Original Article

Background: High intensity interval training (HIIT) is a novel training method which has received most attention in recent years. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of 8 weeks of high intensity interval training (HIIT) on plasma levels of adiponectin and leptin in overweight nurses.

Materials and Methods: 27 nurses (mean age 25.81±60 years, height 158.01±67 cm and weight 69.41±25 kg) were voluntarily selected and randomly assigned to three groups (each group 9 subjects): 1. HIIT (type 1) including 8 seconds of sprint running and 12 seconds of active recovery 2. HIIT (type 2) including 40-m shuttle run with maximum speed 3. Control group. HIIT (type 1) was performed for eight weeks, three sessions per week, each session 6-9 min. With more than 90% HRmax. HIIT (type 2) was applied for eight weeks, three sessions per week with more than 90% HRmax. The control group did not participate in any training protocol.

Results: The data were analyzed by the dependent t test and ANOVA. The results showed that the HIIT (type 1) and (type 2) had significant effects on plasma leptin decrease and plasma adiponectin concentration increase in nurses. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to analyze the intergroup data at p˂0.05.

Conclusion: The results showed a significant difference in the variables (leptin and adiponectin) among HIIT (type 1), HIIT (type 2) and control.

Background: Stress is one of the most important problems among preoperative patients. In order to reduce these signs and symptoms, some medications are used for patients. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of hypnosis to intravenous sedation on controlling the important variables of vital signs and to evaluate the patient anxiety before and after regional or topical anesthesia in ophthalmic surgery.

Materials and Methods: This study was designed as a double-blind stratified randomized clinical trial.  Hypnotism was administered to hypnotism group, and midazolam, fentanyl, and propofol were given intravenously to the IV sedation group. The patients were monitored and the baseline variables consisted of mean arterial pressure, pulse rate, respiratory rate, and O2 saturation were registered every 15 minutes during surgery. Patient anxiety was measured via Spielbeger`s State Anxiety Index (STAI) score before and after surgery.

Results: 90 patients were participated in the study, with 50% (n=45) assigned to hypnosis group and 50% (N=45) assigned to IV sedation group. Patients characteristics, including age, gender, and body mass index (BMI) duration of surgery were similar among the groups (P>0.05). Spielbeger`s State Anxiety Index (STAI) score before and after surgery were not significantly different in both groups (P>0.05). Heart rate, respiratory rate, mean arterial pressure were lower among hypnosis group as well as this group had higher O2 saturation during surgery (P<0.05).

Conclusion: Hypnosis can be an effective means of controlling vital signs at different intervals of starting the ophthalmic surgery compared to intravenous sedation. In the hypnosis group anxiety was similar to IV sedation group, but O2 saturation was more desirable.


Effect of PLGA-IB on ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression in a mice adhesion model

Fatemeh Jamshidi-Adegani, Ehsan Seyedjafari, Nematollah Gheibi, Masumeh Dodel, Abdollah Mohammadi-Sangcheshmeh, Masoud Soleimani, Mehdi Sahmani

Novelty in Biomedicine, Vol. 4 No. 3 (2016), , Page 100-104

Background: In this study, we compared the effect of ibuprofen (IB) while incorporating by Poly Lactic-co-Glycolic Acid (PLGA) nanofiber on expression of adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in a mice adhesion model.

Materials and Methods: Using an adhesion model were induced in mice, PLGA-IB and PLGA membranes and IB were sutured between the abdominal wall and peritoneum after surgical operation to reveal the best membrane for prevention of postoperative adhesion bands by comparison of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression.

Results: Compared with other groups, PLGA-IB showed a greater ability to reduce ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression.

Conclusion: These results suggested that in considering the FDA approved polymers, PLGA-IB could be introduced as a potential candidate for prevention of abdominal post-surgery inflammation and adhesion band formation after surgeries.

Soil Contamination of Public Places with Toxocara spp. Egg in Kermanshah, Iran, in 2014

Bahman Maleki, Seyyed Javad Seyyed Tabaei, Farid Tahvildar, Ali Khorshidi

Novelty in Biomedicine, Vol. 4 No. 3 (2016), , Page 105-109

Background: Toxocariasis is considered as an important neglected tropical disease. Although, the prevalence of Toxocara eggs in soil has previously been reported in different parts of Iran, the extent of this condition is not precisely known in Kermanshah city, west of Iran.

