Original/Research Article

The Effect of Intrathecal Administration of Muscimol on Modulation of Neuropathic Pain Symptoms Resulting from Spinal Cord Injury; an Experimental Study

Marjan Hosseini, Zohreh Karami, Atousa Janzadeh, Seyed Behnamedin Jameie, Zahra Haji Mashadi, Mahmoud Yousefifard, Farinaz Nasirinezhad

EMERGENCY , Vol. 2 No. 4 (2014), 24 September 2014, Page pp. 151-157

Introduction: Neuropathic pain can be very difficult to treat and it is one of the important medical challenging about pain treatments. Muscimol as a new agonist of gamma-Aminobutyric acid receptor type A (GABAA) have been introduced for pain management. Thus, the present study was performed to evaluate the pain alleviating effect of intrathecal injection of different doses of muscimol as GABAA receptor agonist in spinal cord injury (SCI) model of neuropathic pain. Methods: In the present experimental study male Wistar rats were treated by muscimol 0.01, 0.1 or 1 µg/10ul, intrathecally (i.t.) three weeks after induction of spinal cord injury using compression injury model. Neuropathic pain symptoms were assessed at before treatment, 15 minutes, one hour and three hours after muscimol administration. The time of peak effect and optimum dosage was assessed by repeated measures analysis of variance and analysis of covariance, respectively. Results: Muscimol with the dose of 0.01 µg in 15 minutes caused to improve the thermal hyperalgesia (df: 24, 5; F= 6.6; p<0.001), mechanical hyperalgesia (df: 24, 5; F= 7.8; p<0.001), cold allodynia (df: 24, 5; F= 6.96; p<0.001), and mechanical allodynia (df: 24, 5; F= 15.7; p<0.001). The effect of doses of 0.1 µg and 1 µg were also significant. In addition, the efficacy of different doses of muscimol didn't have difference on thermal hyperalgesia (df: 24, 5; F= 1.52; p= 0.24), mechanical hyperalgesia (df: 24, 5; F= 0.3; p= -0.75), cold allodynia (df: 24, 5; F= 0.8; p= -0.56), and mechanical allodynia (df: 24, 5; F= 1.75; p= 0.86). Conclusion: The finding of the present study revealed that using muscimol with doses of 0.01µg, 0.1µg, and 1 µg reduces the symptoms of neuropathic pain. Also the effect of GABAA agonist is short term and its effectiveness gradually decreases by time.

Inter-Rater Agreement of Emergency Nurses and Physicians in Emergency Severity Index (ESI) Triage

Mehrdad Esmailian, Majid Zamani, Fatemeh Azadi, Faezeh Ghasemi

EMERGENCY , Vol. 2 No. 4 (2014), 24 September 2014, Page pp. 158-161

Introduction: Triage is one of the most important systems in patients prioritizing at the time of arrival to hospital. Based on the severity of the injury and the need for treatment, this system manages patients in the least time which could lead to rotation of patients with high reliability and safety. Currently, the most accepted method for triage is emergency severity index (ESI) system, considered as five-level triage method, too. This method were implemented in Al Zahra Hospital of Isfahan by trained nurses since March to May 2010. This study was aimed to evaluate the accuracy of emergency nursing triage using ESI. Methods: This prospective cross sectional study was carried out on 601 patients referred to Al-Zahra hospital of Isfahan through May 2010. The patients’ triage level were determined by physicians and nurses separately and the results compared. To define the level of agreement between two groups (inter-rater agreement), the kappa index was evaluated. To specify the association between the time interval of initial triage and patient final status, Chi-Square test was applied using SPSS 18 statistical software. Results: There was no significant difference between results of nurses and physicians triage (P<0/0001). The agreement level (kappa index) between two groups was 94% (95% CI: 0.931-0.957). Of 601 patients, 44.1% ones were hospitalized at the emergency department, 52.6% discharged and 3.3% died. The average of time interval between nursing triage and physician visit was 9.55 minutes at the level one triage, 21.64 minutes at level two, 26.03 minutes at level three, 26.93 minutes at level four, and 11.70 minutes at level five. Conclusion: It seems that there is an acceptable inter-rater agreement between emergency nurses and physicians regarding patients’ triage in terms of ESI system.

