Original Article


Antibacterial Efficacy of Calcium Hydroxide and Chlorhexidine Mixture for Treatment of Teeth with Primary Endodontic Lesions: A Randomized Clinical Trial

Zakiyeh Donyavi, Parastoo Ghahari, Mohammad Esmaeilzadeh, Mohammadjavad Kharazifard, Rasoul Yousefi-Mashouf

Iranian Endodontic Journal, Vol. 11 No. 4 (2016), 28 September 2016 , Page 255-260
https://doi.org/10.22037/iej.v11i4.10645

Introduction: This study compared the root canal microbial count of necrotic teeth after irrigation with 6% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) (single session treatment) and two-session root canal treatment with two-week application of calcium hydroxide (CH) mixed with 0.2% chlorhexidine (CHX) as intracanal medicament. Methods and Materials: In this randomized clinical trial, single-rooted necrotic teeth were divided into two groups. Root canal was irrigated with 2 mL of 6% NaOCl in one group, and a mixture of 0.2% CHX and CH powder as an intracanal medicament for two weeks, in the other group. Root canal samples were obtained before and after the intervention and number of colony forming units (CFUs) was counted in each phase. Results: The reduction of Enterococcus faecalis CFU was not significantly different between the two groups (P=0.233) but the CFU of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria was significantly lower in CH+CHX group (P<0.001). Conclusion: Two-week application of CH+CHX caused significant reduced the aerobic, anaerobic and E. faecalis colony counts. Thus, it may be beneficial to carry out primary root canal treatment of necrotic teeth with endodontic lesions in two sessions with intracanal medicaments to achieve predictable results.

Keywords: Calcium Hydroxide; Chlorhexidine; Endodontic Treatment; Periapical Abscess; Root Canal Therapy

Effect of Dexamethasone Intraligamentary Injection on Post-Endodontic Pain in Patients with Symptomatic Irreversible Pulpitis: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

Payman Mehrvarzfar, Ehsan Esnaashari, Reyhaneh Salmanzadeh, Mahta Fazlyab, Mahyar Fazlyab

Iranian Endodontic Journal, Vol. 11 No. 4 (2016), 28 September 2016 , Page 261-266
https://doi.org/10.22037/iej.v11i4.12380

Introduction: The aim of this randomized-controlled clinical trial was to assess the effect of intraligamentary (PDL) injection of dexamethasone on onset and severity of post-treatment pain in patients with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis. Methods and Materials: A total number of 60 volunteers were included according to the inclusion criteria and were assigned to three groups (n=20). After administration of local anesthesia and before treatment, group 1 (control) PDL injection was done with syringe containing empty cartridge, while in groups 2 and 3 the PDL injection was done with 0.2 mL of 2% lidocaine or dexamethasone (8 mg/2 mL), respectively. Immediately after endodontic treatment patients were requested to mark their level of pain on a visual analogue scale (VAS) during the next 48 h (on 6, 12, 24 and 48-h intervals). They were also asked to mention whether analgesics were taken and its dosage. Considering the 0-170 markings on the VAS ruler, the level of pain was scored as follows: score 0 (mild pain; 0-56), score 1 (moderate pain; 57-113) and score 3 (severe pain; 114-170). The data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis and the Chi-square tests and the level of significance was set at 0.05. Results: After 6 and 12 h, group 1 and group 3 had the highest and lowest pain values, respectively (P<0.01 and P<0.001 for 6 and 12 h, respectively). However, after 24 and 48 h the difference in the pain was not significant between groups 1 and 2 (P<0.6) but group 3 had lower pain levels (P<0.01 and P<0.8 for 24 and 48 h, respectively). Conclusion: Pretreatment PDL injection of dexamethasone can significantly reduce the post-treatment endodontic pain in patients with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis.

