Original/Research Article


Study on the physical and chemical characteristics of electric arc furnace dust from steel plant of Esfarayen and its reuse as an adsorbent

Zeynab Hosseinzadeh, Mehdi Saadati, AbbasAli Zamani, AbdolHosein Parizanganeh

Journal of Health in the Field, , 13 abril 2020,

Background and Aims: EPA classifies dust from electric arc furnaces as hazardous waste. The purpose of this study was to measure the amount of heavy metals in dust and to investigate the removal of organic pollutants using this hazardous waste.

 Materials and Methods: Dust samples were collected from the Esfarayen Steel Plant by coordinating the factory management. Following digestion of samples by Aqua regia solution in the laboratory, the concentration of heavy metals was measured using flame atomic absorption spectroscopy. To determine the rate of heavy metals recovery from the dust, distilled water was used with different pH of 11, 7, 5, 3, and 1. In addition, UV-spectrophotometry was used to investigate the ability of dust to adsorb organic pollutants. All stages of this research were conducted ethically.

Results: The average concentration of heavy metals in dust, in mg/kg, was obtained as iron> magnesium> zinc> manganese> nickel> lead> copper> cadmium> cobalt. The leaching study of this waste showed that cobalt metal ion has the highest leaching levels at different pH levels. Methylene Blue, Eriochrome Black T, Rhodamine, and Dexamethasone had the highest amount of adsorption by dust among the organic pollutants studied.

Conclusion: The present study showed that the recovery of iron concentrates in comparison with other metals is convenient and cost effective. Furthermore, the electric arc furnace dust can be used as a suitable inexpensive adsorbent.

Keywords: Dust Arc Furnace, Adsorbent, Heavy Metals, Organic Pollutants, Leaching

The status of fruit and vegetables consumption and its related factors among female high school students in Bojnurd city based on the educational diagnostic stage of the PRECEDE model

Rezvan Rajabzadeh, Yasaman Jafari, Hamidreza Mohaddes Hakkak, Rahman Panahi, Masomeh Sarvi, Seyed Hamid Hosseini, Omid Emami

Journal of Health in the Field, , 13 abril 2020,

Background and Aims: Girls are mothers of the future and you,ll have to plan ahead from adolescence to improve their nutrition. The Precede model surveys the causes of those behavioral factors that are closely related to health. Causes affecting behavior have been categorized in the educational diagnostic stage of this model. The aim of this study was therefore to determine the factors associated with fruits and vegetables consumption (FVC) among female students based on the educational diagnostic stage of the PRECEDE model. Materials and Methods: This descriptive-analytic study was conducted with participation of 445 female high school students in Bojnourd city in 2017. A two-stage method was employed for sampling. Data gathering tool was a questionnaire including demographic questions and knowledge, attitude and PRECEDE model. Data were analyzed using SPSS software version 16.0 through appropriate tests. All stages of the study were conducted according to moral standards. Results: Multiple regression analysis showed that the various constructs of the PRESADE model could overally explain 23.7% of the variance in FVC behavior in the students under study. Among the constructs of the model, knowledge, enabling and reinforcing factors, had a significant contribution in explaining the variance of FVC behavior (P<0.05). There was a significant positive correlation between FVC behavior and all constructs of the PRECEDE model (P>0.001). Conclusion: Considering the statistically significant relationship between the PRECED model and the FVC behavior, appropriate educational interventions are suggested to be considered using this model, with the emphasis on knowledge, enabling and reinforcing factors in schools. Keywords: Female students, Precede Model, Fruit and vegetables consumption

Efficacy study of Manganese removal from municipal drinking water using powdered eggshell

Negin Nayerloo, Giti Kashi, Arash Hadavand Khani

Journal of Health in the Field, , 13 abril 2020,

Background and aims: Manganese, a potential threat in drinking water, enters in water resources via natural (rock weathering) and anthropogenic (petrochemical industries) sources. The aim of this applied-analytical study is to investigate Manganese removal efficiency from urban drinking water using powdered eggshell.
Materials and Methods: This study was done in laboratory scale using an experimental batch reactor. Water samples obtained from municipal drinking water of Tehran distribution network were polluted by predetermined concentrations of Manganese. The Manganese removal efficiency was studied as a function of concerned variables including pH (4-9), contact time (30-90 min), powdered eggshell doses (1-3 g/l), and Manganese concentration (3-9 mg/l). The residual Manganese concentration was determined according to the persulphate procedure using a spectrophotometer at 525 nm. The experimental results were analyzed with Langmuir and Freundlich equilibrium isotherm models as well as the first and second order adsorption kinetic models. All phases of the study were performed ethically.
Results: The best conditions for Manganese removal (100%) were obtained to be pH 6.5, contact time 90 min, adsorbent dose 2 g, and Manganese concentration 9 mg/l. Adsorption process was followed by the first order adsorption kinetic model (R2<0.894) and Freundlich equilibrium isotherm (R2<0.752).
Conclusion: In total, the findings show that the powdered eggshell could be a suitable, efficient, and low cost adsorbent for Manganese removal from drinking water, in comparison to other adsorbents.
Keywords: Adsorption, Manganese, Powdered Eggshell, Urban Drinking Water.