Materials and Methods: A total of 126 soil samples were collected from different zones of Kermanshah public places during April-June 2014. The samples were examined for Toxocara spp. eggs via modified floatation method using sodium nitrate (NaNO3) and the data was analyzed using Data Analysis and Statistical Software (STATA Ver.13.1).

Results: Toxocara spp. eggs were found in 17 (13.5%) out of 126 samples collected from the studied areas. There was a significant difference between contamination rate in the areas with low levels of health status and that in the areas with high levels (p=0.003).

Conclusion: According to the results obtained in the present study public parks, streets, and squares of Kermanshah are contaminated with eggs of Toxocara spp. Considering these findings, establishment of a wisely planned health program for controlling helminthes in the soil and the population of the stray dogs and cats in order to reduce the distribution of parasitosis is strongly recommended.

Effect of n-Butanol on Chromosomal Damage in Mice Bone Marrow Cells

Nahid Mansouri, Farhang Haddad, Masoud Fereidoni, Bita Pourkaveh

Novelty in Biomedicine, Vol. 4 No. 3 (2016), , Page 110-115

Background: n-Butanol is a four-carbon alcohol used widely in foods, cosmetics industries, biology and chemistry research laboratories, and other fields. Long time-effects of inhalation or consumption of small amounts of Butanol on human health are still unknown. On the other hand, numerous reports about the development of n-Butanol toxicity are available. The main objective of the study was to investigate the effects of inhaled and oral administration of n-Butanol as a long-term in vivo investigation.

Materials and Methods: Small white laboratory, male mice (20-30 g) were used in 11 groups (n=4) including experimental 1 to 6, 1 to 4 control "A” and positive control groups. Experimental groups 1-3, for 10, 20, and 40 days; 5 hours a day were inside a box with ventilation facilities exposed to air saturated with n-Butanol vapor. Experimental groups 4 to 6, received water containing n-Butanol 0.2%, 1% and 5% for 10 days. Control groups B, 1 to 3 was placed for 10, 20, and 40 days inside a similar box exposed to normal air, respectively. Control group B 4 received water without any particular substance for 10 days. The positive control group received 30µl subcutaneous vinblastine. Bone marrow cells were extracted 24 hours after treatments and stained by May-Grünwald-Giemsa staining and the number of micronucleus was counted. Vinblastine, as a positive control, increased an average of micronucleus numbers significantly compared to control group (P<0.001).

Results: n-Butanol inhalation caused no significant difference in 1-3 experimental groups in the average numbers of micronucleus compared to control group, even in the 40 days treatment group, average numbers of micronucleus was decreased comparing to control group (P<0.05). Also, oral administration of 0.2% and 1% n-Butanol had no effect on the average micronucleus numbers compared to the control group, while oral administration of 5% n-Butanol caused even decrease in average numbers of micronucleus compared to control group (P<0.05).

Conclusion: n-Butanol inhalation may not cause chromosome damages in rat bone marrow cells that probably is due to its very fast metabolism and decomposition in the body. Therefore, the amount of n-Butanol in the systemic circulation and tissues is very low and, probably, the damaging potential is decreased.

Effect of Olive Leaf Extract on Cytokines Secreted by Macrophage

Rezvan Vajdian, Nariman Mosaffa, Seyed Javad Seyed Tabaei, Farnaz Kheirandish, Mohammad Javad Tarahi, Zahra Arab-Mazar, Zahra Poursafavi

Novelty in Biomedicine, Vol. 4 No. 3 (2016), , Page 116-120

Background: Herbal medicines in compared with chemical drugs have fewer side effects and can be a good medicinal alternative. The olive includes 20 different species of the family Oleaceae, with Olea europaea as the most recognized. Several studies have shown the immunomodulating effects of olive leaf extract. This study aimed to identify the immunoregulatory effect of olive leaf Sevillana variety on interleukins 12 and 10 which resulted from the murine macrophages in vitro.