Keywords: Dexamethasone; Endodontic Treatment; Intraligamentary Injection; Post endodontic Pain; Symptomatic Irreversible Pulpitis

Treatment of Necrotic Teeth Using Two Engine-Driven Systems and Patient’s Postoperative Pain: A Double-Blind Clinical Trial

Vahid Zand, Amin Salem Milani, Ayla Hassani Dehkharghani, Mahdi Rahbar, Pardis Tehranchi

Iranian Endodontic Journal, Vol. 11 No. 4 (2016), 28 September 2016 , Page 267-272
https://doi.org/10.22037/iej.v11i4.11868

Introduction: One of the most important reasons for postoperative pain is the extrusion of debris from the apical foramen during preparation and shaping of root canals. The aim of this clinical trial was to evaluate the severity of postoperative pain with the use of two different engine-driven NiTi systems. Methods and Materials: Ninety mandibular molars were randomly divided into two groups (n=45), and root canal cleaning and shaping was done using either RaCe or Reciproc instruments. The severity of postoperative pain was determined with visual analogue scale (VAS) at 4-, 12-, 24-, 48- and 72 h and 1-week intervals and postoperative pain was compared between the two groups. The chi-squared test and repeated-measures analysis were used to compare the data between the two groups. Results: Based on the results of the statistical analyses, the two groups were matched regarding the age and gender, with no significant differences. In addition, except for 4- and 24-h and 1-week intervals, postoperative pain was significantly less in the RaCe group compared to the Reciproc group (P<0.001). Conclusion: Based on the results of the present study, use of RaCe files for cleaning and shaping of root canals in necrotic mandibular molars resulted in less severe postoperative pain compared to Reciproc files.

Keywords: Necrotic Teeth; Postoperative Pain; RaCe Files; Reciproc Files; Visual Analogue Scale

Comparison of Manual and Rotary Instrumentation on Postoperative Pain in Teeth with Asymptomatic Irreversible Pulpitis: A Randomized Clinical Trial

Bita Talebzadeh, Saeed Nezafati, Saeed Rahimi, Shahriar Shahi, Mehrdad Lotfi, Negin Ghasemi

Iranian Endodontic Journal, Vol. 11 No. 4 (2016), 28 September 2016 , Page 273-279
https://doi.org/10.22037/iej.v11i4.9372

Introduction: One of the most common complications of root canal treatment is postoperative pain. The aim of the present clinical trial was to compare the severity of postoperative pain after root canal preparation with RaCe rotary system and hand K-Flexofile. Methods and Materials: A total of 96 mandibular first and second molars were divided into two groups (n=48) based on root canal preparation technique. The teeth in both groups underwent one-session root canal treatment and the severity of postoperative pain was evaluated using visual analog scale (VAS) at 4-, 8-, 12-, 24- and 48-h and 1-week intervals. In addition, the type and dosage of analgesics were recorded. Data were analyzed with repeated-measures ANOVA. Statistical significance was set at 0.05. Results: The difference between the two groups during this period and at subsequent intervals were not significant (P>0.05). There were no significant differences between the two groups in type and the number of analgesics in pain-free subjects (P=0.12 and P=0.61, respectively). Conclusion: There were no statistically significant differences in pain severity between the two groups at any intervals.

Keywords: Manual Instrumentation; Postoperative Pain; Root Canal Preparation; Rotary Instrumentation

Introduction: The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of various irrigants on the push-out bond strength of calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) cement and mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA). Methods and Materials: A total of 140 dentin disks with a thickness of 1.5±0.2 mm and lumen size of 1.3 mm, were randomly divided into 12 groups (n=10) and 4 control groups (n=5). The lumen of disks in groups 1, 2, 3, 7, 8, 9 were filled with CEM and groups 4, 5, 6, 10, 11, 12 were filled with MTA. Control groups were filled with CEM and MTA. Specimens were incubated at 37°C for one day in groups 1 to 6 and seven days in groups 7 to 12. After incubation the samples were divided into three subgroups (n=10) that were either immersed for 30 min in 5.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), 2% chlorhexidine (CHX) or saline solution. The push-out bond strength values were measured by using a universal testing machine. The nature of the failures were determined by light microscope. Data was analyzed using the three-way ANOVA to evaluate the effect of material type, different irrigants and time intervals. Post hoc Tukey’s test was used for two-by-two comparison of the groups. Results: CEM cement significantly showed a higher push-out bond strength in comparison with MTA (P=0.001). The elapse of time significantly increased the bond strength (P=0.001). There was no significant difference between the irrigants used in this study (P=0.441). Bond failure was predominantly of mixed type in MTA and of cohesive type in CEM samples. Conclusion: Based on this study, endodontic irrigants did not influence the push-out bond strength of MTA and CEM cement.

