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Review Article

Is Herpes Simplex virus (HSV) a sign of Encephalitis in Iranian Newborns? Prevalence of HSV Infection in Pregnant Women in Iran: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis


Iranian Journal of Child Neurology, Vol. 11 No. 2 (2017), 1 April 2017, Page 1-8

How to Cite This Article: Arabsalmani M, Behzadifar M, Baradaran HR, Toghae M, Beyranvand Gh, Olyaeemanesh A, Behzadifar M. Is Herpes Simplex virus (HSV) a sign of Encephalitis in Iranian Newborns? Prevalence of HSV Infection in Pregnant Women in Iran: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Iran J Child Neurol.Spring 2017; 11(2):1-7.




Herpes Simplex virus (HSV) is one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases in the world. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of herpes simplex virus in pregnant women in Iran.

Materials & Methods

A systematic literature review was conducted to study the HSV subtypes in Persian and English papers through several databases. We searched Pub Med, Scopus, Ovid, Science Direct and national databases as Magiran, Iranmedex and Science Information Database (SID) up to October 2015. Random-effects model were applied to calculate the pooled prevalence of HSV subtypes.


Five eligible studies were identified, including 1140 participants. The pooled prevalence of HSV infection in pregnant women was 0.64% (95% CI: 0.10- 1.18) in Iran. The pooled prevalence of studies on both HSV-1 and HSV-2 was 0.91% (CI: 0.81-1.02) and studies on only HSV-2 was 0.23% (CI: -0.61-0.63), respectively.


The prevalence of HSV infection in pregnant women in Iran was higher. HSV infection of the central nervous system, especially with HSV-2, can also cause recurrent aseptic meningitis and monophasic, as well as radiuculitis or myelitis. The performance of screening to detect infection in pregnant women can play an important role in the prevention and treatment of patients and help to prevent the transmission of HSV infection to infants in Iran.


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Research Article

Infantile Spasms Treated with Intravenous Methypredinsolone Pulse


Iranian Journal of Child Neurology, Vol. 11 No. 2 (2017), 1 April 2017, Page 8-12

How to Cite This Article: Hassanzadeh Rad A, Aminzadeh V. Infantile Spasms Treated with Intravenous Methypredinsolone Pulse. Iran J Child Neurol. Spring 2017; 11(2):8-12.



Infantile spasms is diagnosed late even by expert pediatricians. Late diagnosis (later than 3 weeks) can have a negative effect on the long-term prognosis. We aimed to investigate infantile spasms treated with intravenous methylprednisolone pulse.

Materials & Methods

In this case series study, 20 infants with infantile spasms in 17-Shahrivar Hospital, Rasht, Iran were enrolled. Drugs were administered based on Mytinger protocol that included 3 days of methylprednisolone pulse and 56 days of oral prednisolone. The control of spasms and the omission of hypsarrhythmia in infants follow-up were the primary and secondary outcomes, respectively. Remission was indicated if the caregivers mentioned no spasms or >50% decrease regarding drug initiation for at least 5 consecutive days and the electroencephalography during sleep period noted the omission of hypsarrhythmia.


Eleven female (55%) and 9 male (45%) patients with the mean age of 4.95±1.39 months were enrolled. Mean rapid remission was noted as 4.41±1.50 days. Twelve patients (60%) noted early remission. seizure was controlled in 3(15%) patients completely after 24 months. Five (25%) occasional seizures were noted controlled by routine anticonvulsant drugs after 24 months and 12 (60%) no response was mentioned. Most of the patients (65%) had cryptogenic etiology for infantile spasms. Uncontrolled seizure was mentioned after initial remission.


Methyl prednisolone is an appropriate drug based on easy administering, low cost, and its accessibility.



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Socioeconomic Status Index to Interpret Inequalities in Child Development


Iranian Journal of Child Neurology, Vol. 11 No. 2 (2017), 1 April 2017, Page 13-25

How to Cite This Article: Ahmadi Doulabi M, Sajedi F, Vameghi R, Mazaheri MA, Akbarzadeh Baghban AR. Socioeconomic Status Index to Interpret Inequalities in Child Development. Iran J Child Neurol. Spring 2017; 11(2):13-25.



