Original Article

Background: Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection is one of the commonest contaminations in the worldwide, and particularly in developing counties. It has found in a few of pulmonary disorders. However, the status of HP infection has not been known among the population of Sulfur Mustard(SM) induced respiratory diseases. The purpose of the study was to detect HP infection among asymptomatic SM focus population, and to compare with healthy subjects.Material and methods: Sample population sequentially enrolled based upon a self-reported questionnaire in chemical veteran’s clinic. The HP detected by C13-Urea breath test via infrared spectroscopy method.Results: The mean age was 46.17±9.21 SD in the case, and 46.27±9.18 SD in the control groups, respectively. The age ranged from 35 to 70 years. The prevalence rate of infection established in case 78.3% and in control groups 50.4%, respectively. the significant differences found  between cases with control groups (χ<0.001).Conclusion: The significant difference observed between asymptomatic SM induced respiratory diseases with healthy subjects among Iranian veterans. Our results may be related to accruing of HP infection during wartime.Keywords: Helicobacter pylori, sulfur mustard gas, C13-urea breathe test, infrared spectroscopy, respiratory disease, war, asymptomatic, male, adults, Iranian.

Reconstruction of Femur Length From Its Fragments in South Indian Females ..............................................IJMTFM (2011) 1(2): 45-53

Magendran Chandran, Nagaraj Vijayakumari

International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Forensic Medicine, Vol. 1 No. 2(Autumn) (2011), 27 April 2012 , Page 45-53

Background: Stature reconstruction from skeletal remains forms part of the forensic anthropological analysis for the purpose of identification of an individual.

Material and methods: It is well documented from the previous studies that intact femur has the highest correlation with stature and as such widely used in deriving the regression equations. However, the femur is not always recovered intact in forensic cases. The aim of the present study was to estimate the length of femur from measurements of its fragments. This information is important in archaeological studies and forensic investigations, particularly when fragmented material is examined.

Results: Sixty femora of adults’ female individuals were selected for analysis. Maximum length and measures of seven fragments of the femur were obtained by means an osteometrical board and a digital caliper. Simples and multiple linear regressions were made to correlate each fragment with total length of the femur. Regressions formulae were obtained to define these estimates.

Conclusion: The derived formulae are population specific and are designed for use in forensic skeletal analyses of South Indian females.

Key Words: Forensic Anthropology Population Data, South Indian Females, Fragmentary Femur, Morphometry, Regression equation.

Detecting Narcotics in Solution Extracted from Dried Urine Stain on Cotton Fabri ...................................IJMTFM (2011) 1(2): 54-58

Hassan Solhi, Amir Mohammad Kazemifar, Hamid Reza Khoddami Vishteh, Mahdi Azizabadi Farahani, Daruosh Badakhshan

International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Forensic Medicine, Vol. 1 No. 2(Autumn) (2011), 27 April 2012 , Page 54-58

Background:The present study aims to present a new method to trace narcotics in the solution extracted from dried urine stain left on cotton fabric. Material and methods:Narcotic substance was traced in the 50 samples through two methods. In the first method, samples were directly examined through Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC). In the second method, a piece of cotton fabric was soaked in a beaker filled with urine sample. After full absorption, the piece of fabric was left to dry. Then it was soaked in distilled water and shaken so that the stain deposits would dissolve into water. Finally, the solution was extracted from the wet fabric by centrifugal spin and admixed with an equal amount of distilled water. A TLC test was run afterward. The TLC run on the main samples produced the following results: morphine, codeine and other opium alkaloids were detected in 38 samples; in 7 samples only codeine was found. Five samples produced no especial stains. The TLC performed on the solution tapped from the cotton piece of fabric produced similar results except for the lower density of stain colors. Conclusion:The results show that narcotics may be detected using dried urine stains on cotton fabric dissolved in distilled water.

Keywords: Narcotics, Urine stain, Crime scene, Thin Layer Chromatography, TLC


Patterns of Self Poisoning by Household Substances ............................................................................IJMTFM (2011) 1(2):59-64

Kamruzzaman Khokon, Shadeque Islam, Ariful Basher, Robed Amin, Abul Faiz

International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Forensic Medicine, Vol. 1 No. 2(Autumn) (2011), 27 April 2012 , Page 59-64

Background: Poisoning is an important public health problem in developing countries like Bangladesh; self poisoning with organophosphorous compound (OPC) used in agriculture is particularly common. However, tertiary level hospitals in urban settings, self-poisoning with different household substances is also frequent, especially in teenagers. This study aims to identify the common household substances used for self harm and describe their clinical profile.

Methods: A prospective study was performed in five adult medicine units of Dhaka Medical College Hospital over a period of six months from January 2008 to June 2008. Data were collected purposefully in a standard case record forms.