Keywords: Bond Strength; Calcium-Enriched Mixture Cement; Irrigants; Mineral Trioxide Aggregate; Push-Out

Evaluation of the Fractured Surface of Five Endodontic Rotary Instruments: A Metallurgical Study

Mohsen Aminsobhani, Mohamad Saleh Khalatbari, Naghmeh Meraji, Abdollah Ghorbanzadeh, Ehsan Sadri

Iranian Endodontic Journal, Vol. 11 No. 4 (2016), 28 September 2016 , Page 286-292
https://doi.org/10.22037/iej.v11i4.11292

Introduction: The aim of this study was to compare several metallurgic properties of Neoniti instrument with four other commonly used endodontic rotary files. Methods and Materials: Neoniti A1 (25/0.08), RaCe (25/0.06), Mtwo (25/0.06), Twisted file (25/0.06) and ProTaper Next X2 (25/0.06) were examined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) before and after heat treatment at 500°C. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was also performed on the specimens. Furthermore, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and x-ray energy-dispersive spectrometric (EDS) analyses were carried out on randomly selected fractured files. Results: In SEM tests, dimpled ruptures, characteristic of ductile fracture, were seen in all evaluated cross sections of all files. The SEM results of all evaluated files were alike. EDS results revealed higher proportions of Nickel (Ni) rich intermetallic compounds in Neoniti; whereas, in all the other files the proportion of Titanium (Ti) rich precipitates was higher. DSC results indicated that the temperature present in the oral environment, the austenite phase existed in all files. Mtwo and RaCe files did not show austenite transformation in the temperature range evaluated in this study. Only Neoniti revealed rhombohedal phase (R-phase) transformation. After heat treatment. No significant difference was seen in the transformation temperatures of all evaluated files. XRD evaluations revealed that Neoniti contained both Ni-rich and Ti-rich precipitates. The amount of the martensite phase was higher in ProTaper Next. Conclusion: The metallurgic properties of Neoniti files were different from other evaluated rotary files. This file contained higher proportions of Ni-rich precipitates.

Keywords: Differential Scanning Calorimetry; Instrumentation; Nickel-Titanium; Root Canal Preparation; Scanning Electron Microscopy ; Transition Temperatures; X-ray Diffraction

Evaluation of Cytotoxic Effects of Various Endodontic Irrigation Solutions on the Survival of Stem Cell of Human Apical Papilla

Narges Farhadmollashahi, Eshaghali Saberi, Hamed Karkehabadi

Iranian Endodontic Journal, Vol. 11 No. 4 (2016), 28 September 2016 , Page 293-297
https://doi.org/10.22037/iej.v11i4.9839

Introduction: Root canal disinfection is an important step in regenerative endodontic treatments. An ideal irrigating solution must have high antimicrobial activity and minimum cytotoxicity. This study sought to assess the effect of some irrigating solutions on stem cells from the human apical papilla (SCAP) after different periods of exposure. Methods and Materials: Stem cells were isolated from immature, impacted mandibular third molars, transferred to 24-well plates, randomly divided into 6  experimental groups and exposed to BioPure MTAD Cleanser, QMix, 17% EDTA, 2% chlorhexidine (CHX), 5.25% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), sterile saline and untreated control group. Cytotoxicity of these solutions was assessed after 1, 5 and 15 min of exposure using the methyl thiazol tetrazolium (MTT) assay. Data were statistically analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA. Level of significance was set at 0.05. Results: The mean percentage of viable cells in all experimental groups was significantly different from the control and sterile saline groups at all the time points (P<0.0001). The mean percentage of viable cells significantly decreased over time in NaOCl, QMix, EDTA and MTAD groups, but no significant reduction was noted in CHX group. At all the time points the highest and the lowest cytotoxicity were seen in MTAD and normal saline groups, respectively. Cytotoxicity of the understudy materials from the highest to the lowest was as follows: MTAD>EDTA>QMax=NaOCl>CHX> sterile saline. Conclusion: Chlorhexidine had the lowest cytotoxicity compared to EDTA, MTAD, QMix and NaOCl and its cytotoxicity did not change over time compared to other solutions.