Introduction: Patients' satisfaction (PS) is one of the important indicators of emergency care quality and outcomes of health care services. Some researchers believe that improve the work processes and hospital quality are not possible without caring to comments, requirements, expectations, and satisfaction of patients. The percent study was aimed to assess the emergency department (ED) PS of Poursina hospital, Rasht, Iran. Methods: In this descriptive cross sectional study, the samples was selected from 378 patients admitted to ED of Poursina Hospital, Rasht, Iran, 2013. For each patient a check list and a questionnaire, including 37 questions about PS, were filled that had categories like physical comfort and residential aspects, physicians care, nurse care, behavioral aspect, and waiting time for service presentation. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 16. Results: Entirely, 378 patients were entered to the study with mean age of 38.44±17.8 (60.8% male). The mean score of total satisfaction of ED patients was 106.94±13.62 (range: 72-144). The mean score of physical comfort was 33.25±4.76 out of the highest obtainable score of 55, nurse care 25.33±5.13 out of 40, physician care 24.34±3.38 out of 40, waiting time for services 13.42±5.48 out of 30, and behavioral aspects 10.58±2.66 out of 20. There were significant relation among PS, sex (P=0.0001), and the shift of admission (P=0.023). Conclusion: The findings of percent study showed that giving services to emergency clients in various fields such as physical comfort and residential aspects, physicians care, nurse care, and the total ED satisfaction is relatively agreeable. The periodic and continuous assessment as well as comparison of satisfaction and dissatisfaction parameters during the time, before and after performing the changes, could be effectual.

Predictive Factors of Suicide Attempt and Non-Suicidal Self-Harm in Emergency Department

Saad Salman, Jawaria Idrees, Fahad Hassan, Fariha Idrees, Mashaal Arifullah, Sareer Badshah

EMERGENCY , Vol. 2 No. 4 (2014), 24 September 2014, Page pp. 166-169

Introduction: Suicide is the third cause of mortality in America, second leading cause of death in developed countries, and one of the major health problems. Self-harm is self-inflicted damage to one’s self with or without suicidal intent. In the present study, the predictive factors of suicide attempt and non-suicidal self-harm were evaluated in patients referred to emergency department (ED) with these problem. Methods: The total number of 45 patients with suicide attempt or self-harm admitted to ED were included. Clinical symptoms, thoughts and behaviors of suicidal, and non-suicidal self-harm in these patients were evaluated at baseline. Suicidality, suicidal intent and ideation, non-suicidal self-injury, social withdrawal, disruptive behavior, and poor family functions were evaluated at admission time. Brief clinical visits were scheduled for the twelfth weeks. In the twelfth week, patients returned for their final visit to determine their maintenance treatment. Finally data were analyzed using chi-squared and multiple logistic regression. Results: Forty five patients were included in the study (56.1% female). The mean age of patients was 23.3±10.2 years (range: 15-75; 33.3% married). Significant association of suicide and self-injury was presented at the baseline and in the month before attempting (p=0.001). The most important predictive factors of suicide and self-harm based on univariate analysis were depression (suicidal and non-suicidal items of Hamilton depression rating scale), anxiety, hopelessness, younger age, history of non-suicidal self-harm and female gender (p<0.05). The participants’ quality of life analysis showed a significant higher quality in physical component summary (p=0.002), mental component summary (p=0.001), and general health (p=0.001) at follow up period. Conclusion: At the time of admission in ED, suicide attempt and non-suicidal self-harm are subsequent clinical markers for the patient attempting suicide again. The most independent predictive factors of suicide attempt and self-harm were poor family function, hopelessness, non-suicidality items of Hamilton depression rating scale, history of non-suicidal self-harm, and anxiety disorders.

Potential Risk Factors of Death in Multiple Trauma Patients

Sina Jelodar, Mahnaz Yadollahi, Peyman Jafari, Golnar Sabetian Jahromi, Hoseynali Khalili, Hamidreza Abbasi, Shahram Bolandparvaz, Shahram Paydar

EMERGENCY , Vol. 2 No. 4 (2014), 24 September 2014, Page pp. 170-173

Introduction: Trauma has been recognized as one of the leading causes of death in many countries for decades. Reduction in mortality and morbidity rate of trauma cases is one of the most important attitudes in this field. Evaluation of different risk factors have been considered as the main goal of some studies. The purpose of this study was determining potential risk factors of death in trauma patients. Method: In a retrograde study, data of 740 patients admitted during three years (2009-2011) were studied. Demographic data (sex and age), clinical factors (blood pressure, pulse rate, respiratory rate, Glasgow coma scale (GCS)), trauma characteristics (location, type of injury, etc.), as well as outcome of patients were evaluated. Data analyses was done using SPSS 18.0. Stepwise multivariate regression analysis was used for recognition of independent predictive factors of death in multiple trauma patients. Results: Of those admitted, majority of patients were male (81.4%), 68% between 18 to 60 years, and 11.2% of them died during the course of treatment. Age; type of trauma; abnormal respiration rate, pulse rate, blood pressure; total GCS ≤8; abnormal pupil size; and head and neck; vertebral, and extremities fractures were obtained as significant predictive factor of death. GCS≤8, head and neck fracture, and abnormal pulse rate were independent death predictors. Conclusion: We identified GCS≤8, head and neck fracture, and abnormal pulse rate as predictive factors of mortality after trauma, which remained independent in the presence of all other factors and potentially treatable.

