Original Article


Decontamination of tomato, red cabbage, carrot, fresh parsley and fresh green onion inoculated with Shigella sonnei and Shigella flexneri by some Essential oils (in vitro condition)

Farhang Aliakbari, Seyedeh Felour Mazhar, Rouhollah Karami-Osboo, Parvin Shariati, Dina Morshedi, Davoud Farajzadeh

Novelty in Biomedicine, Vol. 2 No. 2 (2014), , Page 36-46
https://doi.org/10.22037/nbm.v2i2.5973

Background: Essential oils and their major constituents are useful sources of antimicrobial compounds. There are a few reports on the decontamination and antimicrobial activity of essential oils towards Shigella spp.

Materials and Methods: In this study, the antimicrobial and decontamination potentials of essential oils at different concentrations, belonging to plants such as Thymus vulgaris, Saturiea hortensis, Mentha polegium, Cuminum cyminum, Lavandula officinalis and Mentha viridis L. (spearmint), towards Shigella sonnei and Shigella  flexneri were investigated. The disk diffusion method demonstrated the antimicrobial potential of the essential oils.

Results: The ability of essential oils to decontaminate vegetables such as, tomato, red cabbage, carrot, fresh parsley and fresh green onion that were previously inoculated with Shigella spp. was determined. Inhibitory effects of essential oils towards Shigella spp. were noted in the disk diffusion method. There was a reduction in Shigella population following inoculation of cultures with 0.5% and 0.1% (v/v) essential oils.

Conclusion: This study confirmed that essential oils have the potential to be used for decontamination of vegetables.

Two small molecule lead compounds as new antifungal agents effective against Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Yones Pilehvar-Soltanahmadi, Yasin Panahi, Sasan Andalib, Marzieh Balaghi-Inalou, Shahriar Alipour, Nasim Moazzez-Lalaklo, Siamak Sandoghchian-Shotorbani, Leila Sadat Hatamnejad

Novelty in Biomedicine, Vol. 2 No. 2 (2014), , Page 47-52
https://doi.org/10.22037/nbm.v2i2.5993

 

Background: Antifungal drug resistance and few numbers of available drugs limit therapeutic options against fungal infections. The present study was designed to discover new antifungal drugs.

 

Materials and Methods: This study was carried out in two separate steps, that is, in silico lead identification and in vitro assaying of antifungal potential. A structural data file of a ternary complex of fusicuccin (legend), C terminus of H+-ATPase and 14-3-3 regulatory protein (1o9F.pdb file) was used as a model. Computational screening of a virtual 3D database of drug-like molecules was performed and selected small molecules, resembling the functional part of the ligand performing ligand docking, were tested using ArgusLab (4.0.1). Two lead compounds, 3-Cyclohexan propionic acid (CXP) and 4-phenyl butyric acid (PBA) were selected according to their ligation scores. Standard Strains of Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were used to measure the antifungal potential of the two identified lead compounds against the fungi using micro-well plate dilution assay.

 

Results: Ligation scores for CXP and PBA were -9.33744 and -10.7259 kcal/mol, respectively, and MIC and MFC of CXP and PBA against the two yeasts were promising.

 

Conclusion: The evidence from the present study suggests that CXP and PBA possess potentially antifungals properties.

 

Confidence and Use of Communication Skills in Medical Students

Mahnaz Jalalvandi, Akhtar Jamali, Ali Taghipoor-Zahir, Mohammad-Reza Sohrabi

Novelty in Biomedicine, Vol. 2 No. 2 (2014), , Page 53-58
https://doi.org/10.22037/nbm.v2i2.6434

Background: Well-designed interventions can improve the communication skills of physicians. Since the understanding of the current situation is essential for designing effective interventions, this study was performed to determine medical interns’ confidence and use of communication skills.

Materials and Methods: This descriptive-analytical study was performed in spring 2013 within 3 branches of Islamic Azad University (Tehran, Mashhad, and Yazd), on 327 randomly selected interns. Data gathering instrument was a questionnaire with 14 items for confidence and 17 items for use of communication skills. Data analysis was performed using descriptive statistics as well as Spearman and Mann- Whitney U tests.

Results: Students’ confidence and use of communication skills was evaluated moderate. There was a significant positive correlation between students’ confidence and use of communication skills (r=0.42, p=0.001). Male students reported higher scores for confidence and use of communication skills compared to female, but this was not significant (p=0.055 and p=0.292, respectively).

Conclusion: Considering significant correlation between confidence and use of communication skills, designing educational interventions is recommended for development of confidence and resulting use of communication skills in medical students.

Background: Postoperative periorbital edema and ecchymosis are common after rhinoplasty. We studied the effect of local injection of Lidocaine/Adrenaline immediately before osteotomy on prevention of post-operative periorbital edema and ecchymosis in rhinoplasty.

Materials and Methods: Thirty healthy candidates for rhinoplasty were enrolled in the self-controlled clinical trial study. Lidocaine/Adrenaline solution injected randomly to one side just prior to the lateral osteotomy. The opposite side used as a control. The degree of edema/ecchymosis on both sides was compared on the 1st, 2nd and 7th day postoperatively.