Keywords: Apical Papilla; Cytotoxicity; Irrigating Solution; MTT Assay; Stem Cells

Survey of Anatomy and Root Canal Morphology of Maxillary First Molars Regarding Age and Gender in an Iranian Population Using Cone-Beam Computed Tomography

Mandana Naseri, Yaser Safi, Alireza Akbarzadeh Baghban, Akbar Khayat, Leila Eftekhar

Iranian Endodontic Journal, Vol. 11 No. 4 (2016), 28 September 2016 , Page 298-303
https://doi.org/10.22037/iej.v11i4.9684

Introduction: The purpose of this study was to investigate the root and canal morphology of maxillary first molars with regards to patients’ age and gender with cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Methods and Materials: A total of 149 CBCT scans from 92 (67.1%) female and 57 (31.3%) male patients with mean age of 40.5 years were evaluated. Tooth length, presence of root fusion, number of the roots and canals, canal types based on Vertucci’s classification, deviation of root and apical foramen in coronal and sagittal planes and the correlation of all items with gender and age were recorded. The Mann Whitney U, Kruskal Wallis and Fisher’s exact tests were used to analyze these items. Results: The rate of root fusion was 1.3%. Multiple canals were present in the following frequencies: four canals 78.5%, five canals 11.4% and three canals 10.1%. Additional canal was detected in 86.6% of mesiobuccal roots in which Vertucci’s type VI configuration was the most prevalent followed by type II and I. Type I was the most common one in distobuccal and palatal roots. There was no statistically significant difference in the canal configurations in relation to gender and age as well as the incidence root or canal numbers (P>0.05). The mean tooth length was 19.3 and 20.3 mm in female and male patients, respectively which was statistically significant (P<0.05). Evaluation of root deviation showed that most commonly, a general pattern of straight-distal in the mesiobuccal and straight-straight for distobuccal and palatal roots occurred. In mesiobuccal roots, straight and distal deviations were more dominant in male and female, respectively (P<0.05). The prevalence of apical foramen deviation in mesiobuccal and palatal roots statistically differed with gender. Conclusion: The root and canal configuration of Iranian population showed different features from those of other populations.

Keywords: Age; Cone-Beam Computed Tomography; Gender; Maxillary Molar; Root Canal Morphology; Tooth Anatomy

 

The in vitro Antibacterial Efficacy of Persian Green Tea Extract as an Intracanal Irrigant on Enterococcus faecalis Biofilm

Fatemeh Ramezanali, Shiva Samimi, Mohammadjavad Kharazifard, Farzaneh Afkhami

Iranian Endodontic Journal, Vol. 11 No. 4 (2016), 28 September 2016 , Page 304-308
https://doi.org/10.22037/iej.v11i4.11926

Introduction: The aim of this study was to compare the antibacterial effect of Persian green tea extract (GTE) and 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) against Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) as an intracanal irrigant. Methods and Materials: Thirty freshly extracted teeth were instrumented and sectioned into mesial and distal segments. The specimens were put into wells containing 2 mL of E. faecalis-containing medium. After 3 weeks, the specimens were removed and divided randomly into three groups (n=20). Each group was exposed to 3 mL of different irrigants for 3 min. Groups 1, 2 and 3 were irrigated with GTE, 2.5% NaOCl and normal saline, respectively. Biofilm formed in the middle third of the root canal was carved by sterile scalpel and cultured in Mueller-Hinton medium. Number of colony forming units (CFU) was counted on each plate. In addition, antimicrobial activity of the irrigants was evaluated by the agar disc diffusion test. The diameter of inhibition zone (IZ) around each irrigant was evaluated. The Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests were used to analysis the data. Results: While in NaOCl group no bacterial colonies were observed, the mean number of E. faecalis in GTE and control groups were 275±74 CFU/mL (P<0.001) and 119×108±11×108 (P<0.001), respectively. The mean of IZ in NaOCl and GTE groups were 24.35±0.78 and 6.9±0.87 mm, in order of appearance (P<0.001). Zone of inhibition was not observed around the control group (P<0.001). Conclusion: This research highlighted the potential role of plant extracts in antimicrobial root canal irrigation protocol.

