The relationship between spiritual intelligence, optimism and happiness in university students
International Journal of Applied Behavioral Sciences,
Vol. 3 No. 3 (2016),
26 November 2017
Introduction :The Spiritual intelligence represents a different set of skills and abilities, each of which forms appear different in social and historical contexts. And it maybe used to promote optimism and happiness.The present study was designed to investigate the relationship between spiritual intelligence, optimism and happiness on Iranian university students. Methods: One hundred and fifty students (89 men and 61 women) were selected using cluster sampling and were asked to complete Scheirer and Carver's Life Orientation Test-Revised (LOTR), King's Spiritual Intelligence Self-Report Scale (SISRI) and Argyle, Martin, and Crossland's Oxford Happiness Inventory (OHI). Data were analyzed using t-tests and Pearson correlation coefficients and regression analysis. Results: Results of the current study provide additional evidence that based on spiritual intelligence can predict happiness and optimism. There was a significant relationship found between total spiritual intelligence scores and optimism (r =0.219 p > 0.05). Also, Stepwise regression showed that when happiness and spiritual intelligence were entered in the equation, coefficient of determination (R2) was 0.26. This means that happiness alone explains 26% of the total variance for spiritual intelligence. Conclusion: Results of the current study provide additional evidence for the role of spiritual intelligence between students. In the other words, the findings of the present study supports the role of spiritual intelligence in anticipation of optimism and happiness in students. On the other hand, by holding workshops to increase students' spiritual intelligence, can promote two behavioral features of happiness and optimism in them as well. Declaration of Interest: None
- Key words
- spiritual intelligence
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The relationship between spiritual intelligence, optimism…
- International Journal of Applied Behavioral Sciences (IJABS) volume 3 number 3 Summer 2016. Journals. smbu.ac.ir/ijabs
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