Results: Mean of severity of edema, 24 hours after operation was 3in both sides, (Mann-whitney U; p=0.829). Mean of severity of edema, 48 hours after operation was 2 in both sides (Mann-whitney U; p=0.867) and it was 1 in both sides 7 days after operation (Mann-whitney U; p=0.756).There was no significant difference between two sides. Mean of severity of ecchymosis, 24 hours after operation was 3 in both sides (Mann-whitney U; p=0.692). Mean of severity of ecchymosis, 48 hours after operation was 2 in both sides (Mann-whitney U; p=0.655) and it was 1 in both sides 7 days after operation (Mann-whitney U; p=0.873). There was no significant difference between two sides.

Conclusion: local injection of Lidocaine/Adrenaline solution immediately before lateral osteotomy could not reduce postoperative edema and ecchymosis in rhinoplasty.

Inhibitory effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus on pathogenic bacteria isolated from women with bacterial vaginosis

Gita Eslami, Sudabeh Taheri, Eznollah Azargashb, raheleh karimiravesh

Novelty in Biomedicine, Vol. 2 No. 2 (2014), , Page 64-68
https://doi.org/10.22037/nbm.v2i2.5777

Background: Considering the high prevalence of bacterial vaginosis and its association with urinary tract infection in women and treatment of gynecologic problems occur when a high recurrence of bacterial vaginosis is often treated with antibiotics. The purpose of this study is to investigate the inhibitory effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus on pathogenic bacteria isolated from women with bacterial vaginosis, respectively.

Materials and Methods: 96 samples from women with bacterial vaginosis discharge referred to health centers dependent Shahid Beheshti University in 91-92 were taken by a gynecologist with a dacron swab and put in sterile tubes containing TSB broth and Thioglycollate broth and were immediately sent to the lab location in cold chain for the next stages of investigation. From Thioglycollate and TSB medium was cultured on blood agar and EMB and Palkam and Differential diagnosis environments, and then incubated for 24 h at 37°C. Strains of Lactobacillus rhamnosus were cultured in MRSA environment and were transfered to the lab. After purification of pathogenic bacteria, MIC methods and antibiogram, Lactobacillus rhamnosus inhibitory effect on pathogenic bacteria is checked. Statistical analysis was done by SPSS software v.16.

Results: The results of this study show the inhibitory effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus on some pathogenic bacteria that cause bacterial vaginosis, including Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Entrococcus, Listeria monocytogenes and E.Coli. Microscopic examination of stained smears of the large number of Lactobacillus and pathogenic bacteria showed reduced. The prevalence of abnormal vaginal discharge, history of drug use means of preventing pregnancy and douching, respectively, 61%, 55%, 42% and 13% respectively. Significant difference was observed between the use and non-use of IUD in women with bacterial vaginosis infection.

Conclusion: Our findings indicated the Inhibitory effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus on the pathogenic bacteria that cause bacterial vaginosis. The results of this study confirm the hypothesis of inhibit of pathogens growth that cause bacterial vaginosis supported by probiotics and can have beneficial effects in the prevention and treatment of bacterial vaginosis.

Comparative Evaluation of Ultraviolet and Visible Light Transmittance through Prescriptive Ophthalmic Minus Lenses

Mohammadreza Nazari, Saeed Rahmani, Bahram Khosravi, Seyyed Mehdi Tabatabaei

Novelty in Biomedicine, Vol. 2 No. 2 (2014), , Page 96-72
https://doi.org/10.22037/nbm.v2i2.5985

Background: Wearing spectacles is the most common approach in correcting the refractive errors worldwide. Due to harmful effects of overexposure to solar ultraviolet radiations, the usage of multi-layer coatings in ophthalmic lenses has recently been increased. These lenses can reduce the reflections and hence increase the transmission of visible light; they can also decrease the transmission of ultraviolet rays. This study aims to compare the transmission of ultraviolet (A and B) and visible rays through coated and uncoated prescriptive ophthalmic plastic lenses.

Materials and Methods: In this study, 39 minus non-photochromic multi-coated white plastic single-vision lenses; 9 similar lenses but without any coatings were assessed by spectral transmittancemeter for evaluation of the transmission of visible and ultraviolet rays.

Results: The transmission of visible light was 97.9%±1.07% for coated lenses and 93.5%±0.54% for lenses without coating. Ultraviolet-A transmission was 12.15%±8.02% for coated lenses compared to 66.27%±23.92% in lenses without coating. The transmission of ultraviolet-B rays was 1.21%±0.4% and 23.0%±15.97% for lenses with and without coatings, respectively.

Conclusion: The transmission of visible light was significantly higher in multi-coated lenses compared to uncoated samples; whereas the transmissions of ultraviolet rays in multi-coated lenses were significantly lower than uncoated ones. Therefore, it is recommended that, except for particular cases, prescribed lenses be equipped with this multi-layer coating.