Keywords: Biofilm; Enterococcus faecalis; Green Tea Extract; Root Canal Irrigant; Sodium Hypochlorite

The Effect of Root Coating with Titanium on Prevention of Root Resorption in Avulsed Teeth; An Animal Study

Azar Heydari, Soodeh Tahmasbi, Mohammadreza Badiee, SeyedSadra Izadi, Fatemeh Mashh Adiabbas, Sepideh Mokhtari

Iranian Endodontic Journal, Vol. 11 No. 4 (2016), 28 September 2016 , Page 309-314
https://doi.org/10.22037/iej.v11i4.12055

Introduction: Tooth avulsion is a real dental emergency. If immediate replantation is not performed, the avulsed tooth may be lost due to inflammatory or replacement resorption. This animal study aimed to evaluate the bone response to the titanium coating of the root surface as an artificial barrier, and prevention of resorption of avulsed teeth. Methods and Materials: This experimental study was conducted on four male dogs. The dogs were randomly divided into two groups for assessment at two and eight weeks. Four teeth were extracted in each animal. The root surfaces of the test group were coated with a titanium layer using the Electron Beam Deposition system. After 24 h, replantation of the teeth was performed. Two animals were sacrificed after two weeks and the remaining dogs were killed after eight weeks. The presence of inflammation, inflammatory resorption, replacement resorption, periodontal regeneration, periapical granuloma and ankylosis were evaluated through histological analyses. Results: Inflammatory root resorption was not present in any tooth except one tooth in the coated group after eight weeks. Replacement resorption was noted just in three of the non-coated teeth after two weeks and two teeth after eight weeks. The McNemar's test revealed that the frequency of replacement resorption in the non-coated group was significantly higher than the coated group (P=0.031). Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, it seems that coating the root surfaces of avulsed teeth with titanium may control the replacement root resorption.

Keywords: Avulsion; Root Resorption; Titanium Coating

Antibacterial Efficacy of Different Concentrations of Sodium Hypochlorite Gel and Solution on Enterococcus faecalis Biofilm

Vahid Zand, Mehrdad Lotfi, Mohammad Hosein Soroush, Amir Ardalan Abdollahi, Mehdi Sadeghi, Ali Mojaddadi

Iranian Endodontic Journal, Vol. 11 No. 4 (2016), 28 September 2016 , Page 315-319
https://doi.org/10.22037/iej.v11i4.11881

Introduction: This in vitro study compared the antibacterial efficacy of 2.5% sodium hypochlorite gel and 2.5% and 5.25% sodium hypochlorite solutions on Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) biofilm. Methods and Materials: The root canals of 60 extracted human single-rooted teeth were contaminated with E. faecalis and incubated for 6 weeks. The samples were randomly assigned to three experimental groups and one control group (n=15). The study protocol in the experimental groups consisted of injection of 5 mL of each irrigant into the root canals. Samples were collected from the root canal walls and 1:10 serial dilutions were prepared and added to Muller Hinton Agar (MHA) plates and incubated at 37°C for 48 h. A classic colony counting technique was used for determining vital E. faecalis bacterial counts in MHA plates. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used for statistical analysis of the data. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Results: The antibacterial effect of the irrigants in all three experimental groups was significantly greater than the control group (P<0.05), with no significant difference between 2.5% and 5.25% NaOCl solutions (P>0.05). The effect of 2.5% and 5.25% NaOCl solutions were significantly superior to 2.5% NaOCl gel (P<0.05). Conclusion: Under the limitations of this study, 2.5% NaOCl gel was effective in reducing E. faecalis counts; however this effect was less than that of NaOCl solutions.