Supportive supervision in health centers of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences

Abbas DaneshKohan, Faeze Foruzanfar, Ehsan Zarei, Ali Ramezankhani, Soheila Damiri

Journal of Health in the Field, , 13 abril 2020,

Background and Aims: Supervision, as one of the most important functions of  Human Resources Management  (HRM) plays an important role in motivating health workers. This paper aimed to examine the status of supportive supervision from the perspective of Primary Health Care (PHC) health workers and their supervisors in Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Materials and methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted with participation of 325 health workers and their 92 supervisors. Data were gathered using two questionnaires developed based on an extensive review of the literature. The validity and reliability of questionnaires were also confirmed. Data were analyzed through descriptive and analytic statistics using SPSS software version 16.0. All stages of the study were conducted ethically. Results: The mean score of supportive supervision status from the perspective of health workers and supervisors was 1.24±0.38 and 1.6±0.2 out of 2, respectively and the difference was statistically significant. From health workers’ perspective, “creating a pleasant environment” (1.64±0.4) and “coaching role-play to improve the skills of health care providers” (0.99±0.53) showed the highest and lowest average. From supervisors’ perspective, “providing accurate feedback” (1.71±0.23) revealed the highest, and “resources allocated to supervisory visits” (1.35±0.42) had the lowest average.   Conclusion: The findings showed that some of the most important dimensions of supervision were less supportive. Developing new supervisory policies is essential to achieve supportive supervision. Training supervisors on coaching skills and providing constructive feedback and creating a fair incentive system will play important roles in this area. Keywords: Supportive Supervision, Health Workers, Primary Health Care

Background and Aims: Safety and safe behavior are the most important issues that anyone at any level in the workplace and life should pay attention to them. Neglecting security duties may cause irreparable damages. Therefore, the present study was aimed to investigate the safety climate, safety competence and overload role as the predictors of safe behavior of Bidboland Gas Refinery employees in Khuzestan province.
Materials and Methods: The present study design is a correlational predictor. The statistical population included all operational staff employed by Bidboland Gas Refining Company in 2015. Study sample consisted of 273 persons selected through stratified random sampling. Participants were first divided into two groups of safe and unsafe employees using the Safe Behaviors Scale )Salleh, 2010(, and then Safety Climate Scale )Vinodkumar & Bhasi, 2009(, Safety Competency Scale )Salleh, 2010( and Perceived Work Pressure Questionnaire )Seo, 2005( were used to measure the studied variables. Data were analyzed through discriminant analysis and using SPSS-16 software. All stages of this research were conducted ethically.
Results: The results showed that safety climate (β=0.662), safety competence (β=0.558) and role overload (β=0.08) were able to predict the safe behavior and are capable of distinguishing safe employees from unsafe ones )p<0.0001(.
Conclusion: According to the results of the present study, it is suggested that organizational managers should consider the variables influencing safe behavior (safety climate, safety competence and role overload) in their workplace safety behavior development programs.
Keywords: Safe Behavior, Safety Climate, Safety Competency, Role Overload.

Survey of knowledge and attitude of mothers about consuming healthy breakfast and snacks in children

Sakineh Rakhshanderou, Mohtasham Ghaffari, Ameneh Pooresmaeil Dorosteh

Journal of Health in the Field, , 13 abril 2020,

Background and Aims: The consumption of healthy breakfast and snack have an important role in the physical and mental health of students, so that a perfect and appropriate breakfast will enhance the learning power and happiness of the children. The aim of this study was to assess the awareness and attitude of mothers in Islamshahr city regarding the consumption of healthy breakfast and snack by children.
Materials and Methods: Throughout the present descriptive and analytical study, 315 boys and girls were selected by cluster random sampling and their mothers were invited to participate in the study. Data were collected using appropriate questionnaires that included demographic characteristics, questions related to the knowledge and attitude. The validity of questionnaires were assessed in view of the apparent face and content. Test-retest method and internal consistency were used for questionnaires reliability. Correlation coefficient and Cronbach alpha coefficient were 0.73 and 0.83, respectively. Data were analyzed using SPSS 16 software considering t-tests and variance analysis (ANOVA). All stages of this research were conducted ethically.
Results: The results showed that there was a significant difference between the status of mothers› employment as well as their education level with the average score of knowledge and attitude (p<0.001). The mothers› knowledge about consuming healthy breakfast and snack was also poor (p<0.05), but their attitude was evaluated at a good level (p>0.05).
Conclusion: According to the results of this study, it is better to emphasize on awareness raising strategies in designing nutritional interventions for consuming breakfast and snack in mothers of students.
Keywords: Healthy Breakfast, Healthy Snack, Mothers, Knowledge, Attitude