Original/Research Article

Background and Aims: The leakage of hazardous materials in industries threatens the workers and residents around these industries and also severely damages the environment. This study thus aimed to predict the emissions and the probable effects of carbon disulfide using ALOHA software in order to performing the appropriate safety measures and consequently to reduce the adverse effects.

Materials and Methods: The results of HAZOP studies were used to identify the hazards in one of the refinery units. The plausible worst scenario was also chosen. ALOHA software was then used to model the probable scenarios of carbon disulfide emissions from the tank. All stages of this research were conducted ethically.

Results: Based on the results obtained, the concentration of carbon disulfide reaching to the control room would be fatal in the event of an incident. This result is supported by carbon disulfide concentrations of 480 ppm in an area of up to 600 meters around the tank, which is in the range of AGEL-3. In the event of full leakage, the concentration of carbon disulfide would be 7800 ppm 150 m around the tank, which is about 60% of the minimum flammable concentration of this gas. The explosion wave pressure in a distance of up to 190 m around the tank is anticipated to be about 3 psi, which may cause serious injuries to workers.

Conclusion: The consequences of carbon disulfide toxicity in the studied refinery are one of the most serious threats to the personnel. Therefore, preparing a reaction plan for emergency conditions will have an effective role in limiting the harmful effects of the toxic and dangerous materials emissions.

The effect of education on knowledge and attitude towards the harmful effects of smoking among students of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran

Rahman Panahi, Ali Ramezankhani, Mehdi Rezaei, Mahmoud Tavousi, Malihe Pishvaei, Shamsaddin Niknami

Journal of Health in the Field, , 16 بهمن 2019,

Background and Aims: Considering the relatively high prevalence of smoking among students and the role of knowledge and attitude in smoking prevention, the present study aimed to determine the effect of education on knowledge and attitude towards the harmful effects of smoking among students.
Materials and Methods: This was a quasi-experimental interventional study conducted in 2016 among 130 dormitory students of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences in Tehran (65 students in each intervention and control groups). Data gathering tool was a demographic and background characteristics questionnaire. A valid and reliable questionnaire was used to assess the knowledge and attitude towards the harmfulness of smoking that was completed in two stages before and three months after the intervention. In this study, education was performed using Social Networks and educational messages were sent to the students of the intervention group in 6 sessions.
The collected data were analyzed through the proportional tests and SPSS software version 16. All stages of the study were conducted according to moral standards.
Results: There was no significant difference between demographic and background variables before the intervention and also the mean scores of knowledge and attitude towards the harmfulness of smoking in both groups (p > 0.05). Comparing two groups after the intervention showed that the mean scores of knowledge and attitude towards the harmfulness of smoking have changed significantly in experimental group compared to control group (p < 0.05).
Conclusion: Social networking can be used in educational interventions to promote knowledge and attitude towards the harmful effects of smoking in students.

Keywords: education, knowledge, attitude, prevention, smoking, students

Background and Aims: Faculty members are the most important factor in students’ education because they affect the thoughts of thousands of people and play an important role in improving quality of education. Faculty members with high moral intelligence can create trust, commitment, motivation and satisfaction.
Materials and Methods: In the present descriptive-analytic and cross-sectional study, 100 faculty members were randomly selected through simple random sampling. The data collection tools were two valid questionnaires:1-Lennick and Kiel questionnaire including 40 questions concerning moral intelligence, and 2- Minnesota
questionnaire (MSQ) including 20 questions to assess job satisfaction which their reliability were measured by Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of 96% and 79%, respectively. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 16 software. All research steps were conducted according to the ethical standards of the research.
Results: The mean score of moral intelligence of the faculty members was 75.68. Similarly, the mean score of satisfaction of studied community was 58.16. About 77% of faculty members revealed a good and higher than good moral intelligence. Job satisfaction of 76% of members were also good and higher than good. Pearson correlation coefficient between job satisfaction and moral intelligence equaled 0.556 (P <0.001). This correlation coefficient was positive in all dimensions of job satisfaction demonstrating a direct relationship between these two variables.
Conclusion: Considering the importance of job satisfaction of faculty members as a fundamental structure of the higher education system and the effect of moral intelligence on increasing their motivation for effective educating and training of human resources for health systems, attention to this subject would result in the development of ethics based on values and believes. This can also increase the level of quality of education and efficiency.
Keywords: moral intelligence, job satisfaction, faculty member, medical university

Modeling the emission and calculation of the risk of steelmaking contaminants using the AERMOD model