There have been contradictory findings on the relationship between Socioeconomic Status (SES) and child development although SES is associated with child development outcomes. The present study intended to define the relationship between SES and child development in Tehran kindergartens, Iran.

Materials & Methods

This cross-sectional survey studied 1036 children aged 36-60 month, in different kindergartens in Tehran City, Iran, in 2014-2015.

The principal factor analysis (PFA) model was employed to construct SES indices. The constructed SES variable was employed as an independent variable in logistic regression model to evaluate its role in developmental delay as a dependent variable.


The relationship between SES and developmental delay was significant at P=0.003. SES proved to have a significant (P<0.05) impact on developmental delay, both as an independent variable and after controlling risk factors.


There should be more emphasis on developmental monitoring and appropriate intervention programs for children to give them higher chance of having a more productive life.


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HLA-B*1502 in Iranian Children with Anticonvulsant Drugs-Induced Skin Reactions


Iranian Journal of Child Neurology, Vol. 11 No. 2 (2017), 1 April 2017, Page 26-30

How to Cite This Article: Tonekaboni SH, Jafari N, Mansouri M, Jabbehdari S, Eftekhari R, Chavoshzadeh Z, Abdollah Gorji F, Mesdaghi M. HLA-B*1502 in Iranian Children with Anticonvulsant Drugs-Induced Skin Reactions. Iran J Child Neurol. Spring 2017; 11(2):26-30.




Anticonvulsant drugs can cause various forms of skin drug reactions, ranging from exanthema to severe blistering reactions. An association between HLA-B*1502 allele and severe skin reactions have been reported.

Materials & Methods

Fifteen patients with severe skin reactions following treatment with anticonvulsant drugs (Carbamazepine, lamotrigine, phenobarbital, primidone) and 15 controls (age-matched epileptic patients taking similar anticonvulsants without drug eruption) were included. They were referred to Mofid Children’s Hospital in Tehran, Iran, between Jan 2012 to Jan 2014. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood of all patients and HLA- B*1502 genotype was detected by real-time PCR.


None of the patients was positive for HLA- B*1502, but two patients in control group had positive HLA- B*1502.


The HLA- B*1502 is not correlated with severe anticonvulsant drugs -induced skin reactions in Iranian children.



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Plasma Pyridoxal 5´-Phosphate Level in Children with Intractable and Controlled Epilepsy


Iranian Journal of Child Neurology, Vol. 11 No. 2 (2017), 1 April 2017, Page 31-36

How to Cite This Article: Pirzadeh Z, Ghofrani M, Mollamohammadi M. Plasma Pyridoxal 5´-Phosphate Level in Children with Intractable and Controlled Epilepsy. Iran J Child Neurol. Spring 2017; 11(2):31-36.




Intractable epilepsy is a serious neurologic problem with different etiologies. Decreased levels of pyridoxal phosphate in cerebral spinal fluid of patients with intractable epilepsy due to pyridoxine dependency epilepsy are reported. The aim of this study was to compare plasma pyridoxal 5´-phosphate level in patients with intractable and controlled epilepsy.

Materials & Methods

This cross- sectional analytic study included 66 epileptic children, 33 patients with controlled and 33 patients with intractable epilepsy, after neonatal period up to 15 yr old of age. Thirty-three patients with intractable epilepsy (10- 162 months) and 33 patients with controlled epilepsy (14-173 months) were enrolled. The study was conducted in Pediatric Neurology Clinic of Mofid Children Hospital, Tehran, Iran from January 2010 to December 2010. Patients’ clinical manifestations, laboratory and neuroimaging findings were collected. Non-fasting plasma 5´- pyridoxal phosphate levels of these subjects were assessed by high-pressure liquid chromatography.