Brief Report

Clinical Presentation and Microbial Analyses of Contact Lens Keratitis; an Epidemiologic Study

Seyed Ahmad Rasoulinejad, Mahmoud Sadeghi, Mohammad Montazeri, Hesam Hedayati Goudarzi, Mahmood Montazeri, Nadali Akbarian

EMERGENCY , Vol. 2 No. 4 (2014), 24 September 2014, Page pp. 174-177

Introduction: Microbial keratitis is an infective process of the cornea with a potentially and serious visual impairments. Contact lenses are a major cause of microbial keratitis in the developed countries especially among young people. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to evaluate the frequency and microbiological characteristic of CLK in patients referred to the emergency department (ED) of teaching hospitals, Babol, Iran. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study of all patients with contact lens induced corneal ulcers admitted to the teaching hospitals of Babol, Iran, from 2011- 2013. An ophthalmologist examined patients with the slit-lamp and clinical features of them were noted (including pain, redness, foreign body sensation, chemosis, epiphora, blurred vision, discomfort, photophobia, discharge, ocular redness and swelling). All suspected infectious corneal ulcers were scraped for microbial culture and two slides were prepared. Data were analyzed using SPSS software, version 18.0. Results: A total of 14 patients (17 eyes) were recruited into the study (100% female). The patients’ age ranged from 16-37 years old (mean age 21.58±7.23 years). The most prevalent observed clinical signs were pain and redness. Three samples reported as sterile. The most common isolated causative organism was pseudomonas aeroginosa (78.6%), Staphylococcus aureus 14.3%, and enterobacter 7.1%, respectively. Treatment outcome was excellent in 23.5%, good in 47.1%, and poor in 29.4% of cases. Conclusion: Improper lens wear and care as well as the lack of awareness about the importance of aftercare visits have been identified as potential risk factors for the corneal ulcer among contact lens wearers. Training and increasing the awareness of adequate lens care and disinfection practices, consulting with an ophthalmologist, and frequent replacement of contact lens storage cases would greatly help reducing the risk of microbial keratitis.

Case Report

Essential Thrombocytosis Following Multiple Psychic Traumas

Rezvan Sadr Mohammadi, Mehrdad Mahdian, Reza Bidaki, Seyed-Ali Mostafavi

EMERGENCY , Vol. 2 No. 4 (2014), 24 September 2014, Page pp. 178-179

The associations between exposure to traumatic events and psychiatric disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and anxiety have been established. It is important that clinicians notice to this phenomenon and avoid from inappropriate interpretations and additional laboratory tests. Here, a case of 45-year-old man with Essential thrombocytosis developed after multiple psychic traumas was introduced.

Pneumatic Rupture of Rectosigmoid; a Case Report

Mohammad Montazeri, Bahman Farhangi, Mahmood Montazeri

EMERGENCY , Vol. 2 No. 4 (2014), 24 September 2014, Page pp. 180-182

Pneumatic rectosigmoid rapture is usually occurred following the inappropriate fun by direct entering a high volume of the air through the pneumatic device to the anus. Such an event was reported for the first time in 1904 by Stone. Diagnosis and treatment of such injuries are often delayed because of some social limitations and preventing the patient form explaining the event. Colon sigmoid rupture and pneumoperitoneum is one of the most dangerous and life treating complications of entering a high volume of the air to the rectum in a short time. There are only a few reports regarding the similar cases. Here, a case of pneumatic rectosigmoid rapture was reported in a 53 year-old male following an inappropriate fun.

Spontaneous Spinal Epidural Hematoma; a Case Report

Maryam Motamedi, Alireza Baratloo, Alireza Majidi, Farhad Rahmati, Ali Shahrami

EMERGENCY , Vol. 2 No. 4 (2014), 24 September 2014, Page pp. 183-185

Spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma (SSHE) is a rare entity can have several reasons. Its prevalence in population is 0.1 per 100,000 with the male to female ratio of 1/4:1. For the first time Jackson in 1869 reported a case of SSHE and after that it was declared as several hundred cases in literatures. Here, a case of SSHE was reported in a 52 year-old male referred to emergency department following severe low back pain.