Keywords: Antibacterial; Biofilm; Enterococcus Faecalis; Sodium Hypochlorite

The Effect of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate Mixed with Chlorhexidine as Direct Pulp Capping Agent in Dogs Teeth: A Histologic Study

Hamed Manochehrifar, Masoud Parirokh, Sina Kakooei, Mohammad Mehdi Oloomi, Saeed Asgary, Mohammad Jafar Eghbal, Fatemeh Mashhadi Abbas

Iranian Endodontic Journal, Vol. 11 No. 4 (2016), 28 September 2016 , Page 320-324
https://doi.org/10.22037/iej.v11i4.11872

Introduction: The aim of the present investigation was to compare the efficacy of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and 0.2% chlorhexidine (CHX) mixture to pure MTA, as a pulp capping material. Methods and Materials: The pulp of 24 lateral incisors and canines from four dogs were exposed and capped either with MTA or MTA+0.2% CHX. After 2 months the animals were sacrificed and the teeth were prepared for histological evaluation in terms of calcified bridge formation, the degree of inflammation and presence of necrosis. The Fisher’s exact test was used for data analysis. Results: The results showed that formation of complete calcified bridge in MTA specimens was significantly more than MTA+CHX (P<0.05). No significant difference was found in the degree of inflammation and necrosis between MTA and MTA+CHX groups (P>0.05). Conclusion: Mixing MTA with CHX as pulp capping agent had a significant negative impact on formation of calcified bridge on directly capped dog’s teeth.

Keywords: Chlorhexidine; Mineral Trioxide Aggregate; Pulp Capping; Vital Pulp Therapy

Compressive Strength of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate with Propylene Glycol

Negin Ghasemi, Saeed Rahimi, Shahriar Shahi, Amin Salem Milani, Yashar Rezaei, Mahnaz Nobakht

Iranian Endodontic Journal, Vol. 11 No. 4 (2016), 28 September 2016 , Page 325-328
https://doi.org/10.22037/iej.v11i4.10925

Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of adding propylene glycol (PG) to mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) liquid with volume ratio of 20% on the compressive strength (CS) of MTA in two time periods (4 and 21 days) after mixing. Methods and Materials: Four groups of steel cylinders (n=15) with an internal diameter of 3 and a height of 6 mm were prepared and MTA (groups 1 and 2) and MTA+PG (80% MTA liquid+20% PG) (groups 3 and 4) were placed in to the cylinders. In groups 1 and 3 the CS was evaluated after 4 days and in groups 2 and 4 after 21 days. Data were calculated using the two-ways ANOVA. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Results: The highest (52.22±18.92 MPa) and lowest (4.5±0.67 MPa) of CS was obtained in 21-day MTA samples and 4-day MTA+PG specimen, respectively. The effect of time and PG were significant on the CS (P<0.05). Mixing MTA with PG significantly reduced the CS; but passing the time from 4 to 21 days significantly increased the CS. Conclusion: Considering the limitations of this study, PG had a negative effect on CS of MTA.

Keywords: Compressive Strength; Mineral Trioxide Aggregate; Propylene Glycol

Efficacy of Video-Assisted Instruction on Knowledge and Performance of Dental Students in Access Cavity Preparation

Mandana Naseri, Yazdan Shantiaee, Javid Rasekhi, Saeedeh Zadsirjan, Maryam Mojtahed Bidabadi, Akbar Khayat

Iranian Endodontic Journal, Vol. 11 No. 4 (2016), 28 September 2016 , Page 329-331
https://doi.org/10.22037/iej.v11i4.5627

Introduction: The conventional method of teaching endodontics has some drawbacks. Due to the small size of the oral cavity, students cannot closely observe the clinical procedure. Use of new teaching modalities such as the intraoral camera may obviate this problem. This study assessed the effect of video-assisted clinical instruction in dentistry (VACID) on dental student’s knowledge and performance in access cavity preparation during endodontic treatment. Methods and Materials: In this interventional study, twenty six undergraduate students were equally divided into two groups and received instructions on access cavity preparation via conventional demonstration (CD) or VACID using intraoral camera plus conventional demonstration. Students’ knowledge was assessed before and after the demonstration. The scores obtained by students were compared between the two groups. Data were analyzed using the Mann Whitney U test. Results: No significant difference was found between the two groups in knowledge and performance scores of students about pulp chamber removal, under-extension, over-extension, gouging, perforation or finding the main and extra canals. However, use of intraoral camera significantly reduced the number of student visits to instructors for problem solving (P=0.001). Conclusion: VACID is an effective educational method and as efficient as conventional demonstration in endodontics; as a result it can be used in combination with conventional teaching.