Mean plasma 5´- pyridoxal phosphate level (PLP) in patients with controlled epilepsy was 76.78±37.24 (nmol/l) (15.5-232.4). In patients with intractable epilepsy, mean plasma 5´- pyridoxal phosphate was 98.67± 80.58 (25.5- 393) nmol/l. There was no statistically significant difference between plasma pyridoxal phosphate levels of these two groups (P═0.430).


Pyridoxine dependent epilepsy is under diagnosed because it is manifested by various types of seizures. Plasma pyridoxal phosphate levels did not differ in our patients with intractable or controlled epilepsy. If PDE is suspected on clinical basis, molecular investigation of ALDH7A1 mutations, as feasible test, until PDE biomarkers becomes available is recommended.



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Clinical and Epidemiological Aspects of Multiple Sclerosis in Children

Mohammad Mehdi NASEHI, Mohammad Ali SAHRAIAN, Abdorreza NASER MOGHADDAS, Mohammad GHOFRANI, Fereshteh ASHTARI, Mohammad Mahdi TAGHDIRI, Seyed Hassan TONEKABONI, Parvaneh KARIMZADEH, Mahdi AFSHARI, Mahmood MOOSAZADEH

Iranian Journal of Child Neurology, Vol. 11 No. 2 (2017), 1 April 2017, Page 37-43

How to Cite This Article: Nasehi MM, Sahraian MA, Naser Moghaddasi A, Ghofrani M, Ashtari F, Taghdiri MM, Tonekaboni SH, Karimzadeh P, Afshari M, Moosazadeh M. Clinical and Epidemiological Aspects of Multiple Sclerosis in Children. Iran J Child Neurol. Spring 2017; 11(2):37-43.



Overall, 2%-5% of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) experienced the first episode of disease before the age 18 years old. Since the age of onset among children is not similar to that in general population, clinicians often fail to early diagnose the disease. This study aimed to determine the epidemiological and clinical patterns of MS among Iranian children.

Materials & Methods

In this cross-sectional study carried out in Iran in 2014-2015, information was collected using a checklist with approved reliability and validity. Method sampling was consensus. Data were analyzed using frequency, mean and standard deviation indices by means of SPSS ver. 20 software.


Totally, 177 MS children were investigated. 75.7% of them were female. Mean (SD), minimum and maximum age of subjects were 15.9 (2), 7 and 18 yr, respectively. The most reported symptoms were sensory (28.2%), motor (29.4%), diplopia (20.3%) and visual (32.8%). Primary MRI results showed 91.5% and 53.1% periventricular and spinal cord lesions, respectively.


MS is significantly more common among women. The most common age of onset is during the second decades. Sensory and motor problems are the most symptoms, while, periventricular and spinal cord lesions are the most MRI results.



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Differences in Mean Platelet Volume and Platelet Count between Children with Simple and Complex Febrile Seizures


Iranian Journal of Child Neurology, Vol. 11 No. 2 (2017), 1 April 2017, Page 44-47

How to Cite This Article: Nikkhah A, Salehiomran MR, Asefi SS. Differences in Mean Platelet Volume and Platelet Count between Children with Simple and Complex Febrile Seizures. Iran J Child Neurol. Spring 2017; 11(2):44-47.



The aim of our study was to find the relationship of MPV (Mean Platelet Volume) levels and platelet counts as markers of inflammation between simple and complex febrile seizures.

Materials & Methods

In this retrospective comparative study, we investigated the recordings of 356 children between 5 months and 6 yr with diagnosis of simple and complex febrile seizure (SFS&CFS) in Amircola’s Children’s Hospital, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran between Mar 2011 and Dec 2015.


Mean age was similar in two groups. The MPV of the CFS group (8.32±0.48fl) was lower than that of the SFS group (8.58±0.34fl) but this difference was not significant statistically. The platelet count of the CFS group (315.03×103 ±117.17×103) was higher than that of SFS group (291.82×103 ± 87.49×103) but there was no significant statistical difference.


We did not find significant differences between two groups. Therefore, further studies about this idea should be performed.