Materials and Methods: In order to isolate macrophages, peritoneal macrophages BALB/C were used. To determine the cytotoxic effect of different concentrations of the olive leaf extract on macrophages, MTT assay was performed. Concentrations of 200, 100, 50, 25, 12.5, 6.25, and 3.1μg/ml in the time intervals of 12, 24, and 48 hours were evaluated. Three appropriate concentrations were selected to commence with the study of the determination of the amount of cytokines. Cell culture supernatant growth medium supernatant was collected at 12, 24, and 48 hours after adding the extract in order to examine the amount of cytokines. ELISA test was conducted using interleukins 12 and 10 measurement kits.

Results: CC50 of the olive leaf extract at 12, 24, and 48 hours was 260.3, 170.5, and 150 μg/ml, respectively. According to the results, an increase in the concentration and duration of the study resulted in observable significant differences in the production of interleukins 10 and 12. As a result, the production of IL-10 and 12 experienced decreases and increases, respectively.

Conclusion: It seemed probable that the olive leaf extract had the capability to increase the production of IL-12 through activation of the classic macrophages and also deactivate the regulatory macrophages with an increase in IL-12 and a decrease in IL-10. Therefore, this can strengthen the immune system of the host in the early stages of infection. The other immunomodulatory effects of olive leaf must be considered by appropriate research.

Background: The purpose of this study was evaluation of the antimicrobial effect of ethyl acetate extract and alkaloid fraction of Glaucium vitellinum (G. vitellinum) against clinical Staphylococcus spp. isolates from patients of Sina hospital of Tehran.

Materials and Methods: The plant of G. vitellinum was collected from Khonsar, Isfahan province, during May 2014. It’s flowering and aerial parts were washed, dried, powdered and extracted with methanol and ethyl acetate by using percolator apparatus, separately. In continuation, the alkaloid fraction was separated from metanolic total extract. 100 clinical isolates of Staphylococcus spp. were collected randomly from different clinical samples of patients who referred to Sina hospital of Tehran during 2013-2014. Also, their resistant to common antibiotics were evaluated by disk diffusion method based on the CLSI 2014 protocol. Continuously, the antibacterial effect of ethyl acetate total extract and the alkaloid fraction against clinical isolates of Staphylococcus spp. were evaluated by determining the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) by microdilution method based on the CLSI 2014. Standard Staphylococcus aureus (PTCC1431) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (PTCC 1435) were evaluated, simultaneously.

Results: Based on the results, 93% of isolates were coagulase positive and 7% were coagulase negative Staphylococci spp. (CoNS). All coagulase positive cocci were identified as Staphylococcus aureus and among 7% CoNS, 3% were identified as S. epidermidis, so, in the follow they are named only CoNS.

The MIC of alkaloid fraction of G.vitellinum was: 17.87 mg/ml and 23.21 mg/ml against coagulase positive S.aureus and CoNS isolates, respectively. Also, MIC of ethyl acetate total extract of G.vitellinum was: 73.25 mg/ml and 98.21mg/ml on coagulase positive S. aureus and CoNS isolates, respectively.

61.29% of clinical S. aureus isolates were sensitive to ethyl acetate total extract  and 100 % were sensitive to alkaloid fraction while 100% were penicillin resistant while only 60%  of them were Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (SXT) sensitive.

Similarly, among CoNS isolates, 42.85% and 100% were sensitive to ethyl acetate total extract and alkaloid fraction, respectively. While 100% were penicillin resistant and only 42%were ciprofloxacin and doxycycline sensitivity.

Conclusion: based on the existence of good antibacterial effect for alkaloid portion of G. vitellinum against clinical isolates of Staphylococcus spp. doing other in vitro and in vivo complementation tests are recommended for the further studies.


Keyword: Glaucium vitellinum, Anti bacterial, Alkaloids, Papaveraceae


Review Article

This article examines the sick role theory introduced by Talcott Parsons applying his background theoretical context. It additionally attempts to ascertain how the sick role theory delineates the physician-patient relationship. The theory seems to have roots in certain salient conceptions in the Parsonian sociology, including his evolutionary interpretation of modern society that plays a major part in outlining the ‘Pattern Variables’. To provide a plausible perception of what Parsons ponders about, the definitions of health, illness and the sick person are examined in the next stage. Critical perspectives offered here have been engendered through the process of comprehension of the theory and are related to certain aspects of that. It is finally concluded how a more precise understanding of the Parsons’ work can lead to a more productive patient-doctor relationship.