Keywords: Conventional Education; Endodontic Treatment; Knowledge; Performance; Video-assisted

Comparison of Marginal Adaptation of MTA and CEM Cement Apical Plugs in Three Different Media

Fatemeh Ayatolahi, Mahdi Tabrizizadeh, Fatemeh Zare Bidoki, Reza Ayatollahi, Milad Hazeri Baghdadabad

Iranian Endodontic Journal, Vol. 11 No. 4 (2016), 28 September 2016 , Page 332-335
https://doi.org/10.22037/iej.v11i4.11303

Introduction: The aim of this study was to compare the marginal adaptation of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and calcium-enriched mixture(CEM) cement apical plugs in open apex teeth in dry, blood- and saliva-contaminated canals. Methods and Materials: A total of 120 human extracted single-rooted teeth were used. The teeth were decoronated and canals were cleaned and shaped up to #80 K-Files. After simulating open apex condition, samples were randomly divided into two groups (Group 1: MTA plug and group 2 CEM cement plug) and each group was then further divided into 3 subgroups (dry canal, blood- and saliva-contaminated canals). MTA and CEM cement apical plugs were placed into the canal. After full setting of apical plug, immediate marginal adaptation of the samples was assessed by electronic microscope. The data were analyzed using the two-way analysis of variance. Results: There was no statistically difference between the average marginal gap in MTA and CEM cement groups in three different conditions. The average gap in dry canal was significantly lower than canal contaminated with blood and saliva. Conclusion: It seems that marginal adaptations of MTA and CEM apical plug was not significantly different in various conditions and the two materials can be used successfully in this method.

Keywords: Calcium-enriched Mixture; Marginal Adaptation; Mineral Trioxide Aggregate

Apical sealing ability of mineral trioxide aggregate, intermediate restorative material and calcium enriched mixture cement: A bacterial leakage study

Shahriar Shahriari, Farhad Faramarzi, Mohammad-Yousef Alikhani, Maryam Farhadian, Seyedeh Sareh Hendi

Iranian Endodontic Journal, Vol. 11 No. 4 (2016), 28 September 2016 , Page 336-340
https://doi.org/10.22037/iej.v11i4.12357

Introduction: This in vitro study compared the apical sealing ability of three common root end filling materials namely mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), intermediate restorative material (IRM) and calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) cement using a bacterial leakage model. Methods and Materials:The study was conducted on 83 single-rooted human teeth. Tooth crowns were cut and root canals were prepared using the step-back technique. Apical 3 mm of the roots were cut and a three-mm-deep cavity was prepared using an ultrasonic instrument. The samples were divided into three groups (n=25) according to the root-end filling material including MTA, IRM and CEM cement. The roots were inserted into cut-end microtubes. After sterilization with ethylene oxide, microtubes were placed in sterile vials containing 10 mL of Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) broth and incubated at 37°C and 0.1 mL ofEnterococcus faecalis suspension compatible with 0.5 McFarland standard (1.5×10cell/ ml), which was refreshed daily. This procedure was continued for 70 days. The data were analyzed using the chi-square, Kruskal-Wallis and log rank tests. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Results: No significant difference was found in bacterial microleakage among three groups; MTA showed slightly (but not significantly) less microleakage than IRM and CEM. However, the difference in the mean time of microleakage was significant among the groups (P<0.04) and in MTA samples leakage occurred in a longer time than CEM (P<0.012). Conclusion: The three tested root end filling materials had equal sealing efficacy for preventing bacterial leakage.

Keywords: Apical Seal; Bacterial Leakage; Microleakage; Root-End Filling; Seal
 

Case Report


Diagnosis and Treatment of a Type III Dens Invagination Using Cone-Beam Computed Tomography

Mohsen Bahmani, Alireza Adl, Samane Javanmardi, Sina Naghizade

Iranian Endodontic Journal, Vol. 11 No. 4 (2016), 28 September 2016 , Page 341-343
https://doi.org/10.22037/iej.v11i4.12573

A 20-year-old man presented with the history of pain and swelling in the anterior maxillary segment. The periapical radiography was indicative of a dental anomaly in right maxillary lateral incisor. Due to the insufficient information from conventional radiography, cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) was ordered. CBCT showed apical root resorption, large apical lucency and two separate canals with distinct apical foramen (Oehlers type III dens invagination). The CBCT image was used as a guide for dentine removal with an ultrasonic tip. Conventional root canal therapy was done using lateral compaction technique. One-and two-year follow-up radiographies revealed periapical repair and absence of symptoms.