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Association of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Deficiency in Pediatric Epileptic Patients


Iranian Journal of Child Neurology, Vol. 11 No. 2 (2017), 1 April 2017, Page 48-56

How to Cite This Article: Chaudhuri IR, Mridula KR, Rathnakishore Ch, Balaraju B, Bandaru VCS. Association of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Deficiency in Pediatric Epileptic Patients. Iran J Child Neurol. Spring 2017; 11(2):48-56.




Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder requiring long-term therapy using antiepileptic medications. Reports have incriminated long-term antiepileptic drugs use in deficiency of vitamin D and bone diseases in all age groups. We aimed to investigate the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and pediatric epilepsy in Indian patients.

Materials & Methods

We prospectively recruited 100 pediatric epilepsy patients, on monotherapy for minimum one-year duration, and 50 age and sex matched controls. This study was carried out at Yashoda Hospital, India from 2011-2014. All cases and controls underwent tests for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, alkaline phosphatase, serum calcium and phosphorus levels.


Patients with 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency were significantly higher among cases (45%) than controls (24%). Mean alkaline phosphatase was significantly higher in cases and mean serum calcium was significantly lower (8.3±1.5) in cases. Amongst antiepileptic drugs, carbamazepine and sodium valproate were significantly associated with 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency. Risk of vitamin D deficiency was highest with sodium valproate usage (odds:4.0;95%CI 1.4-11.6) followed by carbamazepine use (odds: 2.7; 95%CI 1.0-6.8). After adjustment using multiple logistic regression, antiepileptic drugs showed independent association with 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency (odds:2.2;95%CI 0.9-4.5).


25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency was significantly associated with use of carbamazepine and sodium valproate in pediatric epilepsy.


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Neurometabolic Disorder Articles

Neurological and Vascular Manifestations of Ethylmalonic Encephalopathy

Alireza TAVASOLI, Parastoo ROSTAMI, Mahmoud reza ASHRAFI, Parvaneh KARIMZADEH

Iranian Journal of Child Neurology, Vol. 11 No. 2 (2017), 1 April 2017, Page 57-60

How to Cite This Article: Tavasoli AR, Rostami P, Ashrafi MR, Karimzadeh P. Neurological and Vascular Manifestations of Ethylmalonic Encephalopathy. Iran J Child Neurol. Spring 2017; 11(2):57-60.




Ethylmalonic encephalopathy (EE) is a severe mitochondrial disease of early infancy clinically characterized by a combination of developmental delay, progressive pyramidal signs, and vascular lesions including petechial purpura, orthostatic acrocyanosis, and chronic hemorrhagic diarrhea. Biochemical hallmarks of the disease are persistently high level of lactate, and C4–C5-acylcarnitines in blood, markedly elevated urinary excretion of methylsuccinic and ethylmalonic (EMA) acids. Here we report two patients with EE as a 16-months-old male infant and a 2-yr-old boy referred to Pediatric Neurology Clinic in Children’s Medical Center, Tehran-Iran that in one patient genetic analysis revealed a homozygous mutation of the ETHE1 gene in favor of ethylmalonic acidemia.



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Case Report

Neurobrucellosis Presenting with Unilateral Abducens Nerve Palsy


Iranian Journal of Child Neurology, Vol. 11 No. 2 (2017), 1 April 2017, Page 61-64

How to Cite This Article: Andisheh M, Amirsalari S, Torkaman M, Sabzechian M, Afsharpaiman Sh. Neurobrucellosis Presenting with Unilateral Abducens Nerve Palsy. Iran J Child Neurol. Spring 2017; 11(2):61-64.



One of the rare complications of brucellosis is neurobrucellosis. There have been numerous reports showing clinical forms of brucellosis affecting CNS, such as cranial nerve involvement, myelitis, vascular disease, radiculoneuritis, meningitis, meningoencephalitis, and demyelinating disease. In this case report, we introduce a 2.5 yr old girl with unilateral abducens nerve palsy referred to Baghiyatallah Hospital Outpatient Clinic, Tehran, Iran in June 2015.