Results: One hundred and twenty eight patients with a definite history of self poisoning were enrolled. Majority of patients came from urban areas (77.4%); mean age was 20 years and 48.1% were unmarried. Most patients (102, 76.7%) were female. A suicidal intention was mentioned in 88.7% of cases and family disharmony (70.7%) was the main reported reason. Most of the patients (119, 89.4%) were educated with at least Primary school. The most commonly used compounds were Savlon (Chlorhexidine 0.05%, Cetrimide 0.5%) in 50.4% of cases and Harpic(Sodium alkyle benzene sulphonate & sodium alkene sulphonate) in 30.8% of poisoning cases. 92.5% of patients sought treatment in a public hospital. All patients received supportive and symptomatic treatment, commonly with intravenous fluids and omeprazole. Recovery was usually fast; 92.9% improved within two days. All patients survived and no complications were noted.

Conclusion: Though poisoning due to household substances is usually mild, prompt recognition and early treatment is important. An effort should be made to define preventive measures that can be implemented in order to reduce this common form of self poisoning.

Observational Cross Sectional Study on Blood Donors .....................................................IJMTFM (2011) 1(2):65-69

Raju G.M., V Vijayanath, Anitha M.R.

International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Forensic Medicine, Vol. 1 No. 2(Autumn) (2011), 27 April 2012 , Page 65-69

Background: This study was conducted to document the frequency ABO & rhesus blood groups in potential male blood donor belong to south area of Karnataka. Methods: The data of blood donors from July 2009 to December 2009. Results: Total number of donors studied was 3048. The commonest blood group was O present in 37.87% followed by B in 29.98%, A in 23.88% and AB in 8.29%. While 95.41% donors were Rh positive and 4.59% was Rh negative. The maximum donors were between in age group 20-39 years. The maximum prevalence of Hemoglobin % ranges from 13.0-13.9 about 2983(75.11%). The maximum prevalence of weight among the donors was between 60 to 69Kgs about 1201(39.40%) and the least weight appears between 80 to 90Kgs about 254(8.4%). Conclusion: Blood group O is the commonest ABO blood group and 95.41% are Rh + in this area, the maximum prevalence of donors in age group, Hb% and Weight are 20.39 yrs, 13.0-13.5 gm% and 50-69 Kgs respectively.

Key Words: ABO blood group, Rhesus blood group, Prevalence of age group, weight and  Hb% in blood donors.

Case Report

Rupture of a Non Coronary Sinus of Valsalva Aneurysm in Side the Right Atrium ...................................IJMTFM (2011) 1(2):70-74

Asteria Papavdi, Elpida Spanoudaki, Despoina Nathena, Emmanouil Michalodimitrakis

International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Forensic Medicine, Vol. 1 No. 2(Autumn) (2011), 27 April 2012 , Page 70-74

Background:Abnormalities of the sinus of Valsalva are usually congenital and quite rare among other heart deficiencies. They are frequently presented with aneurysm formation and the symptoms raised because of their existence vary. When rupture of an aneurysm occurs –more often in the right chambers of the heart -severe complications as cardiogenic shock arise. During a ten year period (2001-2011), in archives of Laboratory of Forensic Sciences of University of Crete only one case of natural death due to rupture of sinus of Valsalva s aneurysm is recorded. The authors present the case of a 53-year-old male, with no previous medical records, who suffered a sudden witnessed death. Dissecting the right atrium of the heart, an aneurysm of the sinus of Valsalva whose dimensions were 4X5 cm was detected. The aneurysm presented on its surface a linear rupture whose length was 2,7 cm. Aneurysm s formation, when not congenital, may be induced either by atheromatosis or less frequently by trauma, endocarditis ,syphilis or even Marfan s syndrome. Early diagnosis is possible through angiography, Doppler echocardiography, CT or MRI imaging.

Key words: Sinus of Valsalva, aneurysm, cardiac tamponade, heart failure

Managment of Organophosphate Poisoning Without Pralidoxim- Is It Possible .................IJMTFM (2011) 1(2):75-77

Hoorvash Farajidana, Babak Mostafazadeh, Maryam Teimoory

International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Forensic Medicine, Vol. 1 No. 2(Autumn) (2011), 27 April 2012 , Page 75-77

Introduction: Organophosphate compounds are used as insecticides, nerve gases, ophthalmic agents, and antihelmintics.The primary mechanism of action of organophosphate pesticides is inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE). However  Pralidoxim has been introduced as organophosphate `s antidote but recent studies establish that pralidoxim has unclear benefit in treatment of organophosphate poisoning.We explain two cases of organophosphate poisoning that they treaeted well without pralidoxim. The first case was a 36-years old man with history of organophosphates poisoning. He was under mechanical ventilation. Atropine was initiated due to muscarinic signs such as salivation, bronchorrhea and auscultation of  alveolar rhales. On admission day, the pseudocholine esterase level was 235 unit per liter. Pralidoxime was not available, so we did not use it for management of this patient.The  patient was discharged when he was in free symptom completely on the 22th day. The second case was a 23 years old woman with the history of deliberate self poisoning with organophosphate compounds. Atropine was started and she was under mechanical. However, pralidoxim was not available. The pseudocholine esterase level was 1690 unit per liter on the first day which dropped to 952 unit per liter on the 2nd day. After 9 days the discharged from the hospital. Discussion: Pralidoxim has been introduced as organophosphate`s antidote, on the other hand, it has benefit in organophosphate poisoning theoretically, but patients can be treated without it.

Key words: Organophosphate, Poisoning, Pralidoxim