Keywords: Cone-Beam Computed Tomography; Dens Invagination; Maxillary Lateral Incisor

Accidental Contamination with Oil during Endodontic Surgery

Hugo Plascencia, Mariana Díaz, Patricia Cholico, Monserrat del Real, Salvador Márquez-de Alba

Iranian Endodontic Journal, Vol. 11 No. 4 (2016), 28 September 2016 , Page 344-346
https://doi.org/10.22037/iej.v11i4.12677

The modern surgical endodontic treatment is a safe and predictable procedure with high success rate. However, several factors can retard or impede the proper healing process. Use of a high speed handpiece during hard tissues management (osteotomy and apical resection) can potentially be one of these factors. Formation of metallic debris from the surgical diamond burs, production of necrotic local tissue due to overheating and the direct liberation of air from conventional handpiece into the working area are potential irritants able to delay the tissue healing. The aim of the present article is to report the histopathological findings of the trans-operational accidental contamination with oil in the surgical area during an endodontic surgery.

Keywords: Endodontic Surgery; Histopathological; Tissue Contamination

Vital Pulp Therapy of a Symptomatic Immature Permanent Molar: A Case Report

Sedigheh Sabbagh, Alireza Sarraf Shirazi, Mohammad Jafar Eghbal

Iranian Endodontic Journal, Vol. 11 No. 4 (2016), 28 September 2016 , Page 347-349
https://doi.org/10.22037/iej.v11i4.14103

Vital pulp therapy (VPT) is the preferred conservative treatment for preservation of symptomatic pulps in immature permanent teeth. The present case report summarizes VPT of an immature permanent molar with irreversible pulpitis associated with apical periodontitis in a 9-year-old boy. Cervical pulpotomy was performed and radicular pulp stump were covered with calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) cement; the tooth was then restored with stainless steel crown. After a 50-month follow-up period, the pulpotomized molar was clinically functional and asymptomatic. Moreover, radiographic evaluation revealed evidence of complete root development as well as normal periodontal ligament around the roots. The successful outcome achieved through VPT using CEM biomaterial in the reported case suggests that this method may produce favorable outcome for vital immature permanent teeth with irreversible pulpitis and periapical diseasekeywords: Apexogenesis; Calcium-Enriched Mixture; Immature Tooth; Irreversible Pulpitis; Pulpotomy; Vital Pulp Therapy

Review Article


Discoloration Potential of Endodontic Sealers: A Brief Review

Sohrab Tour Savadkouhi, Mahta Fazlyab

Iranian Endodontic Journal, Vol. 11 No. 4 (2016), 28 September 2016 , Page 250-254
https://doi.org/10.22037/iej.v11i4.11970

Tooth discoloration induced by endodontic sealers, is a common finding that impairs aesthetic outcome of endodontic treatment. The aim of the present mini literature review, was to summarize the existing data on discoloration potential of different endodontic sealers. The research covered the article published in PubMed and Google Scholar from 2000 to 2015. The searched keywords included ‘tooth discoloration AND endodontic’, ‘tooth discoloration AND sealer, ‘tooth discoloration AND zinc-oxide eugenol sealer’, ‘tooth discoloration AND Calcium Hydroxide Sealer’, ‘tooth discoloration AND Glass Ionomer Sealer’, ‘tooth discoloration AND epoxy-resin Sealer’, ‘tooth discoloration AND Silicon Based Sealer’, ‘tooth discoloration AND Bioceramic Sealer’ and ‘Spectrophotometry’. Conclusion: A total number of 44 articles were gained which reduced to 11 after excluding the repetitive items. The available evidence for discoloration potential of endodontic sealers currently available on the market is scarce. However, it can be concluded that all endodontic sealers can potentially stain the tooth structure to different degrees.

Keywords: Root Canal Treatment; Root Canal Sealer; Spectrophotometry; Tooth Discoloration