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Intermittent Hemiplegia in a Boy with Primary Moyamoya Disease: A Case Report from Iran


Iranian Journal of Child Neurology, Vol. 11 No. 2 (2017), 1 April 2017, Page 65-68

How to Cite This Article: Bidaki R, Zarepur E. Intermittent Hemiplegia in A Boy With Primary Moyamoya Disease; A Case Report from Iran. Iran J Child Neurol. Spring 2017; 11(2):65-68.



Moyamoya is a rare chronic progressive occlusive cerebrovascular disease. Its manifestation varies from stroke, progressive learning impairment and transient ischemic attack to headache and seizure. There is no accepted medical treatment and surgery usually, is needed. We report here a case of 8 yr old boy referred to psychiatrist outpatient. An eight yr old boy with intermittent hemiplegia was brought to Imam Ali Clinic, Yazd, Iran in 2015 because his headache and medical problem began from 6 yr old. Stress and excitement exacerbated his condition. His first attack was at the age of 6 yr old. During attack, he had incontinence, severe headache, alogia, pallor, claudication and left hemiplegia (Left lower limb). Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) was done and our diagnosis was moyamoya disease. Moyamoya is a mysterious disease and psychiatrists should consider it in differential diagnosis of alogia and plegia. Acute management of this disease is mainly symptomatic. Nowadays, surgery is a good choice and early diagnosis of this disease can change our patient’s life.



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Tumefactive Multiple Sclerosis Variants: Report of Two Cases of Schilder and Balo Diseases


Iranian Journal of Child Neurology, Vol. 11 No. 2 (2017), 1 April 2017, Page 69-77

How to Cite This Article: Ashrafi Mr, Tavasoli AR, Alizadeh H, Zare Noghabi J, Parvaneh N. Tumefactive Multiple Sclerosis Variants: Report of Two Cases of Schilder and Balo Diseases. Iran J Child Neurol. Spring 2017; 11(2):69-77.



A tumefactive lesion of central nervous system (CNS) is defined as a mass-like lesion with a size greater than 2 cm in brain detected by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Neuroimaging may help to distinguish the nature of a tumefactive lesion and therefore, can prevent an unnecessary brain biopsy. Here we emphasized on determining the nature of a CNS tumefactive lesions with the help of MRI and more explanations about demyelinating lesions with focus on Schilder and Balo diseases as two multiple sclerosis variants. We have reported here two boys of 10 and 8 years of age respectively of multiple sclerosis (MS) variants who presented with acute neurologic complications to our hospital as one of the two referral children hospital in Tehran, Iran. Tumefactive demyelinating lesions can be considered a separate entity that itself can contain Schilder disease, Balo disease, some cases of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) or classic MS. MRI can help to establish a diagnosis of a tumefactive lesion and to differentiate among different underlying etiologies.



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Chronic Renal Failure Secondary to Unrecognized Neurogenic Bladder in A Child with Myelodysplasia

Shameem AHMED, Siba Prosad PAUL

Iranian Journal of Child Neurology, Vol. 11 No. 2 (2017), 1 April 2017, Page 78-81

How to Cite This Article: Ahmed S, Paul SP. Chronic Renal Failure Secondary to Unrecognized Neurogenic Bladder in A Child with Myelodysplasia. Iran J Child Neurol. Spring 2017; 11(2):78-81.


Myelodysplasia includes a group of developmental anomalies resulting from defects that occur during neural tube closure. Urological morbidity in patients with myelodysplasia is significant and if not treated appropriately in a timely manner can potentially lead to progressive renal failure, requiring dialysis or transplantation. We report the case of a 13-year old girl with neurogenic bladder who presented chronic renal failure secondary to lipomyelomeningocele with retethering of cord. She was managed with urinary indwelling catheterization until optimization of renal function and then underwent detethering of cord with excision and repair of residual lipomeningomyelocele. Her renal parameters improved gradually over weeks and then were managed on self clean intermittent catheterization. The case emphasizes the need for considering rethering of spinal cord in children with myelodysplasia where symptoms of neurogenic bladder and recurrent urinary tract infections occur.



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