presence: An Experiential Course in Body Wisdom. Journal of Counseling and Professional Psychology. 2017;6(1):92-107.
- Abstract Viewed: 374 times
- PDF Downloaded: 313 times