Maral Rashidi Fard, Yousef Rashidi, Majid Amiri

Journal of Health in the Field, , 16 بهمن 2019,

Background and Aims: Nowadays, air pollution has become a major challenge especially in large cities. Considering the paramount importance of air pollutants impact of human health, the study of pollutants emission models to estimate their dispersion and consequent impacts on human health is very important.
Materials and Methods: In this research, CO, NO2 and SO2 emissions from steel complexes, which are the most important pollutants of this industry, is discussed. For this purpose, AERMOD models have been designed to investigate the dispersion of pollutants and then BREEZE AERMOD model to study the risk of emission of pollutants. Finally, the risk of pollutants inhalation was estimated using the RAIS model. The data were collected
statistically. All stages of this research were conducted ethically and relevant permits were obtained.
Results: According to the calculations made in our study, the risk factor for non-cancerous inhalation of air pollutants in the steel complex was 3.7 for employees, 4.8 for workers and 7.7 for office workers, 3.7 for over-threshold workers. These individuals were at risk caused by contaminants, especially carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide.Residents in the neighbor regions demonstrating a risk index of 0.2% are at a lower risk.
Conclusion: Considering the risk assessments made, emissions from steel complexes pose a serious health risk specially for workers. Indeed, due to the close proximity of the surrounding villages in the southern areas of the site to the steel complex flares, they are exposed to the large amounts of contaminants.
Keywords: steel complex, air pollution modeling, breeze aermod, aermod, rias method.

Systematic Review and Meta Analysis

Tobacco use preventional interventions among Iranian adolescents: A review study

Mahmoud Tavousi, Rahman Panahi, Aliasghar Haerimehrizi, Mahdi Anbari, Ramin Mozaffari Kermani, Raheleh Rostami, Akram Hashemi

Journal of Health in the Field, , 16 بهمن 2019,

Background and Aims: Considering the increasing trend of tobacco usage among adolescents, effective interventions are necessary for smoking prevention in this group. We, therefore, decided to investigate the status of preventive interventions on tobacco usage among Iranian adolescents, especially the theory/model-based interventions.
Meanwhile, the authors surveyed among other related studies, and categorized them in terms of effect/no effect.
Materials and Methods: A literature review was performed. We selected studies to include in our analyses via a search of Scientific Information Database-SID and google scholar (as a supporter motor researcher) on November of 2017, using the keywords “Tobacco, Smoking, Hookahs” in the title and abstract of all published articles. After removing repetitive and unrelated cases, the full text of a series of articles on the prevention of tobacco in adolescents
was reviewed and the results were presented in terms of the phrases and tables.
Results: Out of 1078 extracted articles, 14 papers were finally evaluated. The interventions were divided into two
main categories. Totally, in 9 studies, health education models and theories were the basis for intervention, and other
approaches had been used in the remaining five studies.
Conclusion: In spite of the influence of both types of interventions, model/theoretic interventions have been used
more than other interventions in smoking prevention, which could be due to the more favorable and clearer effects of these interventions in changing the various behaviors of the health sector.
Keywords: tobacco, preventional intervention, adolescent, review study

Case Report

Exploring rural sewage management approaches using the SWOT technique Case study: Roodbar Qasran area

Samira Yektaei Sanagani, Morteza kashefi Asl, Seyed Ali jozi

Journal of Health in the Field, , 16 بهمن 2019,

Background and Aims: The management of sewage plays an important role in promoting human health and environmental protection as well as achieving sustainable development in the country’s water resources. Evaluation of available water resources coupled with development of waste management strategies is crucial to achieve this goal.
Materials and Methods: In this study, a SWOT technique was applied for assessment and to provide strategies for Rudbar Qasran Rural Wastewater Management. The data were collected using field observations and a questionnaire. The research community consisted of experts and managers who dominate the present status of sewage management in the region. In this method, effective factors of sewage management in the present situation
in the region were analyzed by hierarchical analysis method. Appropriate strategies for sewage management in the studied villages were then created and prioritized using SWOT technique. Data analysis was conducted using SPSS software (version 16). The study was carried out ethically and there was no bias and confinement on the part of the researcher during the research process.
Results: The results obtained showed that total score of the internal and external matrix factors were 2.298 and 2.213, respectively. Based on the results of the present study, wastewater managing approach in Roodbar Ghasran villages is located in the defensive zone from the strategic point of view. It pose also weakness based on internal factor and threatened due to its external factors.
Conclusion: The use of defensive strategies that could minimize the weaknesses and threats, promotes sewage management in the existing situation.
Keywords: srategic management, rural wastewater, Roudbar Ghasran area, SWOT technique